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Full text of "A Plan for the City of Vancouver, British Columbia, including a General Plan of the Region"



cA Plan for 
The City of 

VANCOUVER 

BRITISH COLUMBIA 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

City of Vancouver Archives 



http://www.archive.org/details/vancplanincgenOOvanc 



A 

PLAN 

FOR THE CITY OF 

VANCOUVER 

BRITISH COLUMBIA 



INCLUDING 
A GENERAL PLAN OF THE REGION 

1928 




V««,v-i8C 



Price, S2.00 



"Y\7E MUST ma\e Plans; 
who loo\s not before, 
finds himself behind." 

— Publilius Syrus, 44 B. C. 







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VANCOUVER CITY COUNCIL 

1928 

VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA 



Mayor, Louis D. Tavlor 

Aldermen 

E. W. Dean H. E. Almond P. C. Gibbens John Bennett 

J. A. Garbutt R. J. Paul F. E. Woodside Angus McInnis 

City Officials 

City Engineer Chas. Brakenridge 

City Comptroller A. J. Pilkington 

City Clerk Wm. McQueen 

VANCOUVER TOWN PLANNING COMMISSION 

Members 

Arthur G. Smith, Chairman 

Mrs. A. M. McGovern J. W. Allan W. Elgie Bland W. A. Clark 

W. Deptford A. E. Foreman G. L. Thornton Sharp W. G. Swan 

Ex-Officio Members 

Mayor of the City of Vancouver Mayor Louis D. Tavlor 

Chairman, Vancouver and Districts Joint Sewerage and Drainage Board .... E. A. Cleveland 

Chairman, Board of School Trustees. Jas. Blackwood 

Chairman, Board of Park Commissioners. ....E. G. Bavnes 

Chairman, Vancouver Harbour Commissioners F. R. McD. Russell 

Secretary, J. Alexander Walker 

POINT GREY TOWN PLANNING COMMISSION 

Members 

Frank E. Buck, Chairman 

Newton J. Ker G. L. Thornton Sharp B. A. Cunliffe 

H. C. Green Mrs. R. P. Steeves 

Ex-Officio Members 

Reeve of the Municipality of Point Grey W. H. Lembkf. 

Chairman, Board of Parks Commissioners .... T. Bate 

Chairman, Board of School Trustees S. Ross 

Secretary, Hector S. Cowper 

TOWN PLANNING CONSULTANTS 

Harland Bartholomew and Associates 

Harland Bartholomew L. Deming Tilton 

Earl O. Mills Wm. D. Hudson 

Resident Engineer 
Horace L. Seymour 

Staff, Vancouver 
A. R. MacKenzie J. F. 1). Tanqueray 

H. A. E. Browne Miss Ethel W. H. Clarkson 

Staff, Point Grey 
John Ki.i.iott 

[7] 



VANCOUVER TOWN PLANNING COMMISSION 



List of Committees 



STREETS and TRANSIT 

A. E. Foreman, Chairman 

W. Deptford 

Mrs. A. M. McGovern 



HARBOUR and TRANSPORTATION 

W. G. Swan, Chairman 

W. A. Clark 

B. G. Hansuld 



ZONING 

J. W. Allan, Chairman 
W. Elgie Bland 
E. A. Cleveland 

PUBLIC RECREATION and CIVIC ART 

G. L. Thornton Sharp, Chairman 
Jas. Blackwood 
E. G. Bavnes 



9] 



HARLAND BARTHOLOMEW AND ASSOCIATES 

CITY PLAN AND LANDSCAPE ENGINEERS 

HARLAND BARTHOLOMEW I DFMINC, TI! TOM 

EARL O. MILLS SAINT LOUIS, MISSOURI L ' WML D HUMON 



317 NORTH ELEVENTH STREET 

December 28, 1928. 



Town Planning Commission, 
Vancouver, B.C., Canada. 

Gentlemen: 

On August 2nd, 1926, we entered into an agreement for the preparation of a "Compre- 
hensive Town Plan tor the City of Vancouver and a Regional Plan of the contiguous 
or adjacent territory." It is with great pleasure we now submit such a Plan. 

Few cities possess such a combination of nearby natural resources, a splendid harbour, 
a terrain ideally suited for urban use, an equable climate and a setting of great natural 
beauty. 

Vancouver is the most important Pacific port of a great country. Here, if anywhere, 
should develop a great city. Circumstances of such character call for a city plan of 
substantial scale. 

In the plan submitted herewith, a future growth of approximately one million persons 
has been anticipated. When that population has been reached, a new and larger plan 
will become necessary. A smaller plan would be unworthy, and, at best, a poor expedient. 
A larger plan would be more or less difficult for present adoption and realization. 

This plan is complete in detail as regards the City of Vancouver. Under the auspices 
of the Municipality ot Point Grey, a plan more or less complete in detail has been prepared 
and adopted tor that area and is reproduced in part here. 

It now becomes the duty ot the Town Planning Commission to guard jealously the 
integrity ot this plan, to make minor adjustments as detailed surveys and changing 
conditions make necessary, and to expand it into newly acquired areas such as that of 
South Vancouver. 

The Burrard Peninsula is an area ot natural physical unity. It should be developed 
as a unit. The arbitrary political boundaries and jurisdictions dividing it are apt to 
become responsible tor physical maladjustments. The amalgamation of the Vancouver, 
Point Grey and South Vancouver districts on January 1st, 1929, despite administrative 
difficulties encountered, is fundamentally sound. The Town Planning Commission 
should solicit and encourage unification ot planning in the remaining areas of the Peninsula, 
Burnaby and New Westminster, already anticipated in this plan in the form of regional 
studies of major highways, parks, parkways, transit and transportation. 

[10] 



The preparation of this plan has been a pleasant task. The uniform courtesy and 
consideration shown the members of our staff by the individual members of your Com- 
mission, the numerous city officials from whom we have secured detailed information 
and assistance, by public utility officials and the press, is gratefully acknowledged. 
Especially would we acknowledge the services of the several committees of the Commission, 
whose names appear upon another page. To these committees have been submitted 
our various preliminary reports. Under the wise guidance of the chairmen, and through 
the painstaking efforts of the individual members of these committees, the several pre- 
liminary plans have been studied, revised and welded into this final plan that is infinitely 
the better therefor. 

The preparation of the plan has been a new experience for Vancouver. It has con- 
centrated thought upon the great possibilities and opportunities confronting this city. 
May we be permitted to express the hope that this will be the beginning of a closer harmony 
of interest, thought, consideration and action among all those groups, which, collectively, 
have made the city what it now is and what it will become. It is men, and not plans, 
that make the city. Plans such as this are the means of bringing men's minds together 
for concerted action. 

Respectfully submitted, 

HARLAND BARTHOLOMEW AND ASSOCIATES, 



VANCOUVER TOWN PLANNING COMMISSION 



ERRATA 

In the Commission's Report, "A Plan for the 
City of Vancouver, British Columbia," there are a 
few minor errors, chiefly typographical ; the follow- 
ing, however, should be noted : 
Page 35, paragraph 7, line 3, read "Granville" for 

"Hastings." 
Page 39, paragraph 3, line 6, read "Chart 3" for 

"Chart 4." 
Page 44, Plate 7, "Twelfth Avenue," read "80-6" for 

"100-8," on plan. 
Page 54, caption, read "North and South Streets 

from West to East (South of False Creek)" for 

"East and West Streets from the Waterfront." 
Page 82, caption, read "East and West Streets (from 

North to South)" for "North and South Streets 

(from West to East)." 
Page 84, insert caption, "East and West Streets (from 

North to South)." 
Page 91, paragraph 8, line 5, read "page 133" for 

"page 123." 

Page 101, paragraph 1, line 2, read "page 114" for 
"page 60." 

Page 169, paragraph 4, line 2, read "MacDonald Park" 
for "Prince Edward Park" (name changed upon 
amalgamation). 

Page 169, paragraph 5, line 2, delete the words "Like 
Vancouver proper." 

Page 169, paragraph 6, tabulation under "Per Acre 
Valuation" — 

For South Vancouver, "3320" read "3,300" 
For Vancouver "2210" read "22,100" 

Page 173, paragraph 2, for lines 6 and 7, read "A 
modern elementary school of this size is incom- 
plete without an adequate playground, serving 
all the recreational needs of the children of the 
district." 

Page 249, top of page, delete "Part III." 
Page 277, definition 8, line 3, read "meals" for "means." 
Page 278, definition 30, line 2, read "plates" for 
"places." 

Kindly Insert This Slip in Your Copy of Report 



CONTENTS 

Page Illustrations 

10 Letter ot Transmittal. 

19 Chairman's Introduction 



MAJOR STREET REPORT. 

27 Introductory 

27 The Growth ot Vancouver... 28 

-'> Population 30 

31 Building Permits 32 

31 Paved Streets and Areas Served by Sewers and Water. 34 

33 Present and Future Traffic -56 

35 Traffic Count... 36 

39 Standard for Modern Street Development 38 

41 Contours and Street Grades .... 40 

43 Street Widths, Jogs and Dead Ends... 42 

43 Major Streets 

Arterial Highways, Regional Major Streets for Region (including arterials) 44 

45 A Major Street Plan for City of Vancouver 46 

47 Index to Vancouver Major Streets 

48 Tabulation of Proposed Major Streets, Vancouver 

58 Major Street Capacities 46 

58 Evolution of Major Street Plan <;9 

58 Business District 60 

61 Street Improvements; Distributor Street 60 

61 Parking Regulations 

63-69 Major Street Corrections. 62-68 

69 Hastings Townsite Replotting 70 

73 Point Grey Replotting .". 74 

77 Index to Point Grey Major Streets 76 

78 Tabulation ot Proposed Major Streets, Point Grey 

TRANSIT REPORT. 

86 Introduction 

87 Immediate Recommendations... 

89 Street Car Tracks; Growth by Decades 88 

91 Population Growth and Street Car Mileage 90 

91 Growth of Transit Lines During Last Decade 90 

93 Present Population and Ground Slopes 92 

95 Future Population 94 

97 Present Car Lines; Areas Served and Population 96 

99 Present Time Zones 98 

101 Car Flow on Existing Streets 100 

103 Traffic Flow at Congested Intersections 102 

104 Summary of Transit Data 

107 Present Transit Routes in Central Business District 106 

109 Proposed Transit Routes in Central Business District 108 

111 Present Car Flow in Central Business District 1 10 

113 Proposed Car Flow in Central Business District. Immediate Plan... 112 

PART I. — Immediate Changes Recommended. 

1 14 Summary or Suggested Changes for Immediate Adoption: 
114 1. Broadway Cross-Town Line 

114 2. Routes 2,3, 5 

1 14 3. Route 4. 

1 14 4. RouteS 



14 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



Page 
i 14 

11 s 

115 

IK 

>>5 
"5 
"7 



118 
118 
118 
118 
118 
118 
119 
119 
1 [9 



Illustrations 



26 

26 

126 

127 
[27 

128 
128 

!28 
128 
128 
.28 
128 
128 

I29 

129 

I 2.) 

[2 9 
129 
[2 9 
I29 



5. Route 1 1 (A) ... 

6. Route 12 

Clearance Curves 

Types of Cars 

Skip Stops and One-Man Cars 

Ticket Takers on Streets 

Wyes and Cross-Overs 

Proposed Track Plan in Central Business District 

PART II. — Intermediate Programme. 
Summary of Recommendations: 

1. Broadway Belt Line and Cross-Town Line 

2. Route 1, Fairview Belt 

Route 8, Hastings Park-Pender Street 

Route 9, 10 (A), Victoria Road-Stanlev Park 

Route 12, Kitsilano-Hastings-Richards ... 

Routes 16-13, Boundary Road-ioth Avenue-Sasamat 

Knight Road Extension 



116 



3- 

4- 
J. 
6. 

7- 



Proposed Bus Lines. 

PART III. — Ultimate Programme. 

Summary of Recommendations: 

Ultimate Routing in Central Business District 

Ultimate Routing Business District 

Description of Routes 

West End 

Point Grey, South Vancouver 

South Cambie to Central Park Line (District C). 
Central Park Line to Burrard Inlet (District D) 



120 

120 
124 



Summary of Proposed Extensions to Existing Transit Lines: 
1. Granville Street South of 41st Avenue 



Main Street South from 52nd Avenue 

Fraser Avenue 

Victoria Road 

Kingsway Route Extension 

41st Avenue 

Ellesmere-Barnet Road Bus Line 



Summary of Proposed New Routes: 

1. Cambie Street Route 

Stephens Street to Marine Drive 

Marine Drive Bus Line 

Semi-Cross-Town Bus Line, King Edward Boulevard 
41st Avenue-4^rd Avenue Cross-Town Belt Line 
Grandview Highway Route 



<3 2 

KV- 
'3 2 
132 
'32 

!.;- 

'3 2 



PART IV. — Interurban Lines and Rapid Transit. 

Plan ot British Columbia Electric Railway Lines 

Interurban Lines and Rapid Transit 

Central Park Line 

Lulu Island Line . 

Eburne (Lulu Island) New Westminster 
New Westminster-Chilli wack 

Burnaby Lake ... ... . 

Stave Falls Line 



'3° 



CONTEXTS 



!5 



Page Illustrations 



133 New Westminster Lines 

133 North Vancouver 

'33 West Vancouver .. 

133 Bus Lines 

133 Grandview Bus Line .. 

133 Rapid Transit Line 

133 Universitv Bus 

133 Vancouver-Chilliwack 

134 Interurban Routes and Union Station Necessary. 
134 Proposed Routing and Union Interurban Station. 
134 Routing 



135 PART V. — Service to Proposed Civic Centre. 

136 PART VI. — Statistics. 

136 Car Mileage and Revenue Passengers.. 

137 Intensity of Track Use, June, 1928 .... 

138 Seats Provided and Passengers Carried 

139 Car Equipment 

140 Lines Issuing Transfers to Fairview Belt Line 



TRANSPORTATION REPORT 
RAILROAD SECTION. 

141 Vancouver's Railways 142 

Conclusions and Recommendations: 

141 Basic Consideration for the Plan 

141 Intensive Railroad Activity Along North Shore, False Creek 

141 Lack of" Conveniently Arranged Freight Yards.. 

141 Space for Freight Yards, North Shore, Burrard Inlet 

141 B C E Railway is too Restricted in Scope of Operations 

142 Industries at Disadvantage Owing to Unsystematic Switching Arrangements and Excessive 

Charges 

143 Better Methods in Interchanging Freight 142 

144 Industrial Development 

144 Grade Crossing Separation ..... 146 

146 Union Passenger Terminals 

147 False Creek Development . 148 

1 s^ Natural Resources and Industries 1 <;o-i 52-154-156 

HARBOUR SECTION. 

158 Vancouver's Harbour 

158 Progressive Growth of Port 

158 Effect of Panama Canal... 

158 Foreign Trade Relations with Vancouver 

159 Passenger Traffic Through Port 
1 59 Diversity of Cargo 

159 Waterborne Imports 

161 Railroads and the Harbour 142 

161 Suggested Development of Vancouver Harbour 160 

Present 
Future 

162 Present Use of Burrard Inlet 

163 Comparison of Present and Potential Wharfage 

164 Comparison of Acreage 

164 Public Control of and Access to Waterfront 

165 Special Improvements Recommended for Early Consideration 
165 Fish Dock 



1 6 A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 

Page Illustrations 

\h{ Tugboat Wharfage 

1 66 Channel Improvement - - 

1 66 Coal Harbour 

1 66 Shipyards and Drydocks - 

167 Lumber Mills on Burrard Inlet ... 

167 Deadman's Island.. 

167 Ferry and Coastwise Passenger Service 

168 Financing Port Development 



PUBLIC RECREATION REPORT. 

169 Introduction 

PART I. — Outline of the Recreation Report. 

171 Classification of Population and Recreational Facilities 172 

1 73 Types ot Recreational Facilities and Standards tor their Development... 174 

PART II. 

177 Existing Parks in Vancouver... 

177 Parks Secured Without Cost.. 

178 Parks Purchased in Greater Vancouver. 

182 Public Areas Available tor Recreation.. 184 

PART III. — Recreational Programme. 

185,193 Existing and Proposed Playgrounds [92 

185 Administration of Playgrounds 1 s* 

187 Typical Modern School Playgrounds. 188 

189 Public Schools, Vancouver..... 

190 Public Schools, South Vancouver 

191 Public Schools, Point Grey 

193 School Sites to be Abandoned 192 

195 Existing and Proposed Playfields ... 194 

196 High Schools and Playfields in Greater Vancouver 

197 Programme ot High School and Playfield Development [94 

198 Existing and Proposed Neighborhood Parks [98 

199 Large Parks and Pleasure Drives 200 

201 Growth of Visitors and Traffic in Stanley Park 

205 Undeveloped Areas .. . 204 

205 Beach and Shore Development 

207 Pleasure Drives . 200 

209 Types ot Pleasure Drives and Minimum Standards ....... . 208 

209 Swimming Pools and Tanks 

210 Mountain Parks 

210 Conclusion 

ZONING REPORT. 

211 Introduction 

212 Use Map 

21 2 Industrial Map 

212 Use of Buildings and Land in Vancouver 

213 Height Map 

213 Lot Width Map 

213 Density Map 

214 Special Studies 

215 Trend of Building Development 215 
215 Wind Roses Diagram ... 

215 Distribution of Population 92 



CONTENTS 



17 



Page Illustrations 

216 Apartment Houses.- ... 

217 General Zoning Data 

214 Adequate Provision Made tor Commercial Development 

220 General Provisions ot Vancouver Zoning By-Law 21 1 

220 Use Districts 

223 Location of Use Districts 222 

22; Classification of Parks and Bathing Beaches . . ..... . .... .. 

225 Non-Con forming Uses . 

22; Percentage of Different Uses .. 

226 Height and Area Regulations. .. . 

228 Comments on Height and Area Regulations . . 

229 Size of Yards 

231 Density of Population Permitted .... 

231 Building Lines 230 

Streets to be Widened ... 

Appeals 

233 Enforcement and Amendments 

233 Housing 

235 Description ot Point Grey Zoning By-Law . 235 



X J- 



CIVIC ART. 

237 The Appearance of the Citv 

237 Conserve Natural Beauties 

238 Build a Great Civic Centre 240 

239 Proximitv of Civic Centre to Central Business District 

239 Focal Position ot Civic Centre. 

239 Character ot Site and Surroundings 

241 Character ot Buildings Comprising the Group.. 

241 Possibilities of Civic Centre Location 

243 Central School Site .... 

243 Burrard Street Site 

244 Comparative Costs 

244 How to Finance this Project 

241; Build Beautiful Bridges 

246 All Public Buildings Should be Creditable 

247 Monuments in Better Setting 

247 Commercial and Industrial Buildings . 

24^. factory Improvement 

248 Railway Gateway Should be Impressive 

249 Street Design 

249 Streets, Curves and Curbs 

250 Poles, Wires, Lights, Etc. 

251 Sidewalks in Residential Districts . 

25] Street Control 

254 Home Grounds can be Greatly Improved .... 254 

2<6 Conclusion 

EXECUTION OF THE PLAN. 

257 Fundamental Economy of Planning 

258 Methods of Financing Public Improvements 

260 Carrying out Major Street Plan 

261 Programme of Carrying out Major Street Plan 

263 Duties and Functions of the Town Planning Commission 

263 Constitution of the Town Planning Commission 

264 Immediate Programme 



A PLAN' FOR VANCOUVER 



Page Illustrations 

PROGRAMME FOR THE EXECUTION OF THE VANCOUVER PLAN. 



264 Order in Which Plan is to be Made Effective. 
First Period (1928-1940) 



265 (a) Projects Involving Little or no Expenditure of Public Funds 

266 (b) Projects Involving Larger Expenditure of Public Funds 

Second Period (194O-1960) 



269 (a) Projects Involving Little or no Expenditure of Public Funds 
ibi) (b) Projects Involving Larger Expenditure of Public Funds 



APPENDICES. 

272 I. Legislation Relating to Subdivision. ... 

274 II. Rules to be Adopted Regulating the Subdivision of Land 

277 III. Zoning By-law (Vancouver) 

286 IV. Zoning By-law (Point Grey) 

292 V. Transit Report on Burrard Street Bridge 

l< t \ VI. Railway and Harbour Report of Transportation Committee 

296 VII. Report on Proposed Spanish Banks Harbour Project 

298 VIII. Report on Recreation and English Bay Foreshore 236 

300 IX. Planning the Municipality ot Point Grey 

302 INDEX. 



INTRODUCTION 

It is a fascinating and instructive enterprise to undertake the study of the evolution 
ot a large city, and in older lands many romantic incidents and tales would be unfolded 
in the course of an investigation into a city's history- In the case of Vancouver, conditions 
are entirely different, for our researches are limited to a span of seventy years, which, 
naturally, divides itself into two phases, the former of which ended with the arrival of 
the Canadian Pacific Railway and the incorporation of the city in 1886, and the latter 
covering the whole material and industrial growth of the present flourishing city, which 
began within the memory of the present generation. This second period, however, will 
upon later examination be found to divide naturally into four stages in response to events 
which influenced and directed the city's growth. 

EARLY HISTORY OF THE TOWNSITE. 

It is proposed, in these introductory remarks, to briefly review the early history of 
the townsite and the growth of the city, to examine the forces which influenced and directed 
such growth, to note the emergence of the Town Planning idea and to attempt to project 
upon the screen some vision, however faint, of the city of the future. 

The history of the townsite, which is bound up with that of Burrard Inlet, commences 
with the constitutional history of the mainland of British Columbia. The gold rush to 
the Cariboo in 1858 had attracted the attention of the Imperial authorities, and the 
mainland of British Columbia was organized as a separate colony and placed under the 
control of Sir James Douglas, who was already Governor of Vancouver Island. 

The Imperial Privy Council has judicially made the following reference to the powers 
of the Governor: "As to his powers it may be said at once they were absolutely auto- 
cratic; he represented the Crown in every particular, and was, in fact, the law." Under 
his commission and instructions he was, with the aid of a detachment of the Royal Engineers 
unde. Colonel Moody, to select and survey lands in those parts of the Colony which 
might be eligible for settlement, to fix the conditions upon which land could be acquired 
by private individuals, to mark out allotments of land for public purposes, to select sites 
for the seat of government and for a seaport town. 

Up to Douglas' appointment, as the Privy Council finds, "there were only indis- 
criminate squattings of adventurous settlers in a wild country," but under his rule a clear- 
cut programme was laid out. With the assistance of Col. Moody, New Westminster was 
settled upon as the capital of the colony, the former choice of Fort Langley having been 
abandoned for strategical reasons. For similar reasons naval and military reserves were 
laid out on Burrard Inlet to protect the rear of the capital, and others tor the various 
purposes mentioned in the instructions. 

Those that interest us most are Stanley Park, then known as Coal Peninsula, for 
military and defence purposes, the Granville Reserve lying between what are now Carrall 
and Burrard Streets and including Old Granville Townsite and D.L. 541, the Hastings 
Townsite Reserve, Central Park and Jericho Reserves and a reserve at the tip of Point 
Grey now included in the University Endowment Lands. 



A PLAN" FOR VANCOUVER 



Viewed in the light of the Imperial instructions, the Granville Reserve was probably 
intended as a site for a seaport town, but the immediate connection between the capital 
and Burrard Inlet was created bv laving out the old North Road, which ran from New 
Westminster to Burrard Inlet at what was later known as "Aliceville". The purpose of 
this road was to enable supplies to be brought into the capital and communications with 
the outside to be maintained in case of a blockade of the river. 

The private acquisition of lands was immediately dealt with by Proclamation ot the 
Governor, and unoccupied and unreserved lands could be staked and, when surveyed, 
purchased for 10 an acre. This price was afterwards found too high and was reduced to 
4 2, the then equivalent of Si.oo. Prior to survey, conditions of residence were imposed 
and rights of pre-emption were also granted. A tew years later provisions were made tor 
timber leases. 

LAND TAKEN UP. 

Following upon this legislation private interests were not slow in taking action, 
and the lands upon Burrard Inlet which had not been reserved were early taken possession 
of and the Inlet became the scene of logging operations upon an extensive scale. Captain 
Stamp had been operating a mill on Vancouver Island and he very shortly moved the 
site of his operations to Burrard Inlet and built his mill on a location from which the 
Hastings Mill is just now being removed. Stamp had the promise of the timber upon 
Stanlev Park, but his mill site was chosen on account ot the available supply of tresh 
water which was derived from Trout Lake. A Crown Grant ot D.L. 196 was issued to 
Stamp's company, The British Columbia and Vancouver Island Spar Lumber and Saw- 
mill Limited, on the 30th November 1865, and upon all old plans the portion adjoining 
the Inlet is shown as "The Hastings Mill Site". 

The mill at Moodvville, across the Inlet, was erected about the same time and was 
operated bv a marine engine taken from a dismantled navy sloop. It perpetuates the 
name, not, as is frequently supposed, of Col. Moody, but ot Sewell Prescott Moody, 
one of the founders. Port Moody, though named after Col. Moody, was not an official 
enterprise but was laid out in 1880 on private lands Crown Granted in 1870. 

Even before this, however, other lands had been Crown Granted and the names of 
the grantees are interesting, owing to their connection with the history of the country. 
District Lots 181, 182 and 183 were granted in October, 1863, and D.L. 184 in January, 
1864. Robert Burnaby, who was an officer under Moody, became the owner of D.L. 181, 
and his name is perpetuated in that of the adjoining Municipality. D.L. 182 was granted 
to Henry Pering Pellew Crease, who was in the following year to become Attorney-General 
for Vancouver Island and to be later knighted tor his services as first puisne Judge of 
British Columbia. These grants took up all the waterfront between Hastings and Granville 
Reserves, and the land between Granville Reserve and Stanley Park was granted in 1867 
to Brighouse, Hailstone & Morton, whose names are well known to modern real estate 
owners. These 550 acres cost them £114 11 8, or $550.00. 

Following upon the entry of British Columbia into Confederation in 1S71, and the 
probability of railway development, the acquisition of land became active. The Hastings 
Mill had passed into the possession of Heatley & Campbell, who protected their water 
supply and probably some of their limits by acquiring D.L. 264A in 1872, and D.L. 195, 
which contains Trout Lake, in 1875. District Lot 192, which surrounds the present Tatlow 
Park, passed by Crown Grant to James Lowther Southey, a paymaster in the Royal Navy, 
and for some reason he had to pay the high price of 10 an acre tor this land, but he more 
than trebled his money when he sold it two years later. 



INTRODUCTION 1 



The names of well-known New Westminster men now appear upon the record, coupled 
with the names ot a number ot men who are described as belonging to Yale, showing that 
the ebb of the Gold Rush was to have an influence upon the future of Vancouver. Among 
these late acquisitions are D.L. 302, which went to John Alfred Webster in 1877, and 
District Lots 200A in 1871, and 301 in 1881 to Henry Valentine Edmonds, and D.L. 
472 to Gordon Edward Corbould in 1883, which brings us down very closely to the com- 
pletion of the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway. 

This also brings us to the conclusion of the era of the acquisition of public lands by 
private owners, and we will shortly enter upon the next stage, which is that of subdivision. 
In this matter of subdivision, the trail was blazed by the Colonial Government, which 
laid out Old Granville Townsite on part of the Granville Reserve lying between Carrall 
and Cambie Streets and running back to False Creek, the plan of which was prepared 
and a number of lots disposed of before the province entered Confederation in 1871. 
One of the first Crown Grants to be issued was that in the name of John Deighton, who 
received title on the 24th June, 1 87 1 , to Lot 1 in Block 2. This John Deighton was the 
proprietor of the Deighton Hotel, which was situated on this lot, and was the local character 
who was known as "Gassy Jack," and from him Old Granville Townsite obtained the 
name of Gastown. In 1875 a f rm g e °t Hastings Townsite bordering on the Inlet was cut 
up into lots and some were sold, the earliest Crown Grant being dated in 1879. 

ADVENT OF RAILWAY and BIRTH OF CITY. 

Meantime the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway through the mountains 
was steadily progressing, and with its approach to the Coast the question of where its 
final terminus would be was the absorbing subject to all those in the province who were 
speculatively inclined. Under the Company's charter the line was supposed to end at 
Port Moody, but the Company claimed the right to construct branch lines and extensions 
and attempts were made to induce them to extend their line to Coal Harbour. At the 
present date it is hard to realize why any inducements should have been necessary, but 
they were, no doubt, in an advantageous position to bargain for terminals and a terminal 
townsite. Negotiations were opened by the Company not only with private owners but 
with the Government, and on Valentine's Day in 1885 a syndicate which then owned 
District Lots 181 and 196, except the West 85 acres, agreed to give to the Trustees of the 
Company a one-third interest in their holdings in consideration of the Company including 
these lands in their official townsite and constructing some of their docks on the water- 
front of the property. D.L. 185 had been subdivided, and the plan creating the sub- 
division bears the prophetic name of the City of Liverpool. The owners of this land in 
September of the same year entered into a similar agreement with the Canadian Pacific 
Railway, which covered not only D.L. 185 but the western 85 acres of D.L. 196. 

The Provincial Government had disposed of a number of lots in Old Granville Town- 
site, but the remainder of the reserve between Carrall Street and Burrard Street was 
undisposed of, as was also the large territory now comprised within D.L. 526. The Provincial 
Government were sufficiently interested to make an agreement with the Company in 
pursuance of which on the 13th February, 1886, all of what is now D.L. 54 1 and the 
unsold lots in Granville Townsite were conveyed to trustees for the Canadian Pacific 
Railway, who on the same day received a Crown Grant ot D.L. 526, said to contain 
5974 acres. 

Meantime syndicates were acquiring interests in the land west of Hastings Reserve 
and were subdividing, and by the end of 1885 subdivision was completed by the filing by 



A PLAN" FOR VANCOUVER 



the Canadian Pacific Railway Company of its official townsite plan, which included 
everything from Glen Drive (then known as Boundary Avenue) to Stanley Park. The 
unofficial townsite also included all the remaining lands lying west of Hastings Townsite, 
and when the city was incorporated the next year it included all the city we know north 
of 1 6th Avenue and between Hastings Townsite and Alma, which was the western boundary 
of the government townsite on the south shore of English Bay west of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway grant and known as D.L. 540. 

There is one fact which students of the growth of the Vancouver town plan must 
remember at this stage. While reference has been made to the subdivision of all these 
lands, it must not be accepted that the townsite was actually surveyed. All these sub- 
divisions were what is known as paper subdivisions, which were prepared by taking for 
granted that the original survey under which the Crown Grant was issued was correct 
and preparing a map according to scale which would fit into this envelope. There were 
no stakes, nor were any of the roads laid out on the ground. The only private subdivision 
which is an exception to this rule is District Lot 192. 

On the 6th May, 1886, an Act incorporating the City of Vancouver was passed, but 
the infant city which had just been launched on its career received a set back when on 
the nth June, 1886, within six weeks of its birth, it was overwhelmed by a bush fire. It 
was, however, rapidly rebuilt, and on 23rd May, 1887, the first through passenger train 
over the Canadian Pacific Railway steamed into the station at Vancouver, and from this 
point the city passed through the various stages common to all young and lusty infants. 

EARLY ROADS. 

Before referring to these stages, which have been frequently chronicled, and the history 
of which may be recovered from the files of the newspapers, it will serve our purpose to 
take a glance at the means of communication between the young city and the surrounding 
territorv, with a special eye upon the influences which these existing highways have 
exercised upon the street system and the development of Vancouver. 

We have seen that the North Road fulfilled its strategical function as a link between 
the capital and Burrard Inlet. This, however, terminated above the Second Narrows. 
Hastings Mill and Moodyville were the centre of a lumbering industry to serve which 
the Douglas Road was constructed, terminating at the little settlement of Hastings, where 
Maximilien Michaud had acquired three lots for $50 each in 1869 and had a small hotel, 
the site of which was afterwards on Michaud's death in 1875 acquired by George Black, 
who had established a more modern hotel upon the adjoining grounds. Black's place 
soon became the centre of social and athletic life in the settlement. 

The next road to be built formed a connection between Granville and the North Arm 
of the Fraser River. Leaving Gastown it followed an irregular course to where the old 
Main Street Bridge over False Creek stood and there it crossed False Creek by a pile 
bridge and followed the present route of Kingsway to Fraser Avenue, which in turn it 
followed to the North Arm, Fraser Avenue then being known as the North Arm Road. 
In the late seventies a trail, known as the False Creek Trail, left the Douglas Road a 
short distance outside of New Westminster, and connected up with the North Arm Road. 
This trail was superseded by the present Kingsway, the survey for which was made in 
1883 by Joseph Hunter, who later built the E. & N. Railway. 

There was no lateral connection along the shores of Burrard Inlet. The earliest 
attempt was a two-plank sidewalk between Gastown and the Hastings Mill, and this was 
afterwards extended into a road from Granville to Hastings Townsite. There were a number 



INTRODUCTION 



of logging roads both in the Vancouver Peninsula and in. the large Point Grey Peninsula, 
but from Gastown all connections were made by boat. A scow equipped with a threshing 
engine and plying to Moodyville was the flagboat of the fleet, and went by the name of 
the "Sudden Jerk". 

From these beginnings the Major Street system of Greater Vancouver developed and 
in the future history of Vancouver, Kingsway with Fraser Avenue and the Douglas 
Road are bound to play an important part, for they provided valuable diagonals. The 
subdivision history of the region is responsible for many of the jogs and dead-ends which 
exist, and for all the heavy grades, which no engineer would have adopted if he had surveyed 
the highways upon the ground. 

NOW A CITY. 

The townsite now enters upon the second period of its history, and the city upon 
the first stage of its growth. It had been rapidly rebuilt after the fire and the first business 
centre was created at Cordova and Carrall Streets, the original location of Gastown. 
Owing to the narrow depth at this location it was obvious that the city would have to 
grow either east or west, and the railway influence decided this question, for the centre 
shifted towards Hastings and Granville Streets, and by the time the city was five years 
old the centre had already moved to Cambie Street and business was stretching along 
Hastings Street and up Granville Street. The seaport of the city was growing, and the year 
1 891 saw the establishment of the first line of Empresses opening up a regular schedule 
to China and Japan. 

A comparative lull followed the first real estate speculation, but the city continued 
to grow, and its population equalled and then passed that of New Westminster and then 
of Victoria, and in retrospect we find that the city's first twenty years were passed as 
a growing railway terminal and a provincial distributing point, aided bv the mining 
development of the Kootenays and the lumbering and fishing of the coast. The Klondyke 
rush revived a sagging business and carried the city until the next stage. 

This second stage was featured by the influence exerted by the prosperity and filling 
up of the prairie provinces, which was first felt to any great extent about 190^, and was 
accompanied by a reasonable activity in building and by a moderate rise in real estate 
values. It was, however, closely followed by the third stage, which ushered in an era of 
rather extravagant speculation, during which the future of the city was somewhat dis- 
counted. 

This third stage, and the spirit of optimism which characterized it, was dominated 
and induced by an anticipation of the benefits which Vancouver would derive from the 
completion of the Panama Canal. While it lasted the city's population passed the one 
hundred thousand mark and the effect of an increasing population, which spread into the 
suburbs, caused the centre of the city to shift along Hastings Street and up Granville, 
where it has now become firmly fixed. By 19 13 the boom had collapsed and the realization 
of the hopes of its promoters was postponed by the depressing effect of the war period 
which followed. 

That there was ground for optimism is shown by the fact that during the ten or 
twelve years following the height of the boom in 191 2, Vancouver laid solid foundations 
for future prosperity. During these years her manufactures, industries, payroll and products 
increased between nine and ten fold, with port and railway development keeping pace, 
so that Vancouver was able to take advantage at the conclusion of the war of the fields 
that had been opened by the construction of the Panama Canal. 



24 A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 

The fourth and last stage of the city's development unfolded itself about the year 
1923, when the disturbances created by the war had been adjusted, and was marked by 
the establishment and equipping of Vancouver as a grain shipping port. This close contact 
with the Prairie provinces has had a wonderfully beneficial effect upon the financial, 
commercial and industrial standing of the city as shown by the fact that Vancouver 
has made continual progress in the direction of all these branches. 

This progress has been so emphatic that the old boundaries of the city became too 
small, and we have just witnessed the absorption by the old city of the two suburbs of 
Point Grey and South Vancouver, whose interests at no time failed to be identified with 
those of the business city, and the new city starts its life with a population of 230,000 
and with splendid prospects for the future. 

WHAT OF A CITY PLAN? 

In this brief summary of the city's life, it will be noted that no mention has been 
made of any human foresight having been exercised in the control or direction of the 
growth of this British Columbia metropolis. Its history is that of Topsy, it just growed. 
It has been noted that the centre of the business district is located in the neighborhood 
of Georgia and Granville Streets and studies have shown that the peninsula, of which 
this forms the centre, contains sufficient area to accommodate a central business district 
for a population of a million and a half to two million people, but there is nothing to 
indicate that this happy condition was the result of any foresight on the part of the people 
who built the city- Neither was any foresight displayed in preparing the ground to ac- 
commodate the city. It is only within the last four or five years that people began to 
strive to form an idea of Vancouver as a unit and to study the layout of the city with 
the intention of forming an opinion as to whether the structure is fitted to adequately 
carry out the function of a metropolitan centre. 

It is true that a few "visionaries" (may Allah grant us more men of vision) over a 
considerable period had been trying to satisfy themselves as to what the plan of Van- 
couver should be, and it remained for the Vancouver Branch of the Town Planning 
Institute of Canada to crystallize this sentiment into a desire for the creation of a body 
to plan for and co-ordinate the growth of the city. If, however, the prospect looked un- 
promising in the early stages of the endeavours of these enthusiasts, the later history of 
the movement has more than compensated for an early disappointment. As a result 
of the efforts of these workers, a sub-committee of the City Council, augmented by outside 
members, was functioning during the year 1925, and through their efforts a Town Planning 
Act was passed in December of that year. The present Commission was appointed in 
the following March, and the firm of Harland Bartholomew and Associates retained as 
its consultants by August. The work of Town Planning then proceeded apace under the 
local direction of Mr. Horace L. Seymour, an experienced Canadian Town Planner, who 
filled the position of resident engineer for the technical advisers of the Commission. 

The following pages embody a town plan for the City of Vancouver and the reports 
and recommendations for the various phases of this plan, which the planning engineers 
have prepared and which have received the endorsement of the Commission. 

WHAT OF THE FUTURE CITY? 

The present report will conclude the first stage of the Commission's work and the 
future of the greater city will, to a large extent, depend upon the quality of the work as 
embodied in these reports and upon its acceptance by the citizens at large. It the con- 



INTRODUCTION 25 

elusions reached and the plans proposed in this report are sound, and are grasped and 
efficiently followed out by those having charge of the executive government of the city, 
we may hope to see a Vancouver in which every acre of ground is devoted to its most 
appropriate purpose, and where, by reason of the foresight shown, the cost of creating 
facilities for shipping, commerce and industry and making due provision to satisfy re- 
creational demands, will have been brought within the financial capacity of the community. 

A few years ago it would have been very difficult to look upon the City of Vancouver 
as an organized entity adapted to function in all the departments incidental to life in a 
modern city, and it would have been very difficult to prepare a forecast as to what form 
the city of the future would take and as to the purposes to which any part of the territory 
constituting the city would be devoted. Today, however, with a town plan before us, it 
is possible to anticpate the trend of development of this great city and to foresee the 
direction of its growth. 

When we arrange our material and proceed to compose our picture of the city to be, 
we must at the outset remember that first and foremost Vancouver is a great seaport 
and that, all other things aside, her growth will depend upon her development as a port 
and as the main link between the whole of Canada and that portion of the world which 
may be reached by the Pacific Ocean. But is there not something more than this one respect 
in which Vancouver is unique? It is suggested that, scanning the world over, it would 
be hard to find a city which, in addition to being practically the sole ocean port of half 
a continent, inhabited by a progressive and increasing population, has on its outskirts 
a river valley with great agricultural possibilities, with a hinterland rich in minerals, 
lumber and raw materials for manufacture, and adjoining at the moderate distance of 
five hundred miles the greatest granary of the world. Can any city claim an equal situation? 

After a study of the plans of the harbour development in which Burrard Inlet, the 
Fraser River and False Creek are each to be regarded as having an appropriate share, 
the conclusion can fairly be drawn that no city has a finer opportunity for affording all 
the services to commerce which could be called for from a great port. We will, accordingly, 
expect to see the development of Burrard Inlet up to the Second Narrows as a deep sea 
shipping harbour, with deep sea and industrial development on the North Shore, and 
also along the margins of the fresh water harbour which will be created by a dam at the 
Second Narrows. We will also expect to see the banks of the Fraser River and Lulu Island 
lined with heavy industrial plants adequately served by railway trackage, and we see 
False Creek devoted to the many lighter industries which require railway and water 
communication and which would turn these tide flats, at one time considered a detriment 
to the growth of Vancouver, into one of the city's most valuable and productive assets. 

In addition to industries located on False Creek, there are a number of sites on the 
Fraser River and on the shores of Burrard Inlet where industries could flourish, and we 
would hope and expect to see these appropriate spaces developed to their fullest extent. 
In regard to the commercial growth of Vancouver, the central business district will 
accommodate the most important retail shops, offices and financial houses, hotels and 
theatres. The construction of the Distributor Street and the absence of skyscrapers will 
spread business evenly over the area and prevent undue traffic congestion. Of course 
retail business will not be confined to this district, and with the development of a fairly 
dense residential population in the area between the central city and the Fraser River, 
local commercial districts will spring up as, for instance, on Broadway, and with the 
foresight which has been exercised we will see a Vancouver in which residences are con- 



26 A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



tiguous to business districts and still enjoy the amenity which can only be obtained by 
adoption of the principle of zoning, an important element of the town plan. 

In these days, when apartment houses are so much in demand, Vancouver in the 
future should be deemed very fortunate in the possession of an apartment district west 
of Burrard Street which, while contiguous to business, has also the desiderata of a resi- 
dential district, due to its proximity to Stanley Park and the foreshore of English Bay. 
The wise foresight which Point Grey has used in planning at an early stage of its growth 
should provide Vancouver with one of the most desirable residential districts possessed 
by any city on the Continent, and those who have to gain their livelihood by manual 
labor should find in Hastings Townsite, and in a replanned South Vancouver, a place 
where they can build up modest homes which should differ only in size from that of the 
more opulent employers. The retention of Vancouver as a city of single family homes has 
always been close to the heart of those engaged in the preparation of this plan. 

This being a picture of the conditions surrounding the individual citizens, how does 
the community which they compose express itself through its public buildings and the 
provision it makes for community business and happiness? In a city of the not too distant 
future we vision a civic centre on a location which would be unequalled in America and 
where both the administrative and the cultural activities of city life are performed under 
ideal conditions, and in the growth of the city in population we see an expansion of the 
general horizon of the citizen and the creation of a civic pride which would not be affected 
by local considerations, and then, lastly, but by no means least, do we look forward to 
Vancouver as a bright and happy city and realize that this result will be achieved largely 
by the aid given by the plan to the preservation of the Kitsilano Reserve and of the 
bathing beaches and scenic waterfront and the construction of a system of parks and 
driveways which have always been desirable but which, in these days of rapid communica- 
tion, are essential in order to satisfy the recreational desires of a healthy and vigorous 
community. All visitors to Vancouver have hitherto laid great stress upon its magnificent 
surroundings, but it is the hope of the Town Planning Commission that when these plans 
are carried out the resident of Vancouver may be able to point out that he has taken full 
advantage of the bountiful provision of Nature, and that Vancouver as an attractive city 
is worthy of its surroundings. 

Arthur G. Smith, 

Chairman. 



MAJOR STREETS 



INTRODUCTORY. 



In entering upon the task of preparing a Major Street Plan tor the City ot Vancouver 
correlated to a similar though less detailed plan of the region which surrounds it, and 
of which the business centre of the City ot Vancouver is the focus, it is necessary to 
obtain a comprehensive view of the terrain and topography and to study the history 
of its physical development, the growth of population and its distribution over the area 
and to draw certain deductions as to what development and growth may be expected 
within that period of time for which it is reasonably possible to plan. 

There is, accordinglv, shown in logical sequence the results of the studies which have 
been made and a summary of the information which it is necessary to carry in mind as 
constituting the conditions which are today operative in influencing future development. 

There follows, in due course, a brief description of Vancouver, with some reference 
to the history of its development and the conclusions which have been reached as to what 
the future has in store. In support of these conclusions, there is set out in tabulated or 
graphic form with running commentaries an estimate as to population during the next 
thirty-five (35) years, fortified by statements of building construction, the distribution 
of paved streets and public utilities and the areas served thereby. This is followed by a 
consideration of the points of origin of traffic passing from or through the region and 
desirous of entering the city street system, and by studies relating to the present volume 
of traffic. 

Standards are established which give due recognition to present economy while, at 
the same time, meeting facts squarely and not permitting the whole object ot Town 
Planning to be defeated by not paying sufficient attention to the future. 

Vancouver of the present is judged in accordance with these standards and attention 
drawn to streets of excessive grades, insufficient width and poor alignment and to the 
lack of sufficient radial thoroughfares, and to those points in the street system that are 
of present advantage and which will be of advantage in the future. 

Suggestions as to land subdivision, together with appropriate regulations, will be 
found in the appendices. 

The illustrations accompanying this Report are reductions ot large plans on file in 
the office of the Vancouver Town Planning Commission. 

THE GROWTH OF VANCOUVER. 

(Plate 2) 

On Plate 2 is shown the area commonly known as Greater Vancouver. It consists of 
the peninsula of land lying between the Eraser River and Burrard Inlet, known as the 
Burrard Peninsula, and the more gentle habitable slopes on the north shore of Burrard 
Inlet. 

The peninsula contains approximately eighty-eight ("88) square miles. It is an area 
of rolling terrain admirably suited for the site of a great city. Burrard Inlet is a natural 
harbour of unusual quality with numerous adjacent level lands available tor port and 
industrial use. 



MAJOR STREETS 



^9 



***:•; 







.,v«'-'-;Fa.» ,' . 



^5i< 







tfSj0&Ji 



Yfr-A 



4§fe ^ t 










■5J- 




Vancouver in iSqS. hrom an Old Lithograph. 

The original town of Granville, as registered in 1870, comprised six blocks. In 1886 
the city was incorporated and there were included in the city limits some 6,750 acres, 
and there has since been only one annexation. In the year 191 1, D.L. 301, now known 
as Ward 8, an area of some 350 acres, and Hastings Townsite, with an area of some 2,950 
acres, were taken into the city. The city limits have always included the western peninsula 
known as Stanley Park, with an area of approximately 1,000 acres, the total area for 
the city (1928) being given officially as 10,547.2 acres. 

The City of Vancouver proper had, accordingly, an area of 16.5 square miles, which 
was, in comparison with other cities of equal importance, a very small area. 

Amalgamation with the Municipalities of Point Grey and South Vancouver gives 
an area to the new city (1929) of about forty-five square miles, comparable with Toronto's 
forty square miles and Montreal's fifty square miles. 



POPULATION. 

(Chart 1, Page 30). 

The figures shown in the Population Growth Chart are official census returns, sup- 
plemented for the years 1917-1925 by the figures compiled by the Inspector of Municipalities 
of British Columbia. Other intermediate figures shown for Vancouver for the years 1886 
to 1926 are taken from the Vancouver City Directory estimate, which gave Greater 
Vancouver in 1925 a population of 250,000. 

An analysis of the population growth chart supports the fact that the early population 
was, except for New Westminster, largely within the limits of the City of Vancouver, 



l.OOO ooo 
eoo. ooo 

SOO OOO 
700 OOO 
GOO OOO 

50O00O 

400 OOO 

500.000 

200.000 



I oo ooo 

90.000 
80,000 
7 OOO 
GO OOO 
60 000 

4.0000 
30.000 

20 000 










1 0.000 


1 — 


3 OOO 


<r 


a 000 




7.000 


1 






6.000 


-) 






5 000 


LL 






4.000 







a 


JOOO 




2 OOO 




I 000 L 



VANCOUVER. 
TOWN PLANNING COMMI51ION 
I °> I 7 



H»RL»NO BARTHOlOME»T 

t, ASSOCIATES 
TOWN PLANNING CONSULTANTS 



TIME IN DBC/\DES 

POPULATION GROWTH 
GREATER. VANCOUVER. 



Page .50 



Chart I 



MAJOR STREETS 31 

extending soon to South Vancouver and other Municipalities, until, at the present, (1928) 
there is approximately as great a population outside as inside the city. To give a better 
idea of growth in the Greater Vancouver area, the curve of the city in 1891 might be 
joined with the curve for Greater Vancouver in 1901. 

An estimate of the future population growth of Greater Vancouver has been made 
by the Water Board. Mr. E. A. Cleveland, Chief Commissioner of the Greater Vancouver 
Water District, states as follows: 

"Beginning with 1925, the actual number of water services in the area in question 
was 55,372. The population, on a basis of 4.5 persons per service, would, at that rate, 
be 249,174. The population of the area at the end of 1925, based on other data, was, 
as nearly as we could determine, 250,000. Assuming, then, an 8% increase of popula- 
tion compounded annually until the end of 1930, we would arrive at a population 
of 366,170. Decreasing the annual rate to 6% thereafter, the population arrived at 
would be 1,000,000 at the middle of the year 1948." 

Curves for other cities in Canada and the United States are shown on the chart 
for comparative purposes. The chart is so constructed that a straight line represents a 
constant percentage of increase in population compounded annually, or, in other words, 
represents a geometric increase rather than an arithmetic increase. A geometric increase 
is normal for a city's growth and has been adopted between the stages of 250,000 and 500,000 
as the chart shows. From 500,000 upward, in order to make the estimate more conservative 
and guided by the history of other cities at this stage of their growth, an arithmetic 
increase has been adopted, with the result that the year i960 is shown as the date when 
the city will reach that figure, while, had a geometric rate been adopted, the city would 
be shown as reaching 1,000,000 in 1955. The chart indicates the possibilities of a large 
future population, to which consideration must be given in planning the studies. 

BUILDING PERMITS. 

(Chart 2, Page 32). 

The recent building development is shown in the chart presented and confirms recent 
inter-census estimates of population. For each of the municipalities prior to amalgamation, 
figures are given and illustrated. These figures are indicative of the type of development 
in the various municipalities, as can also be gathered from the average value of permits — 
Vancouver with its office and industrial buildings, Point Grey with its more expensive 
type of residence, and South Vancouver with a cheaper type of housing development. 

It will be noted that for the year 1926 there were nearly 7,500 building permits 
for Greater Vancouver, in value amounting to over twenty-five million dollars. 

PAVED STREETS and AREAS SERVED BY SEWER and WATER. 
(Plate 3, Page 34). 

There is probably no other plan that indicates in so graphic a manner the develop- 
ment of any municipality. While the City of Vancouver is well supplied with these very 
necessary facilities, there is a surprising spread of such utilities throughout the entire 
peninsula, indicating an early absorption of the entire area for urban use. Were it not for 
the probable early development of a large city over this area, this tremendous spread 
of utility services would be quite unjustified and even now it represents a heavy charge 
upon a vast area as yet but sparsely developed. 





CITY OF 


VANCOUVER. 


YEAR 


PERMITS 
ISSUED. 


AVERAGE VALUE 
OF PERMITS 


TOTAL VALUE 
OF PERMITS 


1922 


14-4-7 


&54-80 


S 7.9 3 2.1 1 1 


1923 


1 2 50 


$4- 1 G>5 


S 5.2 09.094- 


19 24 


1 7 OS 


S3205 


& 5.4-7 7,898 


1925 


204-9 


$33 1 5 


S&.7 9 5,34-3 


19 26 


24- 2 O 


$<SO 1 O 


S I 4-. 54- 1, 1 50 




POINT 


GREY 




YEAR 


PEQMITS 
ISSUED 


AVERAGE VALUE 
Of PERMITS 


TOTAL VALUE 
OF PERMITS 


1922 


1080 


S3 II 5 


S3.3&4-.I OO 


1923 


632 


S2SSO 


S 2.3 9 7.7 50 


19 24- 


1 24-3 


»34-rO 


S4-.2 5 1.300 


'925 


15 2 6 


S3330 


S 5.O8O.0O0 


'926 


'58 1 


S.382 5 


SC-..04-5&50 




SOUTH 


VANCOUVER. 


^EAQ 


PERMITS 
'S5UED 


AVEDAGE VALUE 
OF PERMITS 


TOTAL VALUE 
OF PERMITS 


1922 


905 


* GZO 


S 559.7 1 & 


1923 


690 


S 1030 


S7 1 2.2 7 5 


1924- 


6 2 1 


8 755 


SG 1 8.G&2 


I9Z5 


&T I 


* 1 1 8 5 


ft 1.03 2.790 


1926 


112 1 


SI Z4-0 


S 1.39 0.590 





1922 



025 



1924 



1925 



192(3 



REPRESENTS VALUE OF PERMITS 
) REPRESENTS NUMI&ER OF PERMITS 



BUILDING PERMITS ISSUED I9Z2-I926 



VANCOUVER. 
TOWN PLANNING COMMISSION 
1927 



MARLAND BARTHOLOMEW 

& A550OATE5 
TOWN PLANNING CONSULTANTS 



Page 32 



Chart . 



MAJOR STREETS 33 

1 

Areas unbuilt are quite easily distinguished, as such areas are unserved with water. 

It might be noted in passing that whereas there is considerable objection at the 
present time to the emptying of untreated sewage into False Creek, this will be removed 
by plans which have been made by the Vancouver and Districts Joint Sewerage and 
Drainage Board for an interceptor that will eliminate such discharge and prevent any 
possible contamination of the bathing beaches. 

PRESENT and FUTURE TRAFFIC. 

(Plate 4, Page 36). 

It has become a platitude to say that the street problems of today have become 
enormously intensified by the invention and use of the automobile. According to statistics 
of the National Automobile Chamber of Commerce, the annual output of automobiles 
increased from three hundred in 1895 t0 4'3 2 ^'7S4 in IQ2< >- Registration in the same 
years in the United States increased from 300 in 1895 to 19,954,346 in 1925. The greatest 
increase took place in the last decade, and from 1915 to 1925 this increase was from about 
two million to twenty million. 

From 1907 to 1926 the figures for automobile registration in the Province of British 
Columbia are as follows: 

1907... 175 1917... 11,639 

1908.. 263 1918 - 15,370 

1909 594 1 9 19 ..... 25,000 

1910 . 1,026 1920.. .. 28,000 

191 1 2,220 1921 ..-.32,000 

1912... 4,289 1922 . 33,000 

1913.. 6,138 1923... . 40,000 

1914 . 6,688 ! 9 2 4- 47,61 5 

1915... .... 7,440 i9 2 5 - 57,657 

1916 . 8,596 1926 66,933 

Owing to the way in which the figures are compiled, it is a matter of some difficulty 
to distinguish between registrations for the various municipalities, but it has been stated 
that 63.3% of all the cars in British Columbia are registered at Vancouver and New 
Westminster. 

In 1926 there was one car to every 8.6 persons in British Columbia; in the United 
States there is, on the average, one car to every five persons, and in California one to 
every 2.8 persons. This is a condition, though far from being reached in Vancouver, that 
must be planned for. In this connection, Mr. A. E. Foreman, Chairman of the Streets 
and Transit Committee of the Vancouver Town Planning Commission, recently stated: 

"Last year (1926) approximately 44,000 cars were registered in Greater Van- 
couver. During the same year, 107,860 foreign cars entered British Columbia through 
Huntingdon and ports of entry west — two and one-half times the number of domestic 
cars registered in Greater Vancouver, and, no doubt, the great majority of these 
visited Vancouver. As our provincial road system is developed, particularly extensions 
such as the Trans-Provincial Highway through the Fraser Canyon, and as the scenic 
beauties of British Columbia become better known, the number of foreign cars using 
our highways will increase tremendously; and, remember, as a reservoir to draw 
from, there were over twenty-two million motor vehicles registered in the United 



MAJOR STREETS 



States last vear, of which nearly two and one-quarter million were in the States of 
Washington, Oregon and California, and these will be visiting British Columbia 
in ever-increasing numbers." 

TRAFFIC COUNT. 
(Plate 4, Page 36). 

In order to make a study of traffic conditions in Vancouver and the surrounding 
municipalities, a traffic count of vehicular traffic (not including street cars) was under- 
taken by the Vancouver Town Planning Commission on Thursday, 27th January, 1927, 
from 4.30 to 6.30 o'clock p.m. 

The count was made by volunteer workers, members of the local branch of the Town 
Planning Institute of Canada acting as inspectors. Students, including several lady 
students, of the University of British Columbia offered their services and filled the posts 
of observers. In three of the surrounding municipalities, Point Grey, South Vancouver 
and New Westminster, the count was made possible by the co-operation of the Municipal 
Engineers, and in Burnaby with the additional help of the Boy Scouts. 

The accompanying tables show the heaviest corners counted. At a normal corner 
there were eight observers and there was thus obtained, for each street radiating from 
the corner, the number of vehicles proceeding into the corner and the number of vehicles 
out from the corner. In the tables no distinction is made between passenger vehicles 
or trucks or horse-drawn vehicles (of which there were very few noted), but this distinction 
was made in the actual count. 

A comparison of traffic to and from the business district, on the bridges only, is as 
follows: 

Total Number 
hi Out of Vehicles 

Granville Bridge .... 800 2422 3222 

Connaught Bridge 471 1461 1932 

Georgia Viaduct 615 726 1331 

From the above it will be noted that the total traffic on the Granville Street Bridge 
was almost equal to the combined traffic on the Connaught and Georgia Viaduct Bridges 
and emphasizes the need for the proposed Burrard Street Bridge. 

Other deductions can be made from a study of the tables and plate 4. An unexpected 
result was that of finding that the traffic at such corners as Hastings and Granville and 
Hastings and Pender was much lighter than supposed. 

Except for the bridge approaches, there is at present no real traffic problem in the 
business district, except that brought about by the parking of motor vehicles, to which 
further reference is made in this report. Few large cities can show so little traffic congestion 
as Vancouver: a condition that can only be maintained by careful planning. 

The present congestion of traffic at the south end of Granville Street Bridge, especially 
in the evening, will, of course, be relieved by the construction of the Burrard Street Bridge, 
and also in the future by the construction of a new Granville Street Bridge of greater 
roadway width, in the position of the first Granville Bridge, which was a production of 
the portion of Granville Street within the business district. 



MAJOR STREETS 



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PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT OF MAJOR AND MINOR STREETS 

GREATER VANCOUVER. 



HARLAND BARTHOLOMEW" &- ASSOCIATES 



TOWN PLANNING CONSULTANTS 



RESIDENTIAL STREETS 




EXTREME WIDTH ON PURELV 
LOCAL RESIDENTIAL STREETS 
IS UNNECESSARY EXCEPT FOR, 
E-FFECT. 



A bO FOOT STREET SHOULD BE USEDONLV 
IN THOSE DISTRICTS WHERE NO MORE THAN 
3 LINES OFVEHICLES WILL EVER BF 
NECESSAQV. 



A SO FOOT WIDTH IS MOR E- 
FLEX/BLE ANDSHOULD BE THE 
MINIMUM FOR MOST STREETS. 
ULTIMATELY IT COULD BE- 
WIDENEDTO ACCOMMODATE 4 
LINES OF VEHICLES IF NECESSARY 



MAJOR STREETS 



STREET AND ROADWAV WIDTHS SHOULD NOT BE ESTABLISHED ARBITRARILY. 
ROADWAV WIDTHS-THE DISTANCE BETWEEN CURB LINES -SHOULD BE BASED UPON 
THE NUMBEROFLINESOFVEHICLESTHEV ARE TO ACCOMMODATE AND STREET 
WIDTHS-THE SPACE BETWEEN PROPERTV LINES-SHOULD BE DETERMINED BV 
THE WIDTH OF ROADWAY TOGETHER WITH PROVISION FOR AMPLE SIDE WALK. 
SPACE. HERE ARE SHOWN TVPICAL EXAMPLES OF MODERN STREET DESIGN. 



FOUR LINE THOROFARES 






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INADEQJJATE FOQ MAJOR- STREET PURPOSES. 
THERE SHOULD BF ROADWAV SPACE FOR 
AT LFAST ONE FREE MOVING LINE OF VE- 
HICLES ON EACH SIDE OF THE STREET. 
THIS IS NOT OBTAINABLE ON A 66 FOOT 
STREET WHICH CARRIES A CAR LINE 



A 66 FOOT STREET IS THE MINIMUMWIDTH 
FOR A MAJOR STREET WITHOUT CAR- 
LINES. WHERE ADDITIONAL VEHICULAR- 
PARKING SPACE IS REQUIRED THE ROAD- 
WAV SPACE COULD BF INCREASED 6 FEET 
AND VEHICLES PARK AT AN ANGLE OF FORTV 
FIVE DEGREES ON ONE SIDE OF THE STREET. 




SIX LINE THOROFARES 






,i pi 



S< 



'INITIAL DFVtlORMtNT OVJ FINAL DtVt-LOPMfNT 

THIS SHOULD BE THE MINIMUM WIDTH 
FOR A MAJOR STREET CARRVINCr- 
STREETCARS IN THE OUTLVING DISTRICTS. 
WHERE TRAFFIC IS LIGHT THE ROADWAY- 
NEED NOT BE DEVELOPED TO ITS ULTI- 
MATE WIDTH IN THE FIRST INSTANCE. 



"ir-r — ~f 






—'-St 

T-INAL DtVtLOPME-NT 



INITIAL DeVKOPMfNT 

ALL NEW MAJORSTREETS SHOULD HAVE A 
MINIMUM WIDTH OF 80 FEET. THE STREET 
SHOULD BE DEVELOPED SO THAT IT CAN 
ULTIMATELY BF WIDENED TO A fe LINE THOB- 
OFARE AND PUBLIC UTILITIES SHOULD BE- 
INSTALLED IN ACCORDANCE WITH F/NAL 
DEVELOPMENT. 




Nb THOROFARES 



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DE-VE-LOPMf-NT 



FINAL DevtLODMENT 



DtYtLOPMf-NT 



F-INAL DfVE-LOPME-NT 



MAIN RADIAL THOROFARES WITHCAR LINES 
SHOULD HAVE A WIDTHOF IOO FEET. TH I S 
WIDTH WILL ACCOMMODATE EIGHT LINES 
OF VEHICLES. A IOO FOOT STREET IS 
ALSO A DESIRABLE 6 LINE THOROFARE- 
IN A RESIDENTIAL DISTRICT AS IT PROVIDES 
ADDITIONAL GRASS PLOT BETWEEN S I DE- 
WALK. AND CURB AND GIVES THE STREET 
MORE CHARACTER .. 



A l?0 FOOT STREET WOULD ACCOMMODATE 
fe FREE MOVING LINES OF VEHICLES AND 
ANGULAR PARKING AT EITHERSIDE OF THE 
STREET. SIDEWALK- SPACE IS ALSO 
CONSIDERABLY INCREASED. 

NOTE-FREE MOVING VEHICLES ARFSHOWN 
INSOLID BLACIC— PARKED VEHICLES ARE 
SHOWN BY OUTLINE. 



Page 38 



Chart J 



MAJOR STREETS 39 

STANDARDS FOR MODERN STREET DEVELOPMENT. 

(Chart 3). 

A modern street system makes it possible tor traffic to move safely and quickly to 
and from all parts of the city. This requires a complete scheme for circulation co-ordinating 
the present and future heavy duty streets, and while the exact arrangement of thorough- 
tares is necessarilv different in every community, depending upon topographical con- 
ditions, there are certain fundamental characteristics applicable to all. 

CONTINUITY and DIRECTNESS. 

Of the requisites essential to an effective major street, none is more important than 
continuity. Interruptions, such as jogs, dead ends and the like, retard the expeditious 
movement of vehicles and become serious traffic hazards. While nowadays distance is 
more often expressed in time required to travel than in actual mileage, vet in so far as 
topography permits, the main routes should be as direct as possible in order to accelerate 
traffic movements. 

WIDTH. 

The street width is the space between property lines, while the roadway includes the 
area between the curbs. Heretofore roadway widths, which limit the volume of vehicular 
traffic, have been established arbitrarily without relation to the number of lines of vehicles 
to be accommodated. Roadway widths should be based on the number of lines of traffic 
to be carried. In the case of major streets this should never be less than tour lines and 
preferablv six. As shown in Chart 4, these requirements are met by a 66-foot street with 
a 36-toot pavement, and preferably by an 80-toot street with a 54-foot pavement. Greater 
roadway widths can be determined by allowing on the average (including street car lines) 
9 feet for each line of traffic to be planned for. Main thoroughfares should be at least 
99 feet wide, with a 72-toot roadway. 

PROPERLY DESIGNED ROADWAYS. 

Minor streets and special service streets may have such widths as will satisfy the 
requirements of local traffic. It a special effort is made to place wide streets where they 
belong minor streets may be correspondingly reduced in width. To secure good appearance 
on a narrow street this can best be obtained by enforcing a building line that will keep 
houses back and permit the planting of trees along street lines. Minor streets of a residential 
character often need only a three-line roadway. The overall width of minor streets, however, 
should not be less than fifty (50) feet and preferably sixty (60) feet with a roadway width 
of from 24 to 27 feet. 

EASY GRADIENTS and CURVES. 

Major streets should be designed and laid out so as to encourage their use, else they 
will fail of their purpose. Excessive grades or sharp turns in the alignment of the street 
will repel traffic and force it to take neighbouring minor streets not designed or paved 
to accommodate heavy traffic. Curb radii should be given more attention. The old standards 
of a three or six-foot radius, easily negotiated by horsedrawn vehicles, are traffic hazards 
today, as they throw the turning motor car, regardless of speed, out of its proper channel 
into the path of other moving vehicles, which confuses both motorist and pedestrian. 



MAJOR STREETS 4 i 

To meet the requirements ot modern motor traffic, especially in Vancouver, where 
ice and snow conditions occasionally obtain, grades over 10% should be avoided, but 
short lengths with grades as great as 9% are to be preferred to long deviations. Grades 
up to 3% are practically disregarded, and 5% is a very desirable maximum grade. As 
a guide in estimating what is meant by these figures, it might be mentioned that the 
maximum grade between Fifteenth and Sixteenth Avenues on Granville Street is just 
over 7%. 

Changes in alignment should be accomplished by curves of a radius of 500 feet or 
over if possible. For motor traffic curb radii should be from 20 to 25 feet, though the 
convenience of pedestrians should also be considered for crossings at street intersections. 
On wide streets safety islands should be provided at the centre for their convenience 
and safety. 

STREET PAVEMENT. 

A systematic paving programme based on the major street plan can be made a means 
of great economy. Much paving that is destroyed through the abuse of local streets can 
be saved by a properly designed system of major thoroughfares. If the surfacing of these 
heavily used streets is attractive and durable, there should be no reason for the shifting 
of traffic flow. Strictly local streets can then be improved with less expensive pavements. 

The foregoing is a brief summary of the fundamental principles of modern street 
planning. It can readily be seen that a plan of streets suited to the traffic needs of the 
modern city can not be devised by hit or miss methods. The major streets constitute an 
organic, functional system. The topography, railroads, industries, arterial highways, 
transit routes and the character of the home districts must all be taken into account. 
Chart No. 3 illustrates typical street cross sections for modern street planning. In the 
light of these standards, the street system of the Burrard Peninsula is next examined to 
see how nearly it meets these requirements. 

CONTOURS and STREET GRADES. 

(Plate 5). 

The differences in elevation throughout the region that make for fine scenic effects 
render the study of the grades of streets most important. The plate shows some of the 
steeper grades, together with contours of fifty-foot intervals. A map has been prepared 
of the district showing ten-foot contour intervals, but it would be difficult to distinguish 
these contours if reproduced here. 

Evidently replotting of streets is needed in several areas in the district. Already 
in Point Grey replotting has been successfully accomplished along the steep slope that 
exists between Trafalgar Street on the east and Sixteenth Avenue on the north, where 
there is a difference of some 100 feet in elevation. There has also been prepared, and to 
this further reference will subsequently be made, a scheme for replotting the north-east 
portion of Hastings Townsite at the Second Narrows. The map also shows other areas, 
such as Capitol Hill east of Hastings Townsite and certain portions of Burnaby Mountain, 
still further east and adjoining Barnett Road, that, to fit the contours, should be replotted. 

The great need in New Westminster for planning is graphically represented by this 
study, which illustrates the numerous streets there of heavy grade. The need is, of course, 
for traffic entries to New Westminster with better grades. 



MAJOR STREETS 43 

STREET WIDTHS, JOGS and DEAD ENDS. 

(Plate 6). 

This map is presented to show inter alia some of the defects in street layout. The 
numerous dots indicate either street jogs or dead ends, many of which were unnecessary 
and represent poor planning. 

Jogs are offsets in street alignment and naturally interrupt the direct flow of traffic. 
Dead ends necessitate traffic being forced either to the right, left or completely around. 
While these are not necessarily defects on minor streets where through traffic should be 
discouraged, they are objectionable on streets that are to be used as major streets. A 
list has been made of defects considered particularly objectionable and is set out later 
in this report. 

It will be noted that the district is not without its wide sTeets, some of which are 
132 feet in width, for example, portions of Boundary Road, King Edward and Sixteenth 
Avenues. But unfortunately all of the wide streets are not in locations in which they 
will be of most value to traffic needs. In some instances, particularly in Hastings Townsite, 
the wide streets are a disadvantage rather than an advantage and represent an unnecessarily 
large proportion of street area compared to lot area for what is largely a residential 
development. 

In so far as possible, all existing wide streets have been incorporated in the Major 
Street Plan, as eighty (80) feet is the desirable minimum major street width, allowing 
for six lines of traffic; as before mentioned, the absolute minimum, though not recom- 
mended for such thoroughfares, is four lines of traffic. 

There is a sharp distinction between major streets and minor streets; while main 
thoroughfares in particular should be of a commodious width of 80 or 100 feet or more, 
and should provide for uninterrupted flow of traffic, minor streets, especially in residential 
districts, should be designed to discourage anything but local traffic. Nearly all minor 
streets in Vancouver are 66 feet wide and are of ample width. It might be noted that there 
is a greater mileage of minor streets of excessive than of inadequate width. 

MAJOR STREETS. 

(Plate 7, Page 44). 

Arterial Highways, Regional. 

In the design of a street system there are three types of streets that every well-planned 
city should have: 

Arterial highways or main thoroughfares. 
Secondary streets or cross thoroughfares. 
Minor streets. 

The first two types are classed as major streets. Plate 6 shows the main thorough- 
fares or arterial highways alone. In a subsequent plate the combination of main and 
secondary thoroughfares constituting the Major Street Plan is shown. 

The main thoroughfares within the city limits are better described as arterial highways 
outside the city limits. They not only provide continuous and direct communication 
between the central business district and all parts of the city, but they also link up the 
surrounding areas. Diagramatically they have been considered as the spokes in a wheel 
radiating in all directions from the hub. 



MAJOR STREETS 45 

MAJOR STREETS, INCLUDING ARTERIAL HIGHWAYS FOR THE REGION. 

(Plate 8, Insert). 

Most of the previous studies have dealt with existing conditions. The Major Street 
Plan is a forecasting for the future by proposing the widening of existing streets and the 
providing of new extensions and connections. Anticipation of future growth is the only 
method by which a satisfactory and economic plan can be evolved. 

Wherever possible, existing streets have been used as part of the major street system. 
Many of these will have to be widened to at least 80 feet, since they are but 66 feet wide. 

It is not expected that all the proposals of this Major Street Report will be carried 
out exactly as detailed. The proposals should rather be regarded as general recommenda- 
tions subject to further studies for each individual project. Further, there may be some 
changes as a result of subsequent studies of the other phases, particularly in regard to 
boulevards and driveways to be dealt with in the report on public recreation. 

A policy for street widening has to be determined that will best suit both existing 
and future conditions. It is not necessary that all the widenings be carried out at once, 
but these proposals should always be kept in mind so that new development can be 
controlled accordingly. Provision for street widening, and the acquisition of properties 
required for the extensions and connections in built-up areas, constitute the first phase in 
the execution of the major street plan and require the acquisition of property and the 
expenditure of public funds. 

It is possible to provide for new extensions and connections in unsubdivided areas 
without expense to the public. Under proper regulations the new streets can be obtained 
as the subdivisions are registered. In Ontario, for example, the city has the power of 
approval of subdivisions within five miles of its boundaries, and this power should be 
granted to cities in British Columbia. 

From the experience of cities, both in Canada and the United States, the regulations 
of new subdivisions is undoubtedly one of the best services that a Planning Commission 
can render, and some Commissions give a great deal of time to this work; in effect they 
become the "approving officer". If legislation is granted authorizing the regulation of 
subdivisions by Town Planning Commissions, the Commissions should make available 
to those interested a set of rules such as suggested in Appendix II. It is gratifying to note 
that most of the principles embodied in these rules have already been recognized by the 
provisions of the Land Registry Act of British Columbia. In Appendix I. there will 
be found sections of various Acts that relate to subdivisions in the Province of British 
Columbia in general, and in the City of Vancouver in particular. 

MAJOR STREET PLAN FOR CITY OF VANCOUVER. 

(Plate 9, Insert). 

The studies for the City of Vancouver have been made in more detail than tor the 
region. The general proposals are indicated on the accompanying plan and are detailed 
in the list that follows. 

It is this plan and list of street descriptions that under the provisions of the Town 
Planning Act the Council should adopt. 




REGIONAL 

MAJOK STREET PLAN 



MAJOR STREETS OF SUFFICIENT WIDTH , 
MAJOR STREETS TORE WIDENED 
PROPOSED EXTENSIONS &- CONNECT 

3 CA I * / M f f t T 



h»«unD 6AtTnOlOntr 

tr USOCUTt) 
TQ»K fmnwiliQ CQMSmUlin 



Plate 8 




Plate p 



MAJOR STREETS 



47 



INDEX TO MAJOR STREETS— VANCOUVER 



Street Narm 



Route No. 



Alma Road . 

Arbutus Street 

Atlantic Street 

Atlin Street 

Beach Avenue 

Bidwell Street 

Blenheim Street- 
Boundary Road 

Bridgeway 

Broadway 

Burrard Street 

Cambie Street 

Cambie Street South 

Cassiar Street 

Cedar Street ..... 28 

Charles Street 

Clark Drive 

Cordova Street 

Cornwall Street 

Davie Street 

Distributor Street 

Dunbar Street 

Dundas Street 

Eighteenth Avenue 

Eton Street 

Eitth Ave.me 

Fifteenth Avenue 

Fir Street 

First Avenue 

Fourth Avenue ... 

Fraser Avenue 

Georgia Street 

Gore Avenue 

Grandview Highway ...17 

Granville Street 

Granville Street South 

Hastings Street 



2 5 



48 

9 

37 

26 

5° 
47 
16 

38 
4 1 
34 
47 
&2Q 

4 
44 

I 
1 1 

8 
41 

2 5 

I 

19 

I 

13 

18 

30 

10 

12 

36 

4 

4- 

&2 4 

39 

3 1 



Street Name 

Heatlev Avenue 

Hemlock Street 

Homer Street... 

Kingsway 

Kitsilano Diversion 

Main Street 

Marpole Avenue ... 
McGill Street .... ... 

Nanaimo Street 

Nineteenth Avenue 
Oak Street 



Route No. 

43 
3 2 
41 
23 
17 

35 
18 
1 
46 
T 9 
33 



Pacific Street 9&4 1 

Pender Street 

Point Grey Road — 

Powell Street 

Renfrew Street 

Richards Street 

Robson Street 

Rupert Street — 

Scott Street 

Second Avenue .— 

Sixth Avenue 

Sixteenth Avenue 

Smithe Street . 

Stephens Street 

Tenth Avenue 

Terminal Avenue 

Twelfth Avenue 

Twenty-Second Avenue 

Twenty-Fifth Avenue 

Twenty-Ninth Avenue 

Union Street 

Victoria Drive 

Wall Street 

Water Street 

Waterloo Street 
Wolfe Avenue 



3 

11 

1 

48 
4° 
5 
49 
36 
15 

14 

18 

7 
^7 

17 
10 

'7 
20 
21 
22 

5 

45 

1 

1 
26 
18 



4 8 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



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58 A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 

MAJOR STREET CAPACITIES. 

(Present and Proposed) Plates 8-9-10, Insert. 

The importance of a street to the community is determined by the number of lines 
of traffic it carries. 

On the Major Street Plan there are indicated the streets that are considered to be 
ot sufficient width and in the major street description are given the present and proposed 
roadway widths. A wide street may have a narrow roadway, which can be increased at 
comparatively small expense to accommodate the number of lines of traffic expected. 
Other streets, forming part ot the future major street system, are too narrow both in 
street and roadway width, and consequently must be widened. 

To show these conditions in a graphic manner, maps have been prepared, as illustrated 
in Plate 9, page 44. It should be noted that the capacities in A and B do not involve street 
widening, but that in order to bring about the capacities in C, certain street widenings 
are required. 

EVOLUTION OF THE MAJOR STREET PLAN. 

(Plate 11). 

On the accompanying plate the first study indicated as Plan "A" shows all the existing 
streets in the area under consideration. The lack of continuity in many of the streets 
is again made evident. Those existing streets which already function as main traffic ways 
and which are proposed as major streets, or portions of major streets, are shown in Plan "B". 
In so far as possible, existing streets have been suggested as major streets. To link together 
these disconnected arteries and to effect a complete system of major streets, new openings 
and connections are necessary, as shown in Plan "C". A combination of Plans "B" and 
"C" produces Plan "D", which illustrates the entire proposed major street system. 

BUSINESS DISTRICT. 

Location of Business Centre. 
(Plate 1;, Page 60). 

As Vancouver grows the present business district will expand. The ultimate centre 
of business values will be at a point most nearly focal to the various streams of traffic 
(vehicular and street car) coming from all parts of the city. A study ot the main approach 
thoroughfares to the north, south, east and west, would indicate that the centre of the 
future business district has already reached its logical location at the intersection of 
Granville and Georgia Streets, unless there should be an unusually great unbalancing 
ot the present street structure, which is improbable. 

It has been suggested that False Creek mi^ht be filled and become the central business 
district, or that the entire business district might shift to the south side of False Creek; 
that both of these suggestions were economically impracticable was indicated by the 
preliminary studies. Further studies made on the railway, harbour and industrial phases, 
confirm this conclusion. To entirely fill False Creek would be extremely expensive and 
would involve an enormous sacrifice ot values now established. Its desirability is doubtful 
from either the standpoint of economy or practicability. 

The ideal business district is a gridiron into which traffic from all sections of the 
city is ted in an uniform manner, the point of entry to the business district corresponding 



MAJOR STREETS 



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MAJOR STREETS 61 

as nearly as possible to the geographical position of the area in which the traffic originates. 
The present business district of Vancouver is more or less of a gridiron and of ample size 
to serve the needs of a city considerably in excess of one million population. 

Plate 1 1 indicates the existing principal traffic ways entering the business district. 

i. Georgia Street West, with traffic from the West End. 

2. Granville Street Bridge, from the University Endowment Lands, Point Grey 
and some areas across the North Arm of the Fraser River. 

3. Connaught Bridge, from South Vancouver and from across the Fraser River and 
some of the traffic from and between New Westminster. 

4. Georgia Viaduct bringing, via Main Street, traffic from South Vancouver, Burnaby 
and New Westminster. 

5. Hastings Street, with traffic from Hastings Townsite, the Barnet Road and the 
Second Narrows Bridge. 

Certain new entries for purposes of more uniform distribution will be desirable, such 
as the proposed Burrard Street Bridge, an extension of Kingsway from its present terminus 
at Main Street across False Creek to the intersection of Robson and Beatty Streets, and 
possibly, in the future, a high level bridge on the northerly production of Oak Street. 

STREET IMPROVEMENTS. 

(Plate 12, Page 60). 

It cannot be said that Vancouver compares very favourably with other cities in regard 
to area of roadway space in the business district, yet with its present desirable layout and 
streets of comparatively reasonable widths, that will permit, in many cases, of greater 
roadway widths, it is considered that the only major improvements necessary are the 
provision ot what has been termed the "Distributor" street, and the widening of Robson 
Street, between Burrard and the proposed Kingsway Viaduct. The Distributor Street, 
it is suggested, should be 120 feet wide, so that it may expeditiously distribute entering 
radial traffic into the business district gridiron. This street will also facilitate the move- 
ment of traffic desirous of passing around this area. 

The importance of this improvement cannot be too highly emphasized. 

On the same plate are also shown throughout the district the present street width, 
the number of lines of traffic accommodated, and the present width of roadway between 
curbs, together with the proposed future width, the number of lines of traffic to be planned 
for and the width of roadway necessary to take care of same. 

PARKING REGULATIONS. 

The parking of automobiles is a problem which every city has sooner or later to face. 
Parking regulations are seldom obeyed to the letter. For example, where hour parking 
is permitted cars often remain for a much longer period, the owner thoughtlessly or 
purposelv taking the risk of being fined for non-observance of the regulation. The difficulty 
of strictly enforcing such regulations is an argument for the entire prohibition of parking 
on the streets in down town business districts. Provision under either municipal or private 
auspices should be made for adequate parking space within buildings or upon vacant land 
or open spaces rather than upon public streets, which should be entirely free for moving 



62 



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traffic. But, until parking in the congested areas becomes sufficiently formidable a problem 
to warrant its prohibition entirely, there are numerous measures that can be adopted 
to advantage. 

1. Prohibition of parking on street car streets where the roadway can accommodate 
less than six lines of traffic. 

2. Prohibition of parking on designated thoroughfares in the congested districts 
in the morning and evening rush hours. 

3. Adjusting the roadway width to traffic lanes and providing curbs of greater 
radius at street intersections. 

4. Elimination of the left turns at busy intersections and the permitting of only 
right-hand turnouts from lanes or alleys, oil stations, and the like. 

5. Installation of automatic control lights at important intersections. In connection 
with this suggestion, it might be mentioned that both the cities of Seattle and 
Tacoma have adopted such a system, and the traffic in Vancouver has reached 
the point where some such control is required. Pedestrians should be required 
to obey the traffic signals as well as vehicles. 

6. Provision and enforcement of regulations requiring a dead stop on streets inter- 
secting a main thoroughfare. 

MAJOR STREET CORRECTIONS. 

Numerous plans have been made for the elimination of jogs and other defects and 
for desirable improvements at particular points and places. Sketches showing all proposals 
are on file for future reference. Though noted in a general way in the list of street descrip- 
tion, some of the more important proposals might be particularly mentioned. 



In Vancouver. 

At Point Grey Boundary. 

At South Vancouver Boundary. 



LIST OF SUGGESTED MAJOR STREET CORRECTIONS. 

A: Vancouver. 
1. Tenth Avenue to Twelfth Avenue. 

As Originally planned, the connection between Tenth and Twelfth Avenues provided 
for the closing of McDonald Street between these avenues so that a six-point 
intersection would be avoided at 1 1 th Avenue. The connection has been made as 
shown by plan and photograph, the jog at 1 2th Avenue and Trafalgar being elim- 
inated. McDonald has not been closed, the difficulty of closing streets, as evidenced 
by past experience, being the reason given by civic officials. 

In the preliminary Major Street Plan, Trafalgar Street was indicated as a major 
Street. When considering the plan with the civic committee, McDonald was 
suggested as an alternative on account of better grades. As now used by traffic, 
it becomes apparent that the six-point intersection referred to needs protection by 
stop signs and that no other major street should enter at this point. Stephens Street 
is now recommended as the major street; while not as level as McDonald, it is not 
so irregular as Trafalgar and not nearly so steep at its northern end. Stephens 
provides a reasonable grade for transit lines. 



6 4 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 





Hastings Street and Vernon Drive. 
Further Improvement is Required Here. 



Jog at Oak Street and Fifteenth Avenue. 
Recommended for Improvement. 




5CM.E IN TCCT 

O ?5 5Q lOQ 



PLAN 5LIEWING ROADWAY 
WIDENING & IMPROVEMENT 5^ 

UA5TING!> STREET AT 

VERNON DRIVE 

LEGEND 

NUM[ BUILDINGS BRICK BUILDIHGS E 



MAJOR STREETS 



65 



FOURTEENTH 



^AVENUE 



Hastings Street at Vernon Drive. 

The suggestion made for the improvement of this jog is one that should undoubtedly 
be carried out at an early date. The original jog was even worse than at present. 
It is but one of many that exist in this vicinity, due to the fact that the streets in 
the subdivision to the east do not meet the streets from the west — bad planning. 
When an attempt was made to correct the condition, not enough property was taken 
to provide a roadway of suitable curvature — bad replanning. Even after the recom- 
mendation was brought to the attention of Council, an impending paving programme 
was carried out without change in alignment. 

3. Broadway at Prince Edw t ard 
^~ JI / y Street. (Page 67). 

The jog only partly corrected in the 
vicinity of this intersection should be 
further improved when the widening 
of Broadway between Cambie and 
Prince Edward is carried out. 

4. klngswav at fraser street and 
Fifteenth Avenue. 

Considerable attention has been given 
to traffic conditions at this point, 
and it has been decided that it is 
advisable to connect Fraser Avenue 
with Scott Street by an 80-foot 
connection and to widen Kingsway 
on the south side of the block west 
of Fraser Avenue. 

5. Oak Street at Fifteenth Avenue. 

The recommendation as to the cor- 
rection of the offset in Oak Street 
is to be carried out, surveys having 
been made and the necessary property 
secured by the city. 

6. Twelfth Avenue at Columbia 
Street. 

There still exists a jog at this point 
which should be eliminated when the 
widening of 1 ;th Avenue is effected. 

7. Sixth Avenue to Fifth Avenue Between Hemlock and Granville. 

This short diagonal will not only serve to join the two first mentioned streets, so as 
to form a continuous east and west major street, but will also provide access to 
Granville from the parallel street, Hemlock, before traffic reaches the Granville 
Street Bridge. 




PLAN SHEW IMG 
IMPROVEMENT OF JOG 

OAK STREET AT SIXTEENTH AVE. 






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8. Broadway at Nanaimo Street. 

There is a jog in the street system that should be im- 
proved at this point. 

9. Connection, Arbutus to Cedar. (Page 68). 

The approach to the proposed Burrard Street Bridge 
from the south is via Cedar Street. The natural approach 
from Point Grey is Arbutus Street, planned as an arterial 
highway. To connect Arbutus and Cedar it is proposed 
to parallel the railway tracks, thus providing a desirable 
grade and at the same time avoiding the crossing of the 
tracks. 

10. Nineteenth Avenue to Eighteenth Avenue at 

Kingswav. 

Forming part of an important east and west artery, 
a right angle crossing of this major street at Kingsway 
can be obtained by changes on the south side of Kingswav. 

11. Clark Drive at Fifteenth Avenue. 

When Clark Drive south of iqth Avenue is widened 
the jog should be improved as much as possible. 

12. Improvement of Jog at Venables and Commercial 

Drive. (Page 66). 

Commercial Drive has developed, and is still further 
developing as a fine commercial street, but it is handi- 
capped by poor approaches from both the south and 
the north. The suggestion shown is one that should 
materially assist in the improvement of the street. 
Commercial Drive is not a major street. 

13. Cut-Off — Union to Douglas Road at Boundary Road. 

This diagonal is suggested through the property of the 
Old People's Home. 

14. Cornwall Street and Point Grey Road at 

Trafalgar Street. 

The first two named streets should form a continuous 
thoroughfare. A jog of some 100 feet has been partially 
corrected by acquiring part of the lot on the south- 
west corner of Point Grey Road and Trafalgar. 

1 5. Connection Between Georgia and Charles Street. 
(Page 66). 

Georgia and Charles form portions of an important 
cross-town major street and should be connected as 
illustrated between Heatlev Avenue and George Street. 

I';ige 67 



68 



A PLAN" FOR VANCOUVER 



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PLAN 5UEWING PROPOSED CONNECTION OP 

ARBUTQ5 & CEDAR 5TREET5 

5CAIC IN PCtT 



B: AT POINT GREY BOUNDARY. 

i. Arbutus Street and Sixteenth Avenue. 

The jog in Arbutus Street at this intersection should be eliminated when Arbutus 
Street is being widened and improved as an arterial highway. 

2. Sixteenth Avenue and Marpole Connection at Granville Street. 

When widening Marpole Avenue care should be taken to secure sufficient land at 
the junction with Granville Street to provide a good connection with 16th Avenue 
at this point. 



3. Trafalgar Street at Sixteenth Avenue. 

At this intersection there is a jog at both streets which should be eliminated before 
any building takes place. 



MAJOR STREETS 69 

C: AT SOUTH VANCOUVER BOUNDARY. 

1. Main Street at Eighteenth Avenue. 

The offset in Main Street should be materially improved by changes as outlined in 
the study made. Buildings on the east side where widening is contemplated might 
be moved back further east by closing the lane and by the acquisition of some 
property. 

2. Nineteenth Avenue at Main Street. 

In carrying this major street across Main Street at this point, it would be necessary 
to eliminate the jog. 

3. Nineteenth Avenue in South Vancouver to 22nd Avenue in Vancouver at 
Nanaimo Street. 

This short connection is necessary to provide for a continuous major street between 
Grandview Highway (13th Avenue) on the north and 29th Avenue on the south. 



STUDIES FOR REPLOTTING NORTH-EAST PORTION OF 
HASTINGS TOWNSITE. 

EXISTING LAYOUT AND GRADES. 

(Plate 13, Page 70). 

The portion of Hastings Townsite under consideration is bounded by Boundary Road, 
Cambridge Street, Cassiar Street, Bridgeway and the Canadian Pacific Railway right-of- 
way. Within these limits there are at present thirty-nine (39) acres in lots, with twenty- 
three ,23) acres in interior streets and lanes, and approximately eleven (11) acres for 
bounding streets that serve the area, or seventy-three (73) acres in all. In this subdivision 
only thirty-nine (39) acres are in lots, or 53^2% of the total area, the balance of 46^% 
being in streets, as there are no parks. 

There is a difference in elevation from the lowest part to the highest part of the area 
of nearly 250 teet. In one distance of 850 feet there is a rise of 200 feet and in a portion 
of this 850 feet a rise of 50 feet in a distance of only 100 feet. 

On the area there are at present some sixty-six (66) houses. A few of these might 
be termed expensive structures, but the majority are comparatively inexpensive, and it 
is understood that but few have permanent foundations. 

The subdivision is particularly unfortunate, on account of the unnecessarily wide 
streets, which are ninety-nine (99) feet in width, and of the excessive and prohibitive 
street grades. 



7° 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



rams sooaavN OHQ3JS 




MAJOR STREETS 71 

REPLOTTING. 

The object ot the replotting, as shown on the accompanying plan, is to correct, 
in so tar as possible, the subdivision defects mentioned. 

The contours and other topographical information have been supplied from the office 
ot the City Engineer and the Surveyor-General ot British Columbia. 

Consideration in the design has been given to the following matters: 

(1) The provision through the area of an east and west major street ot eighty (80) teet 
in width to torm part ot the proposed "Marine Drive". 

As a part ot this major street there is shown a westerly connection by Eton Street 
to a "Y" intersection at Windermere, the north-easterly fork of which leads directly 
to the Second Narrows Bridge approach. The new proposed major street is shown 
connecting with Edinburgh Street in the Municipality of Burnaby, which street 
it is suggested should also be widened to eighty (80) teet. 

The street section proposed is one ot two roadways of eighteen (18) feet, (each of 
which might be designed tor one-way traffic) separated by an eighteen (18) or twenty 
120) foot central boulevard. To save expensive side hill grading costs these roadways, 
except at intersections, might, tor the greater part of their length, be constructed 
at different elevations. 

(2) A secondary fifty (50) foot street with proposed twenty-seven (27) toot roadway 
from near Cambridge and Cariboo intersection to connect with Yale Street in 
Burnaby. 

The grade is not quite as good as the proposed eighty (80) toot thoroughfare, but 
it makes provision in the scheme tor local cross traffic, and while the grade is steeper 
the natural street cross section is consequently more nearly level and would allow 
tor a level twenty-seven (27) foot roadway width without expensive side hill grading. 
Such a roadway allows for two lines ot traffic and one parked vehicle. 

1 j) Local streets forty (40) teet in width with an eighteen (18) foot roadway and generally 
at nearly level grade. 

These streets, as proposed, are in general spaced a lot depth (trom 120 to 130 feet 
apart) with the object ot supplying shallow sewers tor but one row ot houses, that 
is,- onlv those houses constructed above the level ot the street and to which properties 
access is provided at the rear by the next street above. 

It should be noted that the existing streets of Cariboo and Kootenay (on the latter 
there is a hard surface) though narrowed, have been retained. 

The grades ot proposed streets, according to the natural ground levels, would be 
approximately as shown in Table 2. 

In general, the grades ot local streets are nearly level. The greatest difficulty was 
found in providing access to properties in the vicinitv ot an existing house just north 
of East Street. Between this house and Boundary Road natural grades up to 13% 
are encountered, but can be reduced by cutting and filling. With this exception, 
all other streets do not exceed a natural 10% grade. This figure should be compared 
with the existing 2s r ' ( grades. 



r- 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



INCREASE IN LOT AREA. 

As previously mentioned, there are at present thirty-nine (39) acres in lots. Besides 
providing desirable access and a saving in the cost of installing utilities, the proposed 
replotting provides forty-four (44) acres in lots, or an increase of five (5) acres. The 
necessity of lanes disappears with the scheme of double-fronted lots, but footpaths ten 
(10) feet in width are suggested to break up the long blocks for pedestrian traffic. 

Sufficient study has been made to show that lot lines normal to the street lines can 
be established, which, in general, will take in the existing buildings. Of the sixty-six (66) 
existing houses it is found that ten lie within the new street limits. At least six (6) others 
should be moved to provide for a regular lot layout and about three (3) others, if moved, 
would be improved in location on the new lots. As mentioned, few of the houses have 
permanent foundations. From the experience of replotting in Point Grey, the average 
cost of moving a house under similar conditions is not over $<oo.oo. 

In these studies new lot lines have not been shown, as this becomes, to some extent, 
a matter of negotiation with the owners. 

EXISTING MUNICIPAL IMPROVEMENTS. 

As the pavement on Kootenay Street can be retained, and although Cambridge 
Street is suggested to be narrowed, there would be no necessity for interference with 
the present roadway, on which some improvements have been made. The greatest change 
would be the relocation of poles for electrical and telephone wires. Most of the existing 
water mains could be taken care of by easements through new lots. In the proposed 
subdivision no existing sewers are interfered with. 



Table 1. EXISTING STREET GRADES 

From 

McGill Street Cassiar 

Cariboo 

Trinity Street Cassiar 

Cariboo 

Yale Street .... Cariboo 

Cambridge Kootenay 



To 


Max. C 


irade 


Cariboo 


9% 




Kootenay 


18% 




Cariboo 


12% 




Kootenay 


20% 




Kootenay 


25% 




Boundary 


Over 


12% 



PROPOSED STREET GRADES 



Table 2. 



80-foot Major Street Cassiar Boundary 

60-foot Secondary Street .... Cambridge Boundary 
Most 40-foot Streets (nearly level). 

40-foot Street Cariboo Boundary 

40-foot Street Cassiar Boundary 

Kootenay Street ... Major Street northerly 

Cambridge Street Unchanged (See Table 1) 



. iverage 

6.5% 

7-3% 

6-3% 

s.7'-; 



Natural 

Maximum 

8-5% 
9-i% 

10% 

'.;'■; 

10% 



MAJOR STREETS 73 

GENERAL. 

The area north of Cambridge and west of Cariboo is not as steep as the rest of the 
area. It is felt, however, that it will be improved by a treatment harmonizing with the 
suggested treatment for the steeper area, where the street grades are such that replotting 
is imperative. 

Since the replotting scheme was proposed legislation has been passed to make such 
replotting easy of accomplishment. This legislation was based on a Point Grey Special 
Act, which had reference to particular areas only in that municipality. 

The replotting legislation, now a part of the British Columbia Town Planning Act, 
permits a Council to have a scheme of replotting prepared; it can be carried out only if 
the owners of three-fifths of the privately owned parcels agree to the scheme. The effect- 
iveness of the legislation is dependent on the employment by the municipality of an 
official entirely sympathetic to and fully informed of the scheme to point out to each 
owner just what effect the scheme would have on his particular property, the general 
advantages to be derived therefrom, the saving in cost of constructing utilities, as well 
as the cost of the scheme and the proportion to be borne by the municipality, which, 
as well as the individual, is generally greatly benefitted by the replotting. 

POINT GREY REPLOTTING. 

(Plate 1 4, Page 74). 

Experience in Point Grey is valuable. It indicates that a Council might assume 
all, or nearly all, the cost of a replotting scheme, as the increase in property values, due 
to the replotting, soon pays for the development, which can, of course, be more cheaply 
provided with utilities, thus effecting additional public and private saving. 

Altogether four replotting schemes have been, or are being, carried out in Point Grey. 
In most instances the consents of all resident owners have been fully obtained, though 
it sometimes took a number of visits from the "negotiator" to accomplish this. In only 
one case was an objector eventually dissatisfied. 

It would seem, in the light of Point Grey's experience, that with some revision of 
the scheme, and a change in the methods of promotion, the Hastings Townsite replotting 
can still be carried out to the advantage of both the private owners and the city. 

Relative to cost data in connection with the proposed Hastings Townsite replotting, 
and with fhe Point Grey project, the following will be of interest: 

HASTINGS TOWNSITE REPLOTTING 

North-East Portion 

Estimate of Cost (Approximate) 
June, 1928 

Survey of Area... $ 1,250.00 

Moving Houses (Say 29 houses at $300.00) 8,700.00 

Changing Utilities 13,500.00 

Road Improvements 12,000.00 

Compensation (8 corners now allocated to inside lots) 8 at $300.00 .... 2,400.00 

Compensation (probable compensation to owners tor garden improvement, etc.) 10,000.00 

Say $48,000.00 $47,850.00 




_J1 

ft, 



MAJOR STREETS 



POINT GREY REPLOTTIXG 
Analysis of Cost of Undertaking 

Cost ot Preparing Schemes and Carrying Out Surveys: 

Obtaining Field Data and Preparing Scheme $1,040.73 

Blueprints, etc 54-°8 

Preliminary Surveys 379.25 

Final Surveys and Plans 2,357.60 

5 3,831-66 

Cost of Private Bill 1,367.67 

Cost ot Registering Titles 76^. 24 

Cost of Obtaining Consents: 

Salaries $2,699.66 

Printing, etc I 77-4S 

Solicitors' Costs , 7°9-3% 

Sundries 67.91 

3,654.40 



Compensation, etc.: 

Clearing Lots.-. __ $ 57 1 .25 

Compensation and Awards 3,758.34 

Commissioners' Remuneration 407.50 

Appeal Expenses 360.00 



5,097.09 

True Cost of Undertaking §14,716.08 

Additional expenditure was also made in the purchase of property 
in preference to paying compensation, the proportion of which 

was deemed to increase the assets of the Corporation, being $11,499.92 

(These expenditures included the purchase of five dwellings.) 

Sales of property made as part of the scheme (including one of the 

above-mentioned houses) realized 5,450.00 



Nett Additional Outlay $6,049.92 

520,766.00 

In accordance with the "Point Grey Improvement Act" only the cost of 
preparing and the surveying the scheme (S3, 83 1.66) was chargeable against 
the area, and ot this amount the Municipality's share was $1,968.95, the 
proportion chargeable to private owners being 1,862.71 

518,903.29 
Deduct Increase in Value of Corporation Assets as above 6,049.92 



Nett Cost of Scheme to Municipality. $12,853.37 



76 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 




MAJOR STREETS 



77 



POINT GREY MAJOR STREETS 



INDEX TO MAJOR STREETS- 
POINT GREY 



Street Name 

Alma Street 

Angus Street 



Route No. 



5 
15 

1 1 

20 

1 
7 



Arbutus Street 

Belmont Avenue 

Blanca Street 

Blenheim Street 

Broadway 22 

Cambie Street 19 

Cedar Crescent 14 

Cedar Street 14 

Connaught Drive 28 

Crown Crescent 4 

Crown Street 4 

Cypress Street 14 

Devonshire Crescent .... -8 

Douglas Avenue 25 

Dunbar Street 6 

East Boulevard... 13 & 14 

Eighth Avenue -- 

Elm Street — . 10 

Fifth Avenue 23 

Fifty-Seventh Avenue 32 

Fir Street 15 

Forty-First Avenue... 30 

Forty-Ninth Avenue 31 
Fourth Avenue 20&21 

Galiano Street 26 

Granville Street 16 

Heather Street 33 



Street Name 

Hudson Street 
Imperial Street- 
King Edward Avenue ... 
Larch Street ..... 
McDonald Street . 
McKenzie Street 
Marine Drive... 
Marpole Avenue 

Nineteenth Avenue 

Ninth Avenue 

Oak Street 

Park Drive 

Point Grey Road 

Puget Drive /... 

Quesnelle Drive 
Seventy-First Avenue 
Sixteenth Avenue 
Sixty-Fourth Avenue 
Sixty-Third Avenue 
Tenth Avenue... 
Thirtieth Avenue 
Thirty-Seventh Avenue 
Trafalgar Street 

Trimble Street.. 

Twenty-First Avenue 
Twenty-Ninth Avenue 
Twenty-Third Avenue 

Wallace Street 

West Boulevard 
Wolfe Avenue 



Route No. 

17 & 28 
3 & 20 

27 
10 

9 

8 

20 & 36 

15 

25 

22 

18 

33 

20 



35 
25 
34 
33 
-4 
28 
29 
10 

o 

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28 
27 
20 
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TRANSIT 



INTRODUCTION. 



In order to attain good transportation service in cities, the basic consideration is 
unified service; that is, all transit lines should ordinarily be under the control of a single 
company. The field has become so limited in recent years, and the margin of profit so 
narrow, that competition with duplicate service is no longer supportable. 

The purpose of a transit study in town planning is to correct existing inconsistencies 
and to co-ordinate future civic growth with transit needs. Many persons who possess 
a knowledge of civic history and the growth of cities have forecast an unusually prosperous 
future for Vancouver. While the town planning studies so far undertaken have not ex- 
haustively analyzed Vancouver's resources, or the probable use which will be made of 
them, more than sufficient information has been developed to substantiate even the 
more optimistic predictions. It is therefore essential to remember that we are building 
for a future city as well as for the present. The mind must necessarily be projected from 
ten to twenty-five years ahead, in order to give unbiased consideration to a logicallv 
prepared town plan. 

For example, the population now served by the British Columbia Electric Railway 
Company's lines within Vancouver is, in round figures, 250,000 people. From these are 
derived some 60,000,000 car rides per year, or about 240 rides per capita per year. This 
is called the riding habit. In order to move the people to and from, as well as within, the 
central business district of the city, a maximum of 454 cars per hour is now required. 
This demand already results in the over intensive use of certain tracks, such as those 
on Granville Street from Pender to Hastings, 127 cars per hour; on Hastings Street between 
Richards and Main, 151 cars per hour; and on Main Street between Hastings and Kings- 
way 127 cars per hour. These streets are in addition encumbered with heavy vehicular 
traffic. To plan for a population of 500,000 people, which is conservative, to say the least, 
there will be required to move the people to and from the business district, possibly 900 
street cars per hour, assuming they are approximately of the same capacity as at present. 
And when the population reaches a million it is not safe to anticipate a less requirement 
than about 1800 cars per hour during the maximum period. Obviously more lanes of 
travel in the business district for street cars will become necessary, as some of the present 
routes are already overcrowded. 

The problem, then, is one of increasing arterial capacity, which may be accomplished 
both by simplifying or altering existing routes where practicable and by providing new 
trackage. Both methods are discussed in the report. 

The plan deals with three stages of development in the transition from the present 
day operating situation to the time when Greater Vancouver is intensively populated. 



TRANSIT REPORT 87 

IMMEDIATE RECOMMENDATIONS. 

Immediate recommendations are submitted which have for their purpose improve- 
ment of service and economy of operation. Very little additional construction work is 
involved. 

THE INTERMEDIATE PROGRAMME. 

The intermediate programme involves new routings and some additional track 
construction later, to be incorporated in the ultimate system. 

THE ULTIMATE PROGRAMME. 

The ultimate programme represents the final stage in the growth of the transit 
systems. 

In considering the ultimate programme particularly, it may be noted that railroad 
extensions and betterments are rarely made much in advance of actual requirements, as 
it is impossible to obtain revenue from a non-existent residential or industrial district. 
On the other hand, the aggressive penetration of transit lines to territories especially well 
qualified for either residential or industrial development has a stimulating effect upon 
the growth of a city. 

A major street plan has been developed for Greater Vancouver, and its purpose is 
to provide for all street traffic that may be expected to attend a population of approx- 
imately one million. Maps have been prepared — see Plates 17 and 18 — on which are 
shown the present distribution of population and the probable future distribution. This 
forecast is an approximation arrived at by a study of the topographical conditions of the 
entire area, assuming a distribution of the future population in accordance with the 
comparative desirability of the various sections for residential purposes. 

Bearing in mind that for mass transportation street cars will always be necessary, 
various lines have been laid out with a view of not only serving the anticipated population, 
but of encouraging its growth. 

One of the main purposes of an ultimate programme is to establish definite routes 
for street cars, so that as the time arrives for the actual construction of tracks the work 
may proceed with the encouragement rather than the opposition of those living along 
the selected routes. In other words, the programme assists in stabilizing conditions, so 
that the property owner knows what to expect in the way of transportation when he pur- 
chases land in a given locality. 

In laying out the ultimate programme it has been the endeavour to provide direct 
service from all sections of Greater Vancouver to important points and places of interest, 
such as the business districts, water fronts, recreational centres, proposed Civic Centre, 
public institutions and the industrial districts. 

The actual carrying out of the ultimate programme should, in most cases, be preceded 
by the temporary use of motor busses, instead of transit lines, and in some instances motor 
bus operation will be permanent. 



TRANSIT RF.PORT 



STREET CAR TRACKS. GROWTH BY DECADES. 

(Plate 16). 

The inception of the transit service dates back to the year 1889, when the city had 
a population of little more than 10,000. 

The first tracks were laid within what is known as the Old Granville Townsite in 
the year 1889, and during the first years connection was made with the Central Park 
Interurban Line, near Cedar Cottage, by way of Commercial, thus establishing electric 
car service between the city and New Westminster. During the first decade, street cars 
were also run to Stanley Park via Pender and to English Bay via Robson and Denman, 
and the Fairview Belt Line was in operation. 

In the succeeding decades, extensions were more or less general, but the major portion 
of the latest new construction work has been done in the fast developing Municipality 
of Point Grey. 

There was no construction work between the years 1914 and 1920, and since then 
but few miles have been added to the present system. 



9 o 



A PLAN FOR YANCOUYFR 



CHART ILLUSTRATING POPULATION GROWTH a 
STREET CAR MILEAGE (SINGLE TRACK) SINCE- 
1889, WITHIN THE CITYo/ VANCOUVLR(l929) 

M1LIS J POPULATION 


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Chart 
No. 4 



DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATING GROWTH o/ 
TRANSIT LINES DURING PAST TEN YEARS 

































































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FIRST TRACK REPRESENTS SINGLE- TRACK 
EXTENSIONS TO EXISTING TRANSIT LINES. 

SECOND TRACK REPRESENTS THE ADDITIONAL 
TRACK FOR DOUBLE TRACKING 

THERE WAS NO CONSTRUCTION OF TRANSIT 
LINES BETWEEN THE YEARS 1914 fr 1920 



TRANSIT REPORT 91 



POPULATION GROWTH and STREET CAR MILEAGE. 

(Chart 4). 

The outstanding feature of this chart, which shows the comparative growth of street 
car tracks and population, is the small amount of development since the commencement 
ot the Great War in 191 4. 

In extending street car tracks, the two main considerations to be borne in mind are, 
firstlv, to adequately serve the existing population, and, secondly, to encourage growth 
and development over new routes. 

With these in view, it will be noted that the necessity tor a considerable extension 
ot the street railway system is imminent. 

The mileage of street car tracks is given in single track miles; for example, it six 
miles of double track represents the total amount of construction work carried out in 
any one vear, it is plotted as twelve single track miles. 

The population growth indicated is for the area included withm the limits ot the 
City of Vancouver atter amalgamation on January 1st, 1929. 



GROWTH OF TRAFFIC LINES DURING PAST TEN YEARS. 

(Chart 5). 

The amount of construction in the last decade has been very light, and undoubtedly 
the next decade will see a large amount of new work. 

It will be noted that the penetrations into new territory were slightly over three 
miles A considerable mileage ot single track was doubled. 

The old double track on Broadway from Granville to Trafalgar was re-constructed, 
as well as several other sections of trackage, within the period covered by the Chart, but 
being duplications of existing track are not included in the Chart. The Grandview, New 
Westminster and the University Bus lines were also established in recent years, and are 
referred to on page 123. 

The first and second tracks have been shown separately, as the former represents 
actual extensions into territory not already served, whereas the second track represents 
the amount of single lines double-tracked within the period. 



TRANSIT REPORT 93 



POPULATION and GROUND SLOPES. 

(Plate 17). 

Greater Vancouver is fortunate in possessing a large expanse ot comparatively level 
land suitable for further development. 

In Burnaby, especially in the northern portions, some ot the ground slopes are quite 
formidable and only a scattered population can be expected in these areas. The portions 
around Capitol Hill are well suited to the establishment of the extensive park which 
has been recommended there. 

Considerable replotting is necessary in both the Burnaby and South Vancouver 
districts, principally in the former, in order that the best use can be made ot the land, 
making it both desirable and practical for habitation. 



TRANSIT REPORT 95 



FUTURE POPULATION. 
(Plate 18). 

In this study the ground slopes, zoning regulations, present development and various 
other factors were taken into consideration in plotting the probable distribution of the 
future population. 

It will be noted that the whole of the dots represent a population of 1,000,000, a 
figure estimated to be reached by about the year i960. Perhaps no plan illustrates more 
clearly the necessity for planning and making adequate provision tor the installation 
of the necessary utilities. 




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TRANSIT REPORT 97 



PRESENT CAR LINES. AREAS SERVED and POPULATION. 
(Plate 19). 

It would appear, from the study of this plate, that the present population is more 
or less adequately served. The Knight Road extension from Kingsway south is the first 
new line advocated. The Stephens-Tratalgar-Larch route comes next in order. This is 
based on the present trend ot development, but the development, which seems imminent 
in the vicinity of Cambie Street, may bring the proposed line on this street into being 
sooner than at present indicated. Similar conditions may apply to some ot the other 
suggested extensions in connection with both the intermediate and ultimate plans. See 
Plates 27 and 29 respectively. 

One-quarter mile, or|five minutes walking distance from the street car, is considered 
the desirable maximum in providing adequate service. 

There is a certain amount of overlapping of service in some areas, which is unavoid- 
able, especially in the central business district and vicinity- 




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TRANSIT REPORT 99 



PRESENT TIME ZONES. 

(Plate 20). 

A study of this chart will show the value of the rapid transit lines to Lulu Island and 
New Westminster via both the Central Park and Burnaby Lake routes. It would be difficult 
at this period to make up a time-table for the ultimate system advocated, but a diagram 
of the time zones under this system would result in the zig-zag appearance of the present 
time zone diagram being very considerably smoothed out. 

The Citv of Vancouver is well served with rapid transit lines and little change is 
advocated in connection with these. 

It is desirable that the east and west lines be linked up in the centre of the city at 
a central depot. 

The proposed transit line approaches, which skirt False Creek to the new location 
of the central depot advocated at Carrall Street, should result in a greater speeding up 
of service. 



TRANSIT REPORT 



CAR FLOW OX EXISTING LIXES. 

(Plate 21). 

In connection with this plate, a study should be made of the various suggestions 
advocated for immediate adoption. See page 60. 

The establishment ot the Broadway cross town belt line will render a valuable service 
and tend to reduce some ot the street car traffic on Main Street and Granville Bridge, 
where it has reached the maximum tor efficiency. 

Connaught Bridge is very lightly used by street cars at present and will permit of 
a considerable increase of traffic over it. This bridge should take a number of the cars 
now using Main Street, which has to accommodate considerably more street cars than 
the desired maximum (120 cars per hour to a single track), with the result that delavs 
are frequently caused by the congestion occasioned. 

The construction of the Burrard Bridge will directly relieve the traffic on Granville 
Bridge. 



IOl 



A PLAN' FOR VANCOUVER 



VANCOUVER 

BRITIS H COL UMBIA 

TRANSIT STUDY OF TRAFFIC FLOW 

AT 
CONGESTED INTERSECTIONS 






HASTINGS 



SOU IN STRUT CARS 



DIAGRAMS ILLUSTRATE NUMBER OP STRICT CARS 
IN ONE UOUR. DURING RUSH PERIOD 



STREET 




HASTINGS 



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MAIN & HASTINGS 

INTERSECTION (proposed) 



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GRANVILLE 



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INTERSECTION 



(proposed) 



UABLAND IJABTUOLOMCW t> ASSOCIATES 

TOWN PLANNING, CONSULTANTS 



VANCOUVER- 
TOWN PLANNING COMMISSION 



Plate 22 



TRANSIT REPORT 103 



TRAFFIC FLOW AT CONGESTED INTERSECTIONS. 

(Plate 22). 

This study of two congested corners clearly illustrates the improvement in operation 
that can be brought about by the proposals for immediate adoption. 

It will be specially noted that the Main Street and Hastings Street corner is over- 
taxed at present with street car traffic, some 151 cars passing over a single line of tracks 
during the rush hour. 

With the suggestions for immediate adoption carried out, the traffic is kept within 
the 120 car maximum, also the turning movements have been reduced. 

The Robson Street and Granville Street corner is not so serious when regarded from 
the street car traffic standpoint only, but as there is more automobile traffic at this corner, 
it is desirable to reduce the turning movements of the street cars to a minimum. The 
present left-hand turns are the worst feature here, and it is proposed to re-route some of 
the cars necessitating these turns via Davie Street, which is less congested. 



104 



A PLAN" FOR VANCOUVER 




TRANSIT REPORT 



105 



SUMMARY OF TRANSIT DATA. 

(Chart 6). 

The various routes numbered and described on this summary are shown on the 
several studies of present routes, and was compiled from time-tables and other information 
supplied by the British Columbia Electric Railway Company. 

The number of passengers shown as carried on each line includes both revenue 
and transfer passengers, the latter representing quite a proportion of the total. 

On certain lines, passengers retain their transfers, this privilege being granted when 
the use of three different routes is necessary to effect the most direct travel, and naturally 
applies on the intermediate line. 

The Fairview Belt Line, especially on Broadway between Main Street and Granville 
Street, carries many of these passengers. There is also a fairly extensive use made of this 
transfer privilege in the central business section. 

Figures were not available whereby the average daily number of these passengers 
could be approximated, consequently they have been omitted from the figures shown 
and the same applies to passengers in possession of car-passes. 

The typical times of departure and arrival on the various routes are from the ex- 
tremities of same. 



TRANSIT REPORT 107 



PRESENT TRANSIT ROUTES IN CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT. 

(Plate 23). 

This plan clearly demonstrates the various movements occasioned by the present 
routing through the central business district. 

Most of the cars routed through this district traverse Hastings Street between 
Richards Street and Main Street; Granville Street between Hastings Street and Pender 
Street, at Pacific Street. 

The intersection at Robson Street and Granville Street is a particularly busy one 
on account ot the volume of automobile traffic, and is worthy of note; the same applies 
to the intersections at Hastings, Pender and Pacific Streets on Granville Street, and to 
Richards and Main Streets on Hastings Street. 

Certain of these routes can be changed without reconstruction of the present tracks 
so as to lessen the movements at the worst corners. Others would require but little expense 
to be successfully altered. 

For proposed re-routing in the central business district, see Plate 24, page 108. 



X- 




TRANSIT REPORT 109 



PROPOSED TRANSIT ROUTES IN THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT. 

(Plate 24). 

On this plate it will be readily noted that by means of the proposed re-routing the 
car movements at the various busy intersections and congested portions of streets referred 
to in Plate 23 can be considerably reduced, particularly on that portion of Granville 
Street between Pender Street and Hastings Street, also the turning movements are re- 
duced to a minimum. 

The greater use of Connaught Bridge and Robson Street, and that portion of Richards 
Street between Robson Street and Davie Street, would relieve the traffic on Granville 
Street and reduce the turning movements at Robson Street and Granville Street, which 
would be mostly transferred to Davie Street and Granville Street, a less congested inter- 
section. 

Hastings Street between Main Street and Richards Street would also be relieved, 
but Granville Bridge will still require to take care of the lines at present routed over it 
until such time as the Burrard Bridge is constructed. 

The installation of a right turn from Hastings Street northerly into Granville Street 
and the direct linking up of the Broadway Street tracks across Main Street, would be 
the only construction required to make the proposed immediate re-routing possible. 



no 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 










TRANSIT REPORT m 



PRESENT CAR FLOW IN CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT AND VICINITY. 

(Plate 25). 

It will be noted in this diagram that the volume of street car traffic on some of the 
streets referred to in connection with Plates 23 and 24 is very heavy, while other routes 
are very lightly used. 

Granville Street is the most congested thoroughfare, and it is advisable to relieve 
this street as much as possible by a greater use of Richards Street. 

Hastings Street, between Main Street and Richards Street, is also a very busy 
thoroughfare. Both Connaught Bridge and Robson Street are lightlv used for street 
cars at present and can take care of a greater proportion of this traffic. The same applies 
to Davie Street between Richards Street and Granville Street, which is now only used 
tor the interurban cars travelling on tracks on the western side of the street, whilst 
greater use can be made ot the tracks on the eastern side for cars serving the western 
portions of the city. 



112 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 




TRANSIT REPORT 113 



PROPOSED CAR FLOW IN CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT. 

(Plate 26). 

IMMEDIATE PLAN 

A better distribution of street car traffic and the consequent relieving of the most 
congested streets and intersections is depicted on this diagram, which is the proposed 
re-routing tor immediate adoption. 



n 4 A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



Part I. 

SUMMARY OF SUGGESTED CHANGES 
FOR IMMEDIATE ADOPTION 

I. Broadway Cross Town Line. 

Install cross town service on Broadway from Broadway and Commercial to Alma 
and Broadway and reduce number of Fairview Belt cars as future traffic counts warrant. 

i. Routes 2-3-5. 

Re-route cars 2 and 3 (Main, English Bay) via Broadway, Connaught Bridge and 
Robson Street, looping via Richards, Davie and Denman. Cars No. 5 (southbound) 
would be routed via Robson and Denman and Davie to Robson, to Connaught Bridge. 

This recommendation may appear somewhat drastic for immediate adoption. How- 
ever, it is believed that the proposed Broadway Cross Town Line to Commercial will 
replace route 5 to some extent. The objectionable feature is, of course, the elimination 
ot the direct service of this route from the West End and South Vancouver to the Hastings 
Street business district, and it would be perhaps advisable to reduce rather than entirely 
eliminate the present service, maintaining, for a time, routes via both Connaught Bridge 
and Hastings Street. 

3. Route 4. 

Re-route No. 4, Grandview-Fourth Avenue cars as follows: Westbound cars continue 
on Richards to Davie and on Davie to Granville. No change in eastbound cars is suggested; 
they will turn right on Robson and left into Richards, as at present. Later, if both tracks on 
Davie Street between Granville and Richards can be relieved of Lulu Island-Marpole 
interurban cars, the eastbound No. 4 cars may be routed via Davie to Richards, thus 
doing away with a left-hand turn from Robson to Richards. 

4. Route No. 8. 

Route incoming No. 8 (Powell Street cars) via Cambie to Hastings, to Granville, 
to Cordova, and thence to Powell, etc., as at present. 

5. Route No. i ia. 

These cars, Joyce Road-Pender Street, may to advantage follow the same routing 
above proposed for No. 8 cars, from Cordova Street. That is, inbound cars would be 
routed from Cordova to Cambie, to Hastings, to Granville, to Cordova, etc. 

6. Route No. i 2. 

Re-route No. 12 cars (Kitsilano-Has tings) via Granville direct to Hastings, to Rich- 
ards, to Davie, to Granville, and out as before. 



TRANSIT REPORT 115 

CLEARANCE CURVES. 

There are many opportunities for increasing the speed of cars and improving the 
service generally by re-aligning the track at turns so as to permit the simultaneous opera- 
tion ot double track around curves at street intersections. 

The Main-Hastings Street intersection is a case in point. Others are at Hastings- 
Richards and Carrall-Powell. As a matter of fact, all curves should provide full clearance. 

TYPES OF CARS. 

The modern street car is especially designed to facilitate loading and unloading. 
It has platforms of great capacity, steps are low and the motors are geared for a quick 
pick-up in speed. Perhaps the most efficient type is that with front entrance and side 
exit, fares collected as conductor is passed. Noise is reduced tc a minimum. The vision 
of the motorman is free and unobstructed. Most of the cars now in use are from fifteen to 
twenty years old, and although well maintained and evidently remodelled, they are 
obsolete and should be gradually replaced. 

SKIP STOPS and ONE-MAN CARS. 

The use of one-man cars is an economy measure for maintaining low fares, but their 
use generally means a slight loss in quality of service, especially if the most modern equip- 
ment of this type is not used. Remodelled two-man cars to suit one-man operation are 
adaptable on isolated and thinly patronized lines, but for city work the best designs only 
should be used. The skip-stop question, whereby only alternate streets are made car 
stops, is also a device to speed up the cars with reduced cost. 

TICKET TAKERS IN STREET. 

At busy corners during the rush hours it is effective in securing quick loading to have 
a fare collector on the street to make change and issue transfers, thus relieving the con- 
ductor ot much work. 

WYES AND CROSS-OVERS. 

The installation of wyes and cross-overs is expensive, but their use at suitable points 
is effective in short routing and turning back cars. They save wasteful extra movements 
and provide emergency service on occasions. There are a fair amount of these in service 
now. A wye is suggested on Fourth Avenue, on some minor street near Stephens, or if 
tracks are eventually contemplated on Stephens the wye should be placed there now. 



n6 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 







CQ 



TRANSIT REPORT 117 



PROPOSED TRACK PLAN IN CENTRAL BUSINESS 
DISTRICT AND VICINITY. 

INTERMEDIATE PROGRAMME 

(Plate 27). 

One of the main changes necessary to the carrying out of the intermediate programme 
is the construction of the Burrard Street Bridge, which directly affects the Stephens- 
Cornwall- Burrard-Hornby line. 

The exact location for this bridge is, at present, undecided. The same situation 
exists regarding the new alignment or possible abandonment of the Kitsilano Trestle 
Bridge, so that the existing location of this bridge has been maintained in the meantime 
for the purposes ot this programme. 

The establishment of a bus or street car service along Knight Road south ot Kingsway 
(not shown on this plan) is also suggested in the proposals for the intermediate programme. 

The construction of the Hastings-Hornby-Pender-Granville loop, in addition to the 
proposed construction work already referred to here, and under the immediate proposals, 
is necessary to the carrying out ot this programme, which is calculated to take care ot 
a population ot 500,000. 



1 1 8 A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



Part II. 

INTERMEDIATE PROGRAMME 
SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS 

The intermediate programme, which should be adopted when the population of 
Greater Vancouver reaches 500,000, assumes that the major street plan has been adopted 
and completed in so far as required by the new routes suggested. Also it is assumed that 
the Burrard Street Bridge will have been constructed. 

The following routing changes are suggested as a part of the intermediate programme. 

1. Broadway Belt and Cross Town Line. 

One of the most important features of the intermediate programme is the completion 
of the Broadway Belt and Cross Town Line from Sasamat and Tenth Avenue to Wall 
Street via Nanaimo Street. 

2. Route No. 1, Fairview Belt. 

With the Broadway Belt Line in operation as above proposed, it is believed the 
Fairview Belt may be discontinued. 

3. Route No. 8, Hastings Park-Pender Street. 

Construct loop on Hastings to Hornby, to Pender, to Granville and route No. 8 cars 
around this loop. This movement will replace the proposed routing from Hastings to 
Granville to Cordova. The Burrard Street Bridge is classed as of intermediate effect, 
allowing the through routing of lines 8 and 12, but it is probable that the rejoining of 
these lines should be considered only in the ultimate plan, as the cost of new construction 
required is not likely to be justified by the prospective traffic. 

4. Routes No. 9 and ioa, Victoria Road-Stanley Park.. 

Use the new track on Hastings from Granville to Hornby, to Pender. Opportunity 
is provided to short loop some of these cars, giving quick service to Victoria Road district. 
Similar handling is made possible for cars on routes 1 ib and qa. 

5. Route No. 12, Kitsilano-Hastings-Richards. 

The Burrard Street Bridge offers another entrance to the business district and will 
be most useful in supplying the car capacity that will be required with population growth, 
but it is not believed the use ot Burrard Street for street cars for its entire length should 
be considered, but that Hornbv be tracked instead. 



TRANSIT RF.PORT 119 



The following new route is proposed: 

On Stephens from Broadway, to Point Grey Road, to Cornwall Street, to Burrard 
Bridge, to Davie Street. From Davie Street the cars may be routed at first over Granville 
Street to Hastings Street, to Richards Street, to Davie Street and return. Later, when 
the Hornby Street track is installed, the routing would be from Burrard Street to Davie 
Street, to Hornby Street, to Hastings Street, thence via Hastings Street to Richards 
Street as before, or a combination with route 8 effected to give through service. 

The advantage of this route is that it can take some of the Fourth Avenue as well 
as the Sasamat cars now routed via Granville Street Bridge. Direct access is provided 
to the Kitsilano beach district for any desired volume of car movement. 

6. Routes No. 16 and 13, Boundary Road, ioth Avenue and Sasamat. 

Assuming the Broadway Belt Line in use, routes No. 16 and 13 are partially replaced 
by the belt in connection with routes No. 15 and 13. These latter routes are identical 
with 16 and 13, but extend to Fourth Avenue and Drummond Avenue. 

The following changes may be classed in the intermediate group, consisting of ex- 
tensions of track and bus service as the demand arises. Among these are: 

7. Knight Road Extension. 

It appears from the population map that the district between Fraser Avenue and 
Victoria will require service somewhat earlier than others. For the present at least, a 
bus line on Knight Road to the Lulu Island interurban, making a connection on Kingsway 
should be sufficient. 

PROPOSED BUS LINES. 

Grandview bus extension eastward along Grandview Highway. 

Bus line service along south shore of English Bay from Stephens Street westerly. 

Bus line to connect the terminus of the Broadway cross town line at Wall and Nanaimo 
Streets with North Vancouver. It is anticipated that the growth of traffic to and from 
North Vancouver will soon justify the installation of this route. 

Bus line from Forty-First Avenue, along Larch, Trafalgar and Stephens Streets, 
to Broadway. 



1 20 



A PLAN FOR YANCOl'YKR 




3L 

IBM 



TRANSIT REPORT 



ULTIMATE ROUTES IN CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT AND VICINITY. 

(Plate 28). 

Additional construction changes over and above those already referred to under 
the immediate and intermediate proposals are the Kingsway and Oak Street extensions, 
also the diversion of Connaught Bridge to Smithe Street. 

The proposed new location of the central depot trackage in connection with the 
interurban lines would leave both sides of Davie Street between Granville and Richards 
Streets free for street car movement. This would be necessary, as the present line from 
Davie Street to Granville Bridge, via Richards and Pacific Streets, will have to be aband- 
oned due to Pacific Street being embodied in the proposed Distributor Street, which 
should be kept free from street cars. 

The Bute Street and Smithe Street lines will form important links in the system, 
the former especially in connection with the proposed Civic Centre on Burrard Street Site. 

See Plate 29, page 124, for the proposed extensions to existing transit lines outside 
the business district. 



A PLAN" FOR VANCOUVER 



Part III. 

ULTIMATE PROGRAMME 
SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS 

The ultimate programme, which should be adopted when the population of Greater 
Vancouver has passed 500,000 and is approaching 1,000,000, assumes that the major 
street plan has been carried out in its entirety, and that the street railway recommenda- 
tions detailed in the intermediate programme have been effected. This programme also 
entails the construction of the Kingsway Extension and Bridge, the Oak Street Bridge 
and the re-routing ot the interurban lines. 

Inasmuch as the ultimate plan is based upon conditions as they will exist when the 
population has reached approximately one million people, it is logical to discuss it in 
order of its development. For example, it is reasonable to suppose that the most rapid 
growth will take place along the lines of present growth, and the population will become 
increasingly dense along and in the vicinity of existing transit routes. The first effect 
will be to require additional car service on the present routes. The next step is to lengthen 
certain of the existing routes and provide new routes, first by bus and then street cars. 
Cross town lines will follow shortly afterward and finally rapid transit elevated lines 
will become a subject for consideration. 



ULTIMATE ROUTING— BUSINESS DISTRICT. 

(Plate 28, Page 120). 

For convenience in estimating future requirements, the Greater Vancouver District 
is divided into four sections, each of which, except the West End, has a well-defined 
entrance into the business district of Vancouver as it is today. 



District 

A.— West End 

B. — District West of South Cambie 

C. — South Cambie to Central Park Line 

D. — Central Park Line to Burrard Inlet 



Entrance 

Davie-Robson-Pender 
Granville Street Bridge 
Hastings-Cordova. 
Hastings-Cordova. 



TRANSIT REPORT 123 

The following table shows the estimated present and future population ot each 
district and their transit requirements. 



g§! 



«. . c i Si S3 SSe 

section o o u a . «&. 

^■^ '£ fc&- ojfe 0jCQ o 

c « £— a * a - O- o 

Sc 3c So „o «o§ 

d,a. &»&. US ol UKm 



A 16,700 67,500 66 284 142 

B 53>5°° 208,800 120 480 240 

C. ..... - 92,960 344,480 119 476 238 

D 76,908 347,92c 108 500 250 



UK 


5 .2 

OK 


66 


284 


120 


480 


119 


476 


108 


5OO 



239,868 968,700 413 1,740 870 



In considering the above table it is necessary to bear in mind the influences which 
have a tendency to affect the transit requirements. Among which are: 

1. Increased capacity of new transit equipment. 

2. Double-heading of cars. 

3. Increased use of automobiles. 

4. Decrease or increase of riding habit. 

5. More intensive use of streets by vehicles and pedestrians. 

6. Cross town and belt line service displacing through city movement. 

7. Building up of local business centres. 

8. Installation of clearance curves at street intersections. 

The present equipment as it is replaced will doubtless have greater capacity, probably 
from ten to twenty-five per cent., which will gradually become effective to some extent 
in meeting additional requirements. 

The double-heading of cars during rush hours is commonly practiced but is not always 
economical or efficient, as speed is reduced, operation around turns is generally more 
difficult, and accidents are more frequent. 

Street congestion retards car movement, and when this is reduced to four or five 
miles per hour, for example, more people will walk. Naturally, the long haul passengers 
are not particularly affected. 

It is impossible to estimate the effect of such a line as the suggested Broadway Cross 
Town and Belt route upon the flow of traffic through the business district. However, there 
will be a noticeable relief, especially when such streets as Cordova, Granville, Hastings 
and Richards become increasingly congested. Just as water and electricity follow the 
path of least resistance, so will an appreciable amount of traffic take to the Broadway 
Belt Line. 



TRANSIT REPORT 125 



The development of new local commercial centres usually follows growth in popula- 
tion. The shift of business districts and the location of new neighbourhood commercial 
centres are intimately related to transit routes. That is to say, a business district will 
not move beyond the limits of good transit service, nor do exterior local centres ordinarily 
form except at intersections of well used transit lines. 

Making due allowance for the traffic influences which may affect street car require- 
ments, several conclusions are obvious from the foregoing table. 

1. Long before a population of 500,000 is reached, sections C and D must have other 
entrances to the business district besides Hastings and Cordova Streets. The 
combined capacity of these two streets is less than halt that required for a popula- 
tion of 500,000, and for a million population less than one-fourth the capacity 
necessary. 

2. The three routes serving Section A (West End) should be sufficient for all time. 

3. The Granville Street entrance for Section B will become inadequate before a 
population of 500,000 is attained, and will have only about one-fourth the desired 
capacity, assuming a population of one million. 

4. Even with all possible entrances to the present business district in effect, it seems 
evident that the traffic resistance will be such as to force the development of 
other exterior business districts. 



PROPOSED ULTIMATE PLAN SHOWING PRESENT AND PROPOSED 
TRANSIT ROUTES. 

(Plate 29). 

With the suggested street car and bus line extensions completed, Greater Vancouver 
would have a well distributed transit service, especially in the areas where consistent 
development is anticipated. 

Some sections of Burnaby, especially in the north-east portions, have not received 
a detailed study, it being deemed advisable to leave this for future consideration. Bus 
service, suggested along some of the routes, may eventually be replaced by a street car 
service, if future development should so warrant. 

The Broadway Cross Town Belt Line, linking Sasamat Street and 10th Avenue 
West with Wall and Nanaimo Streets, and the 41st and 43rd Avenue Belt Line, linking 
Camosun Street and 41st Avenue with Cassiar and Wall Streets via Boundary Road, 
are important features of this plan. 

These lines, together with the Lulu Island and New Westminster Interurban Line, 
north of the Eraser River, should afford an excellent lateral service. 

This plan, it is estimated, will adequately serve a population of 1,000,000 people. 



126 A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 

DESCRIPTION OF ROUTES. 

(Plate 29, Page 124). 

Under the ultimate programme many combinations ot routing are possible. The 
essential objective to accomplish is the provision of a sufficient number of routes through 
the business district. At present we have only Granville Street on the east-west axis 
and Robson Street on the north-south axis for through direct routing. Richards Street 
relieves Granville Street for most of its length, but is not in the direct line of travel for 
some cars. 

Assuming both Richards and Granville Streets working to full capacity, or handling, 
say, 240 cars per hour, rush period, it will be seen that they are entirely inadequate to 
take the additional traffic of a population of one million. As a matter of fact, Granville 
Street is about worked to the limit now, and Hastings Street, with its 149 and 151 cars 
per hour, is considerably over-crowded. Cordova Street is comparatively lightly used 
(59 cars), but this thoroughfare is so intensively industrial that to put more street cars 
over it is scarcely advisable. 

This brings out the extreme desirability of constructing the Kingsway Major Highway 
extension and bridge as a relief to the Hastings-Cordova Street entrance. It may prove 
necessary eventually to make use of the Georgia Street Viaduct for street cars as well 
as busses, undesirable as such a step may be. 

It is also apparent that in the ultimate programme not only Burrard Street Bridge 
but Burrard Street must be utilized for street railway purposes, at least as far as Davie 
Street. Hornby Street is better adapted for transit purposes than Burrard Street, and 
it is recommended that Hornby Street be double tracked for street cars, retaining Burrard 
street, north of Davie Street, for bus lines. 

The Oak Street Bridge is somewhat far in the future but of considerable utility in 
the ultimate programme, especially in connection with the tracks on Hornby Street. 

Summarizing the situation in the down town business district, the routing scheme 
under the ultimate plan would be as follows: 

West End (District A). 

Entrance routes are Pender, Robson and Davie Streets. Additional service provided 
by a looping track in Bute Street from Davie to Robson. 

Point Grey and South Vancouver, West of South Cambie Street (District B). 

Entrance routes are via Burrard Street, Granville Street and Oak Street Bridges. 
Burrard Street cars would operate from bridge on Burrard to Davie, to Hornby, to Hastings, 
forming through routes with other lines to the east and south-east, or looping within the 
down town district. 

Granville Street cars may use Granville Street for through routing. Oak Street cars 
preferably would move from the north bridge end across to Richards and either proceed 
easterly via Richards or use the Davie-Bute-Robson loop. It is likely that operating 
conditions would favor buses for this route via Pacific Street to Burrard, to Pender or 
Hastings, operating through service from South Cambie Street. 



TRANSIT REPORT 127 

South Cambie to Central Park Line (District C). 

Entrance routes are via Connaught Bridge and proposed Kingsway extension. From 
Connaught Bridge the car line would take the proposed new connection to Smithe Street, 
thence directly through to Bute Street, looping as desired. 

Kingsway cars would use Robson as a through route to the Stanley Park district 
or loop and combine with other routes. 

Central Park. Pine to Burrard Inlet (District D). 

Entrance routes are via Georgia Street, Hastings and Cordova Streets. 

If cars are operated on Georgia Viaduct they would preferably be turned into Duns- 
muir via a new approach on line with that street to the viaduct and proceed directly 
to Hornby Street for combination with other routes or looping. An alternative plan is 
to operate on Georgia Street as far as Hamilton, thence south to Smithe Street. Neither 
route is wholly satisfactory, and it is not believed justifiable in any event to use Georgia 
Street for street cars, especially west of Richards. Dunsmuir gives the better distribution. 

As in the case of the proposed Oak Street line, buses will prove more adaptable to 
the use of Georgia Street than street cars. In this case, the buses could enter via Georgia 
and return via Dunsmuir and Hamilton Streets, a very efficient routing. In the plan, 
this latter route is indicated. 

Routing via Hastings Street and Cordova Street would not be materially changed. 
Obviously every opportunity is afforded to route the Hastings and Powell Street lines 
direct through the business district by way of Hornby, Granville and Richards Streets 
and to combine as desired with other routes. 



128 A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



ULTIMATE PROGRAMME 

SUMMARY OF PROPOSED EXTENSIONS TO EXISTING TRANSIT LINES. 

i. Granville Street South of Forty-First Avenue. 

A double track line ultimately to be provided on Granville Street south from Forty- 
First Avenue to the Lulu Island line of the British Columbia Electric Railway. That 
portion of this route now single track between King Edward Boulevard and Forty-First 
Avenue will probably be made double track considerably in advance of this proposed 
extension. 

2. Main Street South from Fifty-Second Avenue. 

Double track to be provided with through service to business district and contact 
with Lulu Island line. 

3. Fraser Avenue. 

Extend double track to connection with Lulu Island line. 

4. Victoria Road. 

Extend double track south to connect with Lulu Island line. 

5. Kingsway Route Extensions. 

(a) Knight Street line, following in general Knight Road, which will be a major 
thoroughfare, to a loop at the Lulu Island line. 

(b) Wales-Central Park: An extension leaving Kingsway at about Thirty-Fourth 
Avenue, on Wales to Fifty-Sixth Avenue, to Ocean View Cemetery and Central Park. 

(c) Bus line extension from Ocean View Cemetery and Central Park running south- 
easterly to and on Marine Drive. 

6. Forty-First Avenue. 

Lines to loop at Camosun to connect with proposed Marine Drive bus line. 

7. Ellesmere-Barnet Road Bus Line. 

An extension of the Hastings Street line to serve the shore section of Burnaby to 
Port Moody. 



TRANSIT REPORT 129 



ULTIMATE PROGRAMME 

SUMMARY OF PROPOSED NEW ROUTES 

OUTLYING or EXTERIOR ROUTES. 

1. Cambie Street Route. 

A direct route from the B.C. Electric Lulu Island line on the south to the business 
district via Connaught Bridge. 

2. Stephens Street Route to Marine Drive. 

This would be a shuttle extension of the Kitsilano-Stephens Street route proposed 
under the intermediate programme, in order to penetrate the district south of Broadway 
to Marine Drive. Bus operation from Marine Drive to Broadway and Stephens via Larch 
Street, Trafalgar and Stephens. 

3. Marine Drive Bus Line. 

A continuous route from the Kitsilano Beach around Point Grey, the University 
District to the intersection of South Granville Street, and the Lulu Island interurban line. 

4. Semi-Cross Town Bus Line — King Edward Boulevard. 

A feeder route along the alignment of King Edward Boulevard from Granville Street 
to a connection with the Marine Drive-University bus line above described. 

5. Forty-First Avenue-Forty-Third Avenue Cross Town Belt Line. 

This line ultimately to operate from Marine Drive and 41st Avenue, on 41st Avenue 
to Boundary Road, to Union, to Cassiar, to the vicinity of Second Narrows Bridge. 

6. Grandview Highway Route. 

A new route taking cars from Broadway and Commercial Drive and giving direct 
service to the business district. The line would terminate at the B.C. Electric Company's 
Burnaby Lake line at Sperling Road. 



TRANSIT REPORT 131 



INTERURBAN LINES. 

(Plate 30). 

Greater Vancouver is well served with interurban lines, which afford a speedy service 
from points outside the city. 

These lines will increase in importance as the city continues to grow. When Van- 
couver's population reaches 1,000,000 the Fraser Valley development will further increase 
the service along these lines. 

Few suggested changes are made regarding these lines outside those previously 
referred to and shown on Plate 28, page 120. 

The proposed location of the Central Interurban Depot and approaches will necessitate 
using Broadway between Commercial Street and Main Street for the Burnaby Lake 
and Central Park lines. These cars are, at present, routed via Commercial Drive and 
Hastings Street. 



132 A PLAN" FOR VANCOUVER 



Part IV. 

INTERURBAN LINES and RAPID TRANSIT 

Greater Vancouver is fortunate in the location of the three interurban branches of 
the B.C. Electric Company. These routes, Lulu Island, Burnaby and New Westminster, 
penetrate well separated areas, and their effect in providing thirty-five minute service 
to Vancouver within a six to eight mile limit is well illustrated on the time zone map, 
Plate 30, page 130. 

A brief history of these interurban lines and other B.C. Electric Railway transit 
lines follows: 

CENTRAL PARK LINE, Vancouver to New Westminster. 

This line was constructed in 1 891 , also the Edmonds-Sapperton (via 12th Street) 
and Edmonds-6th Street line, which form the continuation of the Central Park line 
through New Westminster, a total of 14.57 miles. The line was double tracked for a 
distance of 2.6 miles from Cedar Cottage (at city boundary) to Central Park in 1910. 
In 191 2 it was further double tracked for 2.2 miles from Central Park to Highland Park 
and continued into New Westminster via the Highland cut-off, the distance being ^ X A 
miles from Highland Park. 

LULU ISLAND LINE. 

The Lulu Island line, which connects the city with Steveston (Lulu Island) via 
Marpole, a total length of 14.68 miles, was constructed in 1905, and was double tracked 
from the city to Marpole, 6.6 miles in 19 13. It is owned by the Canadian Pacific Railway 
and leased to the B.C. Electric Railway. 

EBURNE (Lulu Island) NEW WESTMINSTER. 

This line, 10.6 miles in length, was laid in 1909. 

NEW WESTMINSTER-CHILLIWACK. 

Laid as far as Abbotsford, 39 miles, in 1909, and extended on to Chilliwack in 1910, 
an addition ot 24.6 miles, making a total length of 63.6 miles. 

BURNABY LAKE LINE. 

Connects the city with New Westminster via Burnaby Lake, and was constructed 
in 191 1, a total distance of 9.57 miles from Commercial Drive. 

STAVE FALLS LINE. 

The Stave Falls line is used principally for the B.C. Electric Railway employees 
and tor freight, and operates between Ruskin and Stave Falls Power Plant. It is about 
§1/2 miles long and was started in 191 1. Besides the B.C. Electric Railway employees, 
loggers, travellers and others use this line, paying fare. The trains are operated with 
motors and make connection with the morning and evening C.P.R. trains at Ruskin. 



TRANSIT REPORT 133 

NEW WESTMINSTER LINES. 

These lines, linking the various sections of New Westminster, are practically entirely 
made up of the various approaches into it via the interurban lines already described. 
Minor links, such as the Sixth Street-Columbia-Fourth Street connection (.54 miles), 
and the Millside and Queensboro line, connecting Fraser Mills (north-east of New West- 
minster) with Lulu Island on the east side (6.6 miles), represent the only additional lines. 
These were laid in 191 1. 

NORTH VANCOUVER. 

The first lines were laid in North Vancouver in 1906. These included over a mile ot 
tracks northward along Lonsdale from the Ferry Wharf, also branches east and west. 
5.47 miles were laid in that year. By 1910 the Lynn Valley and Capilano lines were com- 
pleted with an additional four miles. From this period onward the only construction 
carried out was the extension on Lonsdale from Grand Boulevard to Windsor Road in 
191;, a distance of .42 miles, thus bringing the total track mileage to 9.89 miles. 

The North Vancouver Ferry, on a typical day, carries about 4,500 passengers each 
way to and from the city. 

WEST VANCOUVER. 

Private buses operate along Marine Drive from the North Vancouver street car 
terminus to West Vancouver, which is also served by the West Vancouver Ferry. Figures 
given on the 14th August, a typical day, show that 2,912 passengers travelled on the 
West Vancouver ferry, approximately 50% going either way. 

BUS LINES. 

Grandview Bus Line. 

The Grandview Bus Line, which serves the southern portion ot Hastings Townsite, 
started in 1923. It operates two buses over a mileage of 2.5. Bus seating capacity, 29. 

Rapid Transit Line. 

Runs between Vancouver and New Westminster, 12.2 miles. Was started in 1924, 
operating six buses. In 1926 the buses were increased to 13. Bus seating capacity, 26 to ^2- 

University Bus. 

This line commenced in 1925, operating between 10th Avenue West, Sasamat and the 
University of British Columbia, the route being two miles. 

Vancouver and Chilliwack.. 

This bus line via New Westminster and Abbotstord has two buses, was started in 
1926. The mileage is approximately 76. The bus line connecting Abbotsford with Mission 
was established in 1927. 

The buses between Vancouver and Chilliwack make three trips daily, the Mission 
line connecting with these at Abbotsford. The seating capacity of the buses is }^. 



i 34 A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 

Private coaches also operate along the main highway between Vancouver and Chilli- 
wack, going through to Seattle and other points. 

INTERURBAN ROUTES and UNION STATION NECESSARY. 

The interurban routes should be preserved for distinctively rapid transit uses, the 
street cars and bus lines to serve as feeders thereto. 

It will be observed from the time zone map that there is a noticeable slackening of 
speed of interurban cars through the more populous areas, and as they approach the 
business district, especially where the same trackage is used for street cars. 

In order to retain the advantages of rapid transit, independent routes should be 
sought where possible, and, in addition, a union station provided from which all trains 
may be started. 

PROPOSED ROUTING and UNION INTERURBAN STATION. 

A union interurban station is planned on Pender Street, about opposite to the present 
interurban station. This location combines the advantages of close proximity to the 
business district and affords the opportunity for a combined station for handling all 
interurban express and light freight with the minimum of extra switching movements. 
It may be possible to maintain the present station on Hastings Street as a head house 
with waiting rooms, using passages either overhead or underground to reach the station 
tracks. 

ROUTING. 

Lulu Island cars, after crossing False Creek, would skirt the warehouse district 
on the north side of the Creek, passing underneath the several bridges. It is proposed to 
bring the Burnaby and New Westminster lines into East Broadway at Commercial to 
Main, to Keeter, thence to the new station location. This routing for the Burnaby and 
New Westminster lines is not entirely satisfactory, as it traverses streets also used by street 
cars. However, it creates good destination points at Main and Broadway and the depot 
districts of the Great Northern and Canadian National Railways, giving an excellent 
distributive effect. 

For the present and for some time, assuming retention of the present Hastings Street 
interurban station, a better routing for the Burnabv line would be via Nanaimo Street 
to Hastings Street, thence direct to destination. The proposed major highway connection 
between Georgia Street and Charles Street was considered as an alternative route for 
both street cars and interurban lines, but it is believed that as a high-speed, through- 
traffic way for vehicles exclusively, it would be of more value to the city. 



TRANSIT REPORT 135 



Part V. 

SERVICE TO PROPOSED CIVIC CENTRE 

Inasmuch as the civic centre will embrace, among other buildings, a public library, 
a museum and an auditorium, the character ot transit service required will be variable. 
That is to sav, the daily transactions ot many people in all these buildings will require 
regularly scheduled cars, while special events will create a heavy demand for extra- 
ordinary service. Other conditions are that the most direct routing possible should be 
provided both tor regular and extraordinary service and that ample storage capacity 
in the vicinity ot the civic centre be available. 

Under the present system of routing, the proposed civic centre would be reached 
directly by cars on Davie Street routes 2, 3 and 5, that is, the Main-Davie and East 
Broadway-Robson-Davie lines. This gives direct service to West End and to territory 
tributary to Main Street. For all other sections of the city one or two transfers would 
be required. 

With the intermediate programme of routing in effect, the accessibility of the civic 
centre is much improved. The Burrard Bridge will have been constructed, which permits 
ct much direct and special routing from the Point Grey and South Vancouver districts. 
At first, preceding the adoption of the ultimate programme, tracks may be utilized over 
the bridge and on Burrard Street to a connection with Davie Street tracks. Thus any one 
of several combinations of routes is made possible. The proposed Kitsilano-Stephens 
Street car line, which would replace route 12, Kitsilano, gives direct service to a large 
area, and special routing tor extraordinary demand is made practicable from every section 
of the city. 

The ultimate programme affords direct regular routing from every section of the city. 
This is effected by the proposed Burrard-Hornby Street track, Davie Street track and 
the proposed looping track in Bute Street, from Davie to Robson Street. Not only is 
very good direct routing secured, but incidentally ample assembling space for cars is 
available, such as in the Bute Street loop track, which may be temporarily detoured by 
regular cars. With the generous looping arrangement which the ultimate programme 
gives, both special and regular service to the civic centre from any route in the city is 
easily rendered. 



ij6 



A PLAN" FOR VANCOUVER 



Part VI. 



STATISTICS— VANCOUVER CITY LINES, 1927 



Line 



Car 

Mileage 



% 



Total Revenue 
Passengers 



/o 



1. Fairview Inner and Outer 896,674 

2-3. Main, Davie, English Bay 942,969 

4. Grandview West, Fourth Ave. 1,382,964 

5. E. Broadway-Robson-English Bay 803,711 
6-7. Fraser-Kerrisdale 1,271,686 

8. Hastings Park and Pender 303,968 

9-10. Victoria-Stanley Park 682,014 

11. Joyce-Stanley Park.. 402,53$ 

12. Kitsilano-Richards-Hastings 182,926 

13-Hj 

13-16. Broadway West and Hastings 1,884,285 



17. Marpole, Oak, Hastings 

18. Main-i6th-Broadway-Oak 
Main Street South 
Nanaimo-Hastings 
Hastings Extension 
Grandview Bus 
University Bus 
Chartered 
Observation 

Race Buses 



244,025 

75>«44 
106,738 

1 10,189 

82,565 

8 5^43 
1,899 

9,389 
5,367 



9-3 
9.8 

! 4-4 
8.4 

l 3-3 
3-3 

7-i 

4- 2 

1.9 

19.9 
2.6 
0.9 
0.8 
1.1 
1.1 
•9 
•9 



6,545,877 

6,9°4,499 

8,950,096 

5,78i,454 
7,015,085 

i,57i,946 
3,550,016 

1 ,943,449 
945,812 

10,227,053 

1,072,029 

346,866 

142,498 

3 28 >5 2 3 

362,044 

2 84,375 
465,892 

8,877 

16,467 

6,266 



1 1.6 

12.2 
15.8 
10. 1 
12.4 
2.8 

6-3 

3-5 

'•7 



10.0 
1. 



9,562,024 



56,470,124 



TRANSIT REPORT 



'37 



INTENSITY OF TRACK USE 
JUNE, 1928 



Location 



Granville, Hastings to Cordova 
Granville, Pender to Hastings 
Granville, Robson to Pender ... 

Granville, Davie to Robson 

Granville Bridge... 

Richards, Robson to Hastings 

Richards, Davie to Robson 

Cordova, Granville to Main 

Hastings, Main to Richards 

Richards to Main 
Hastings, Main-Clark Drive .... .............. 

Main, Hastings-Kingsway .. .. 

Kingsway, Broadway-Fraser 

Kingsway, Fraser-Joyce 

Granville, Shaughnessy-Broadway 

Granville, Broadway-Fourth 

Broadway, Dunbar-Granville 

Broadway, Oak-Main 

Robson and Davie, West of Granville 

Pender, West of Granville 

Powell, Main, Hastings Park 

Fourth Avenue, Alma-Granville 

Clark Drive, Venables, Commercial ...... 

Broadway, Kingsway, Commercial 

Hastii.gs, Clark Drive, Boundary Road 

Eraser Avenue, Kingsway, South Vancouver 

Broadway, Cambie, Main 

Main, Broadway, South Vancouver 

Sixteenth Avenue, Oak, Main 

Oak, South Vancouver to Sixteenth Avenue 

Oak, South of Sixteenth Ave. 

Con naught Bridge 

Kitsilano Park to Granville 

Dunbar, 10th Avenue to 16th Avenue via Alma Road to Dunbar 
Broadway, Granville, Oak 



Cars per Hour, 


Single 


Track. 


Base 


Rush 


31 


57 


74 


127 


57 


103 


S3 


"3 


56 


in 


40 


75 


18 


3° 


38 


57 


69 


J 5! 


69 


149 


33 


69 


69 


127 


33 


47 


17 


3° 


1 2 


17 


3° 


47 


18 


3° 


18 


36 


12 


3o 


9 


16 


5 


12 


1 2 


30 


15 


39 


1 2 


3° 


18 


3° 


6 


17 


I 1 


3° 


I 2 


20 


6 


J 5 


9 


13 


3 


4 


6 


6 


5 


6 


6 


'5 


12 


3° 



i 3 8 A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



TABLE SHOWING SEATS PROVIDED AND 

PASSENGERS CARRIED, ETC. 

26 JULY, 1928. 



Seats Passengers Surplus 
Provided Carried Seats 



1. Fairview, Outer and Inner... 4 I >53^ 

2-3. Main-Davie and English Bay 40,040 

4. Grandview and Fourth 45>'44 

5. East Broadway-Robson-English Bay ... 39,952 
6-7. Fraser-Kerrisdale ... 25,872 

8. Hastings Park-Pender Cross Over .... 9,768 

9-10. Victoria-Stanley Park and Robson 24,024 

1 1. Joyce-Pender Cross Over and Stanley Park 1 1,440 

12. Kitsilano-Richards-Hastings . 8,712 

13-14-15-16. Boundary, Dunbar, Sasamat, etc 48,840 

17. Marpole-Oak-Hastings . 5,016 

18. Main-i6th Ave.-Cambie and Hastings 4,9 2 8 

Main Street South 5,808 

Nanaimo 7,°4° 

Hastings Extension 5>^32 



22,074 


19,462 


2 9>379 


10,661 


3°.774 


H.370 


^3> o8 5 


16,867 


29,905 


—4,033 


4> 66 3 


5> io 5 


16,066 


7>95§ 


6,480 


4,960 


6,466 


2,246 


43>3 2 5 


5,5'5 


4.°34 


982 


1,707 


3,221 


783 


5>° 2 5 


2,249 


4.79 * 


1,135 


4>497 



323,752 222,125 101,627 



TRANSIT REPORT 



•39 



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1 4 o A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 

TABLE SHOWING LINES ISSUING TRANSFERS 

TO FAIRVIEW BELT LINE 

26 JULY, 1926 



Line 



No. of 
Transfers 



2-3. Main-Davie and English Bay .. 347 

4. Grandview-Fourth Avenue 589 

5. East Broadway-Robson-English Bay 458 

6-7. Fraser-Kerrisdale - 525 

8-12. Kitsilano-Powell .... 318 

9-10. Victoria-Robson and Stanley Park 425 

11. Joyce-Pender and Stanley Park 192 

13-14-1 5-1 6. Boundary-Dunbar to Sasamat, etc. 851 

17. Marpole-Oak-Hastings 202 

18. (a) Main-i6th-Oak-Broadway 161 

(b) Main-i6th-0ak-Hastings 

Broadway-Nanaimo-Has tings 44 

Grand view Bus 64 

Main Street South 18 

Hastings East Extension 16 

North Vancouver Ferry 41 

Lulu Island Interurban 387 

Westminster Branch Interurban . 282 

Burnaby Lake Branch 47 



4.947 



TABLE SHOWING NUMBER AND LOCATION OF TRANSFERS 

RECEIVED ON THE FAIRVIEW BELT LINE 

26 JULY, 1928 

Location Number Direction 

Main and Broadway 

Main and Hastings 

Granville and Broadway 

Granville and Pacific 

Granville and Fourth 

Granville and Davie 

Granville and Robson 

Granville and Pender .. 

Granville and Hastings 
Hastings and Richards 

Hastings and Cambie 

Hastings and Carrall 

Broadway and Oak 



1565 


West 


960 


West 


505 


East 


'59 


East 


215 


East 


463 


East-West 


202 


West 


138 


East-West 


'59 


West 


29 


West 


188 


West 


205 


West 


] 75 


East 



TRANSPORTATION 

RAILROADS AND HARBOUR 

(Plate 31, Page 142). RAILROAD SECTION 

VANCOUVER'S RAILWAYS. 

The future development of Vancouver is not only a matter of vital importance to its 
own people and to the communities immediately adjacent, but it is of equal interest 
to the Province of British Columbia and to the Dominion as a whole. Vancouver, by 
reason of its strategic and unrivalled location, is a national asset. It affords convenient 
egress and ingress for products made and consumed in Canada. It is at the cross roads 
of coastwise and transcontinental shipping. Its harbour is ideally sheltered, commodious 
and ever open and free from ice. It is the western terminus of Canadian railways. Added 
to these advantages are its equable climate and almost limitless natural resources within 
economic reach, such as water power, forests, minerals, fisheries and agriculture. 

By reason of the many ship and railroad lines focusing here, Vancouver functions 
as a primary unit in the economic structure of the Dominion. 

It is of first importance that there should be a spirit of co-operation between the 
various authorities concerned in the development of Vancouver rail and harbour tacilities 
until such time as an agreement is reached on a specific plan for the future. 

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The following recommendations are offered as constituting basic considerations 
involved in formulating such a plan. 

BASIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE PLAN. 

INTENSIVE RAILROAD ACTIVITY ALONG THE NORTH SHORE OF FALSE CREEK, BETWEEN 
PENDER AND GRANVILLE STREETS, IS NOT CONDUCIVE TO CIVIC DEVELOPMENT, 
AND MUCH WORK PERFORMED HERE MAY TO ADVANTAGE BE TRANSFERRED TO 
OTHER LOCALITIES. 

Railroad operations here should be limited to service to the industries and ware- 
houses in the False Creek district. Switching should be performed by electric locomotives 
in order to eliminate smoke and noise. 

THERE IS A LACK OF CONVENIENTLY ARRANGED FREIGHT YARDS OF SUITABLE 
CAPACITY. 

A need exists for a large freight yard in the east section of the city to be used by the 
Harbour Commission Terminal Railway primarily for port service in connection with 
the grain movement, but also as a common interchange yard for all roads. 
CONSIDERABLE SPACE FOR RAILROAD FREIGHT YARDS ON THE NORTH SHORE SHOULD 
BE RESERVED. 

It may be anticipated that future shipping and industrial activity on the North Shore 

will exceed that on the South Shore of Burrard Inlet. 

THE BRITISH COLUMBIA ELECTRIC RAILWAY IS TOO RESTRICTED IN ITS SCOPE OF OPERA- 
TIONS. ITS TERMINAL FACILITIES AND SERVICE TRACKS TO INDUSTRIES ARE IN- 
ADEQUATE. 



TRANSPORTATION REPORT H3 

The usefulness of this electrically operated railroad to the industrial lite ot Vancouver 
is being daily demonstrated. It originates an impressive amount ot freight business on its 
own lines and is the agency through which each of the railroads maintains contact with 
certain districts which they otherwise could not reach. As a matter ot fact, the British 
Columbia Electric Railway is in effect an embryo terminal switching company, and as 
such its duties are certain to grow more heavy and exacting. 

INDUSTRIES ARE AT A DISADVANTAGE BY REASON OF UNSYSTEMATIC SWITCHING 
ARRANGEMENTS AND EXCESSIVE INTRA-TERMINAL SWITCHING CHARGES. 

The ideal conditions under which industries can survive and nourish are those under 
which they are assured of efficient railroad service on equal terms at reasonable cost, 
regardless of their location within the district. In the Harbour Commission Terminal 
Railway and the British Columbia Electric Railway, Vancouver possesses the means by 
which this may be accomplished. From many points ot view, but especially in regard to 
industrial service, it would be perhaps good policy to combine these two companies into 
one terminal association. 

The British Columbia Electric Railway is exceedingly well qualified for handling 
industrial switching on account of the lack of fire risk, important in this locality, and ot 
its flexibility and cheapness of operation. The combination of these two roads, together 
with a uniform scale of switching charges, will do much toward securing new industries 
for Vancouver. Above all, access to the harbour front should be on equal terms and with 
the maximum facility. A large part of Vancouver's future industry must look to the 
foreign markets for an outlet, until the local and domestic demands attain satisfactory 
proportions. 

BETTER METHODS OF INTERCHANGING FREIGHT CARS AMONG THE SEVERAL ROADS 
ARE DESIRABLE. 

Looking forward for a period of several decades, it may be anticipated that this 
transfer of cars from one road to others within Vancouver proper will assume much greater 
proportions and the current methods ot handling the business will no longer answer. 

As the British Columbia Electric and the Harbour Commission's Terminal Railroads 
will probably share more than the others in this intra-terminal business, special con- 
sideration must be given to providing the tracks and connections necessary to handle it. 
The proposed Glen Drive yard will be the focusing point for all railroads and is, therefore, 
especially well adapted for interchange purposes. 

In order to further assist the British Columbia Electric Railway to classify cars 
originating in the False Creek district tor delivery to other roads, a connection across 
the east end of the channel is proposed. Another connection is suggested in East Vancouver, 
where the British Columbia Electric's Westminster line passes over the Great Northern. 
From here the British Columbia Electric could either operate over the Great Northern 
tracks across Main Street, or construct another independent parallel line. This will give 
the British Columbia Electric a complete loop track free trom interferences with traffic 
of the central business district. Again, it is but a short distance from the Great Northern- 
British Columbia Electric crossing in East Vancouver to the junction of the Fraser Valley 
line of the British Columbia Electric (Commercial Junction), so that traffic from this 
very important branch could also be brought in via the proposed Main Street route. 



144 A PLAN FOR VANCOUVT K 

Interchange yards may be established either in the False Creek area, or a portion 
of the Great Northern or Canadian National property be set aside for this purpose. 
If, however, the suggested Glen Drive yards are built, all British Columbia Electric cars 
lor other lines could enter it directly and be distributed from there. 

By a suitable redistribution of the tracks in centre yard of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway, this yard could be used to advantage by both roads in handling cars from that 
district and assembling them for distribution for other lines. 

In the handling ot transcontinental freight, especially that destined for port move- 
ment, it appears that eventually there will be need for an additional clearing yard, to 
which all railroads will have access. Such a yard may be eastward of Port Moody or 
perhaps consist of the enlarged Coquitlam Yard of the C.P.R., which would be reached 
by the Canadian Pacific Railway tracks from New Westminster along Coquitlam River. 
This track would preferably be jointly operated and maintained by the several railways. 

INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT SHOULD PROCEED IN AN ORDERLY AND SYSTEMATIC 
MANNER. 

The adoption of a Zoning By-Law has allocated logical and sufficient areas for in- 
dustrial purposes both on the waterfront and in selected locations within the city. In 
apportioning these areas, careful consideration has been given to future requirements, and 
their establishment will encourage the industrial growth of Vancouver upon ordered lines, 
as well as affording a very great simplification of the problems involved in affording these 
areas adequate rail and harbour facilities. 

Zoning will encourage and facilitate the location of new industry. Experience in other 
zoned cities has proven this beyond doubt. 
A NUMBER OF RAILROAD GRADE CROSSINGS SHOULD RECEIVE EARLY ATTENTION. 

Under present operating conditions the Carrall Street track is an essential link of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway's terminal trackage. It connects the Burrard waterfront yards 
with Centre Yard on False Creek, and it is the sole means of communication between the 
main line track and passenger station and freight stations, team tracks, car and loco- 
motive repair shops, engine house, storage yards and the numerous industries along the 
north shore of False Creek. By it the Canadian Pacific and the British Columbia Electric 
Railways maintain an interchange contact. The passenger station operation is absolutely 
dependent upon the Carrall Street track. The track on Carrall Street penetrates a highly 
developed commercial district practically for the entire length, and it is but a single 
track line on a right-of-way not over <;o feet wide. Fortunately it serves no important 
industries and only one or two establishments would be inconvenienced by the loss of 
this track. The track crosses at grade several important streets, the principal ones of which 
are Hastings Street and Cordova, the former probably the most intensively used street 
in Vancouver. Other streets crossed are Alexander, Powell and Pender Streets. 

The most satisfactory method of eliminating this series of grade crossings is to remove 
the necessity for the track, which can only be through a quite elaborate revision of the Can- 
adian Pacific Railway's terminal facilities and operating methods. If the use of the track 
could be reduced merely to that required for freight house operation, interchange and 
service to industries, it might even remain in place. 

In the event that the railroad elects to retain the connection and eliminate the grade 
crossing features, there are two schemes which appear feasible; one by the use of a tunnel 
approximately under Dunsmuir Street for its full length and the other involving the 
depression ot the present track in Carrall Street with practically no change in alignment. 



TRANSPORTATION REPORT 



145 




C.P.R. Carrall Street Level Crossing. 



The elimination of waterfront railroad grade crossings requires boldness and a some- 
what spectacular method. An example of the type of the construction that must necessarily 
prevail along the waterfront is observed in the recently completed elevated roadway built 
by the Canadian Pacific Railway primarily to serve their new Pier B-C and adjacent piers A 
and D. This elevated roadway provides a circulatory vehicular movement from Burrard 
Street to Granville Street and the ramps enable trucks and teams to reach ground level 
with no interference from or to railroad operations. 

A treatment somewhat similar to that started by the Canadian Pacific Railroad is 
adaptable to that section of the south shore extending from Granville Street to the Sugar 
Refinery (Plate 32, page 146). Ramp connections may be made to this elevated structure 
from Granville Street, Cambie Street, Gore Avenue and Dunlevy Street, Princess Street and 
Heatley Avenue. 

Easterly from the Sugar Refinery a low level waterfront roadway should be con- 
structed north of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company and Harbour Commissioners' 
tracks, extending easterly to connect with the waterfront roadway reserve now set aside 
by the Harbour Commissioners from the foot of Trinity Street to the Second Narrows 
and beyond. The Vancouver Harbour Commissioners are to be commended for their 
foresight in reserving the necessary areas for the waterfront roadway. A plan of similar 
nature should be followed wherever possible throughout the entire industrial portion of 
the harbour. 



i 4 6 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 




PROPOSED 
ELEVATLD WATERFRONT ROADWAY 



v»»*couviB 

TOWN PttlHIWt; COMMI»IOR 
\<97T 



UADIIlND B&BTUOLOMtW 

ft AWOOAIIS 

TOWN PlANNINii CONSULTANTS 



Plate J2 

The Great Northern crossing at Powell Street is objectionable and a cause of delays 
to street traffic. This detect may be remedied by a grade separation with Powell Street, 
already referred to. 

The Great Northern Railway crossing at the foot of Main Street hill is potentially 
dangerous and a grade separation should be provided. 

Union Passenger Terminals. 

For the present traffic, the existing Canadian Pacific Railway passenger station is 
adequate. However, there is little room for expansion, and the station and its trackage 
occupy ground space that will later be needed for harbour development. It is difficult to 
take care of some of the longer trains now, and the reverse movements involved in making 
up passenger trains from Centre Yard impose bad operating conditions and contribute 
their share to the grade crossing nuisance. 

The Canadian Pacific Railway station is, however, undeniably well located to serve 
the public. It brings them immediately to the heart of things. It is, to the railroad, an 
advantageous location tor competitive passenger traffic, and its closeness to the steamer 
piers permits ot a quick transfer from one to the other. 

The implied desirability of seeking another location for this passenger station may 
seem to be and is a somewhat radical innovation. The railroad cannot be expected to 
relinquish such a favorable location. Yet in the scheme of things, looking forward to the 
time when the Burrard waterfront is approaching its maximum degree of concentrated 



TRANSPORTATION REPORT 



H7 



activity, it is conceivable that the railroad itself may see the desirability of relocation 
in order to avoid the inconvenience and delays caused by freight switching movements 
and the awkward operation of getting to its terminals on False Creek. 

Much should, and must, be sacrificed toward preserving the waterfront for purely 
shipping business, and this suggestion of the removal of the Canadian Pacific Railway 
passenger station is in line with that thought. 

The proposal very naturallv suggests itself of grouping the Canadian Pacific Railway 
passenger facilities with those of the Great Northern and the Canadian National Railways 
on Main Street. This will give Vancouver a Union Station which, under the circumstances, 
would be a decided advantage. This being a terminating point in every sense of the word, 
and in a city of not too great population, a Union Station for all roads possesses all of the 
good and none of the bad features usually associated with the arrangement. 

The Great Northern and Canadian National Railway stations are only four minutes 
bv taxi from the heart of the business district, less than a mile. Much room is available 
for expansion, and the extensive plaza already provided guarantees for all time pleasing 
surroundings. 

The Canadian Pacific Railway could enter the Main Street location by direct move- 
ment from their main line, over tracks in the valley between Campbell Avenue and Glen 
Drive. Thus the heavily congested trackage along the waterfront from Hastings Mills 
westward could be avoided and traffic over grade crossings within the city further reduced. 

FALSE CREEK. 

THE FALSE CREEK INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT HAS BEEN PERMITTED TO BECOME AN EYE- 
SORE AND A MENACE TO HEALTH. ITS REGENERATION IS ESSENTIAL TO NORMAL 
CIVIC DEVELOPMENT. 

The investigation establishes the fact that the False Creek channel is too valuable an 
asset to the city to consider its complete filling and obliteration. Rather, it should be 
encouraged as an industrial entity of extreme usefulness to Vancouver. Theoretically and 
practically it contributes to an ideal situation in that it provides a harbour for industrial 
activities allied to shipping interests, yet permits of a desirable segregation from the 
purely commercial water-borne traffic of Burrard Inlet. In other words, Vancouver is 
fortunate in having both a commercial and an industrial harbour. 

Emphasis is made of the importance 
of not only retaining the present in- 
dustries along the channel, but of en- 
couraging others to locate there. It 
should not be overlooked that should all 
of the mills be moved now to the Fraser 
River, as has been suggested, the effect 
would be far reaching and fairly detri- 
mental to Vancouver. For it would not 
only remove capital itself, but the buy- 
ing power of many families. Not only the 
mills would be affected, but many sub- 
sidiary enterprises whose business de- 
pends upon the proximity of the mills. 
There are no substitute industries in the 
Sawmills on False Creek. offing to take their place. 




juuSS^S 



o 



C/J 



d 



3m vigwmoV 







TRANSPORTATION REPORT 



149 



Looking forward, however, it is 
entirely conceivable that the mills and 
some other industries of False Creek 
will be torced to move by reason ot 
increasing land values. This is a normal 
process and usually insures the replace' 
ment ot the migrating concerns by others 
of higher class. 

In the light of the foregoing com 
elusions, the obvious next step is to so 
direct the use of False Creek channel 
that it may reach its maximum efficiency 
with the least inconvenience to other 
elements ot community growth. 

Of primary importance is the main- 
taining of this channel in a sanitary 




Fals-* Creek. 

An Example of Conditions in This Area Which Require 

Cleaning Up. 



condition. A fairly careful inspection of existing industries lining the channel indicates that 
there are no industries the waste products of which are subject to bacterial action or offensive 
putrefaction. As maximum concentration is approached and the working population 
becomes densely settled, adequate sanitary sewers must be provided. 

Under no circumstances should any sanitary sewer be permitted to empty raw sewage 
into False Creek. It has no current and its only method of cleansing itself is by the rise 
and fall of the tide. Long, narrow arms projecting from the main channel, such as that 
from the turning basin along Main Street to just north of Georgia Street, should be given 
special attention and subjected to greater restrictions. 

More careful supervision of the manner of filling and the kind of filling material used 
is essential. 

It is recommended that the channel be dredged to a minimum depth of 20 feet at 
low tide and that permanent quay wall and wharf construction be adopted as future policy. 
A more systematic location of industries, streets and railroad tracks will effect a more 
sightly appearance and materially improve the efficiency and value of the district. 

It is recommended that the channel south of Granville Island, called the back channel, 
be filled in and joined to the mainland, in order that better access may be obtained to 
the island and additional lots created. 

Plate 23 is submitted as a plan eventually practicable, whereby the entire False Creek 
area may be reclaimed and used for purposes more appropriate to a city of a million popula- 
tion. The theory of the plan is, briefly, to create greater land values by increasing the 
desirability of the lands for high-class industries. 

The Provincial Government has made a survey of the whole False Creek area and a 
sixty-foot road has been dedicated south of the railroad yard on the north shore, shown 
by dotted line. This road has two connections to the city's street system, at Smithe and 
Carrall Streets. 

The design is made with the object in view of retaining as much land as possible 
on the north side of the channel in close proximity to the city's business district. 

At the entrance to False Creek the channel is narrowed to four hundred feet. This 
is for a twofold reason — in order not to interfere in any way with those industries which 



TRANSPORTATION* REPORT 151 

are already firmly established on Granville Island, and to discourage heavy waterfront 
industrial development immediately below the proposed Civic Centre. This channel is 
straight and will not cause any obstruction to the passage of water traffic if used primarily 
as a fairway for ships. 

It is recommended that First Avenue be improved and extended to the east and west 
and form a continuation of Fifth Avenue. The British Columbia Electric Railway track 
along First Avenue should be abandoned and relocated as a double track line about two 
hundred and fifty feet north of its present location; provision, however, should be made 
for a right-of-way wide enough to accommodate three tracks here if future requirements 
demand. An eighty-foot street immediately north of this right-of-way is recommended, 
connecting with the proposed Second Avenue extension just west of Columbia Street 
and with the suggested Fifth Avenue-First Avenue extension opposite Heather Street. 
This street will provide not only trucking access to the industries located along the water- 
front, but will also provide street frontage tor these industries, if desired. 

This proposed arrangement will permit of intensive industrial development, with 
railway service, along First Avenue, Second Avenue and Fifth Avenue. An industrial 
track placed in the lane between First Avenue and Second Avenue can be used to serve 
the industries fronting on these streets. If necessary, this track could be depressed at 
Cambie Street to obtain clearance under the Connaught Bridge ramp. The south track 
of the suggested relocated double track British Columbia Electric Railway can be used 
to serve those industries fronting on the north side of First Avenue. The waterfront 
industries can be served by spurs off the north track of the British Columbia Electric 
Railway, which can be operated as a combined passenger and freight track until such 
time as the traffic demands would necessitate segregation of this traffic, when a third 
track could be installed for either freight or passenger traffic use exclusively. 

The scheme of development is not intended for the types of industries which would 
require depths of, say, six hundred to eight hundred feet for the waterfront property, 
as this scheme would be more or less undesirable here if based upon water transportation 
facilities. However, should such requirements become necessary, the waterfront street 
could be abandoned and the British Columbia Electric Railway could be double-tracked 
in approximately its present location, thus providing depths of waterfront property along 
the south shore ot about four hundred to eight hundred feet. 

The slips indicated on the plan are diagramatic only and can be established definitely 
when the scheme is being developed. 

This proposed development, when carried out, will necessitate the renaming of some 
of the streets. 

Care should be taken to so control the use of this area that no industrial nuisance 
will be permitted to locate within it. This is extremely important on account of the close 
proximity of the commercial and residential sections of the city. Adequate zoning restric- 
tions will assist in a satisfactory solution of this difficulty. 

It is recommended that the easterly end of the channel be filled eventually so as to 
make solid land from Main Street to a line about four hundred feet east of the Great 
Northern Railway's abandoned trestle, and that track connection be made so as to provide 
the British Columbia Electric Railway with access to the north shore of False Creek, 
independently of the Kitsilano Bridge. 




^ 



TRANSPORTATION REPORT 153 

The advantage of the above proposal is two-told. It provides about 25 acres of first- 
class industrial property and affords a greater flexibility in switching cars into and out 
of the district. It will facilitate interchange among the five railways. 

A rail connection between the south and north shores ot False Creek at the eastern 
end will be ot great value. Were it not for the channel to the gas plant and the intensely 
developed area near the Georgia Viaduct, an extension to the north and west of the railroad 
on the proposed street west of Main Street could be made and would be ideal. However, 
rail connection could be provided by means of a lower deck on the proposed Kingsway 
Bridge as an alternative. 

NATURAL RESOURCES and INDUSTRIES. 

A CONCERTED AND SUSTAINED EFFORT SHOULD BE EXERTED TO OBTAIN FOR VAN- 
COUVER NUMEROUS AND APPROPRIATE INDUSTRIES. 

With the gradual building up of the district tributary to Vancouver, the opening ot 
the Peace River territory and the increasing business of the port, Vancouver will need 
practically every sort of industry capabie of supplying the necessities and luxuries of life. 
No raw material of any sort should be permitted to pass eastward through the port without 
a careful study being made as to whether it could not be profitably worked up into the 
finished product here. Again, outgoing shipments of manufactured articles, food products, 
etc., should be classified, the market studied and the possibility of their manufacture 
considered. 

The advantageous location ot Vancouver for distributing supplies ot all sorts should 
be_taken advantage ot to the tullest. 

Probably the most important influence in attracting industry is the ability and 
willingness ot the community to supply land and buildings at a not exorbitant cost. 
Many a prospective manufacturer has been discouraged from locating in some cities by 
the unsympathetic attitude of those who own or control the available land. 

Attention has been called to the need of better terminal switching methods and rates. 
This is ot deep concern to the manufacturer. 

A diversity ot industry should be sought rather than a single predominating type, 
in order to insure a more stable labor supply and business balance. 

Industrial and trade schools are to be encouraged, as specialized labor is of high value 
and difficult to obtain. 

No small enterprise, however insignificant, should be ignored and neglected. Few 
people have the tenacity and genius ot Mr. Ford, but their basic ideas may be as sound 
and, under proper tutelage, as susceptible to successful development. 

While a seaport, as a rule, can have a sphere of influence on land represented diagram- 
matically by a semi-circle, the international boundary in the case of Vancouver to a large 
extent prescribes the diagrammatic figure to less than a semi-circle, though greater than 
a quadrant. The effect of the mountains is, however, to enlarge this sphere: to push back 
the hinterland. In other words, it makes the development of the Province of Alberta a 
considerable tactor in the development of Vancouver, not only as a port, but as an in- 
dustrial and commercial city. 

The accompanying plate, and the two that follow, have been made to indicate the 
development in the southern part ot the Province ot British Columbia that now and in 
the future is bound to have an effect on the City ot Vancouver. 



TRANSPORTATION REPORT 155 

The situation in regard to timber and agriculture is represented both graphically 
and in words on the accompanying plate. This statement might, however, be emphasized 
that "the forests of British Columbia contain 95% of the soft woods of the British Empire." 

While the area of land suitable for agriculture is but a small percentage of the area 
of the province, yet the figures in regard to agricultural production are by no means small. 
In general the northerly areas suitable for agriculture are more or less timbered, while 
the central areas are naturally suitable for grazing. The southerly areas produce those 
fruits which so frequently win prizes at exhibitions, both in this and the Old Country. 

It may be stated that it is only recently that Canada has become actually aware 
of the great possibilities in her mineral wealth. British Columbia does not stand alone 
in occupying a commanding position in respect to mineral development, yet the 1926 
records showed that the Province of British Columbia led all the other provinces in Canada 
in copper, silver, lead and zinc production. 

The accompanying plate indicates the relationship ot mineral occurrences and shipping 
mines to the railways and highways. It should be pointed out that the location of these 
mineral occurrences are comparatively approximate, but are taken from the most reliable 
sources. It does not mean, however, that minerals will not be found in many other localities. 



PROGRESSIVE DEVELOPMENT y WATERFRONT 
SOUTH SHORE °/ BURRARD INLET 




PORjyVANCOUVEtL 
WATER- BORNE MPORT3 




COMMODITIL5 5UIPPLD OVLR5LA5 

TUROUGU 

TUL PORT/VANCOUVEP 



19ZI \3U Bi) 1914 l*>l<i IW 



LUMBLR 



LOG3 



3UINOLL3 



GRAIN 



riOUR. 



tPPHS 



CANNLD 3AIMON >.,»,.,„., 



nsu 



LLAD 6 5PLLTLR 




PO R.T/ VANCOUVER- 
WATER- BORNE EXPORT5 



132 1 I32t | 3Z> I9E4 I3Z5 )3gfe 



TOTAL 



DHP-3EA 







f | i . . ■ . i ^ — • ■ :■:■ ' :: .v,s, : 'Cj 







LOCAL 

COAMWI5L i~ -v 

lag i i9i i 



19tl >3U I9E^ I3Z4 191* ISZfe 



Page 156 



Plate J? 



TRANSPORTATION REPORT 157 



When the history of British Columbia is written in some years to come, it will probably 
be found that there are many localities in which water is available that have not been 
indicated on this map. 

The accompanying plate does indicate, however, that of the known available water 
power, but little as yet is developed and that there is undoubtedly opportunity by water 
power development to take care of industrial and other needs for years to come. 

Judicious and well-directed advertising has produced good results in many com- 
munities. The encouragement of tourists is one form of advertising that not only pays 
an immediate profit, but often produces lasting results, for the tourist usually has money 
seeking investment. 

Accompanying this report are maps showing the natural resources of the territory 
tributary to Vancouver. If these plates, Nos. 34, 35 and 36, could be reproduced and 
distributed broadcast, they would tell an interesting story to the investing public. 



i 5 8 A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 

HARBOUR SECTION 

VANCOUVER'S HARBOUR. 

The harbour represents Vancouver's greatest single asset and is an essential link in 
the railroad and shipping lines of Canada. It may be regarded as one of the most valuable 
of national resources, of vital importance alike in peace and war. Needless to say, every 
foot of its shore line should be carefully conserved for harbour purposes and its use be 
restricted to those industries to which water frontage is essential. 

The control of the harbour lies with the Dominion Government, which is represented 
by the Vancouver Harbour Commissioners. Under this arrangement, with whole-hearted 
public support, the harbour will fulfil its destiny as a great world port and a prime factor 
in the industrial and business life of Greater Vancouver. 

PROGRESSIVE GROWTH OF THE PORT. 

That the business of the port is on a substantial basis and in a healthy condition is 
evident from the steady increase in its volume of trade during the past decade. 

As indicated in the diagram (Plate 37, page 1 56) the total exports have risen from about 
1,000,000 tons in 1921 to about 3,500,000 tons in 1926, or over three times in five years. 
Most of this is due to deep sea trade. 

The imports (Plate 37, page 156) have expanded from about 2,350,000 tons in 1 92 1 to 
4,700,000 tons in 1926. This great increase is largely due to local coastwise traffic. 

EFFECT OF PANAMA CANAL. 

That the advent of the Panama Canal has had a stimulating effect upon the growth 
of the Port of Vancouver is apparent from the statistics showing the proportion of export 
freight transported via that route. For the period from 1921 to 1926 includive, it appears 
that the following percentages were shipped through the Canal in proportion to the 
total amount by both canal and ocean. 

Lumber . 33% 

Shingles 98% 

Canned Salmon 72% 

Fish, Frozen, Salted, Cured 3% 

Flour 14% 

Wheat 71% 

Lead and Spelter 45% 

Apples 69% 

The detail statement from which the foregoing figures were derived also indicates 
that the proportion shipped by the Panama Canal has been steadily increasing. 

FOREIGN TRADE RELATIONS WITH VANCOUVER. 

One of the distinct advantages of the Port of Vancouver district is that it provides 
a direct contact with so many foreign countries. Since the year 1909 the number of vessels 
of foreign registry that enter the port has increased from seventy-one to over a thousand, 
the actual figures being 1,029 U1 192(1. A list of these follows tor the year 1926: 



TRANSPORTATION REPORT 159 



British — - 4 T 9 

U.S.A - - - - 254 

Japan — - 158 

Norway - - — 64 

Denmark -4 

France — -3 

Holland - - - 21 

Sweden — ~~ - - - — 20 

Germany — 20 

Italy - -- -- - 19 

Belgium 5 

In addition to the above, vessels from Russia, Mexico, Peru, Chili, Nicaragua, Panama 
and Greece make occasional trips to Vancouver. 

PASSENGER TRAFFIC THROUGH PORT. 

During 1924 there were 814,878 passengers landed and shipped by boat, and in 1926 
approximately 1,022,000. This traffic is important to Vancouver, both from a financial 
standpoint and from its advertising value. Every effort should be made to acquaint all 
travellers with the advantages of this district. Few cities have so great an opportunity 
of securing a personal contact with citizens from every corner of the world. 

DIVERSITY OF CARGO. 

A stabilizing factor to port business, and also a beneficial influence upon the com- 
mercial life of the city, is the diversity of cargo handled both in and out of this port. 
Plate ]><;, page 152, shows the principal export items and their amounts, while the following 
table is illustrative of the more important incoming shipments. It is seen that Vancouver 
is not a single cargo port, although by its bulk and value grain may be considered the 
leading cargo. 

PORT OF VANCOUVER 

Table Showing Sundry Imports for the Year 1924 

Water-Borne Tons Value 

Chemicals- -- - -- 3-5 88 276,732 

Dry Goods, Carpets, etc. 7,723 4,302,636 

Earthenware 2,108 256,434 

Fruit, Fresh and Dried 16,323 1,687,138 

Gunney Sacks - 9,599 x » 462,359 

Hemp 3,776 618,921 

Meats, Fresh and Cured 4>3°° 1 8 1 ,576 

Oils, Crude Fuel, Distillate, Gasoline 585,505 6,032,200 

Shoes 229 127,592 

Silk..... - - 8,205 83,024,526 

Soap i,549 231,610 

Steel, Iron and Machinery ... 36,446 2,840,312 

Sugar -. 84,008 8,006,921 

Tea ... 12,462 4,188,925 

Wool - 2,614 3,106,471 




AULAND BAQTUOLOML 
C ASJOCHTLb 

TOWN PLANNING CONSULTANTS 



PROPERTY Or Tu[ VANCOUVER UARBOUR COMMISSIONER^ ■ 

EMABLIbUED INDUSTRIAL PIAHT3 I . | .] 

GRAIN ELEVATORS 

5AWMIU5 £» lUElR LUMBER YARDi 

EXISTING WUAitTAGE TOR OCEAN-GOING VCSHL5 

RAILWAY YAR65 

POTENTIAL WUARrAGt & TRACKAGE AREfci 

aSAUJj_£liL. 



c o u v ( o 




□ □HCDCDEZl 

I : mm; ii : 

HAL'iANf. BADTuOLOMLW 

b ASSOCIATE.} 

TOWN PLANNING CONSULTANT! 



Page 1 60 



Plate jS 



TRANSPORTATION REPORT 



RAILROADS and THE HARBOUR. 
(Plate 31, page 142). 

The railroads have been here, as elsewhere, foremost in inaugurating harbour im- 
provements, and their investment in Vancouver in piers and warehouses amounts to 
many millions of dollars. The most recently built pier of the Canadian Pacific Railway 
cost in excess of $5,000,000. The city must continue to look to the railroads for much 
of the capital necessary to fully develop the harbour. 

However, railroad business is highly competitive, and they therefore usually seek 
exclusive privileges. While this attitude tends to produce the highest state of efficiency 
in individual operations, it is not, in the broad sense, wholly constructive in effect, nor 
is it likely to result in the maximum benefit to the greatest number of people. If unregulated, 
railroad control of a harbour may stifle or at least retard its growth. Fortunately, through 
the timely organization of the Harbour Commission, Vancouver is in no great danger. 
But there is still much to accomplish in the way of giving equal access to all carriers to 
every portion of the waterfront. Whether this is effected by an adjustment of switching 
charges or the joint use of all trackage on the waterfront is not very material, but it is 
believed that the most satisfactory method of providing equal privileges to all would 
be by extending the scope of the Harbour Commission's Terminal Railway and giving 
it a practical monopoly of switching operations within the limits of Vancouver. As suggested 
in the railroad report, it would be of advantage to combine the Terminal Railway with 
the British Columbia Electric Railway, as the latter is peculiarly fitted for serving certain 
sections of the city. 

In the development of the North Shore now in progress by the Harbour Commission, 
the opportunity is given to prove the soundness of the policy above outlined, as the 
Harbour Commission's Terminal Railway alone is in a position to serve this territory. 

SUGGESTED DEVELOPMENT OF VANCOUVER HARBOUR. 

The present extent of use of Vancouver Harbour and a plan for developing for harbour 
and industrial purposes the areas remaining unused are illustrated by Plate 38, page 160. 

The following tables show in detail the frontage used by the various classes of owners. 
It is interesting to note the relatively small percentage of undeveloped waterfrontage 
on the south shore. 



1 62 A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



PRESENT USE OF BURRARD INLET 
SOUTH SHORE, YEAR 1927 

Between Coal Harbour Causeway and Second Narrows. 
Length of Waterfrontage, 30,500 feet = 5.8 Miles. 

Canadian Pacific Railway Company 6,600 feet 22% 

Vancouver Harbour Commission 3>75° fe et I2 % 

Remaining Shipping Interests — 

Union Steamship Co. 200 feet 

Evans, Coleman & Evans 400 feet 

North Vancouver Ferry 200 feet 

Canadian National Railway 300 feet 

Great Northern Railway <;oo feet 

Terminal Dock Company 2,400 feet 

Columbia Elevator Co. 400 feet 

4,400 feet 14% 



Industries — 

Coal Harbour 1,650 feet 

Canadian Fishing Co 700 feet 

Sugar Refinery 550 feet 

P. Burns Company 350 feet 

Ross & Howard ..... 250 feet 

B.C. Marine Works 300 feet 



Sawmills 

Undeveloped Waterfront 



<?• 


,800 feet 


12% 


.1 


,250 


feet 


u% 


8 


,700 


feet 


29% 



Total ... ... 30,500 feet 100% 



TRANSPORTATION REPORT 163 

NORTH SHORE, YEAR 1927 

Between First and Second Narrows. 
Length of Waterfrontage, 29,700 Feet = 5.6 Miles. 

Vancouver Harbour Commissioners- - 

Public Booming Ground 1,100 feet 

Undeveloped Waterfront 4)5°° feet 

5,600 feet 19% 

Sawmills 1,700 feet 6% 

Industries — 

Creosoting Plant 500 feet 

Northern Construction 700 feet 

Burrard Dock Co 800 feet 

Boat Builders 400 feet 

2,400 feet 8% 

Undeveloped Waterfront 20,000 feet 67% 

67% 

Totals. 29,700 feet 100% 

Since the above was compiled, a new grain elevator has been constructed and is in 
operation on the North Shore. It has 500,000 bushels capacity. 

The Harbour Commission's Terminal Railroad has also been extended and is in 
service across the Second Narrows Bridge and along the North Shore. 

COMPARISON OF PRESENT and POTENTIAL WHARFAGE, 
VANCOUVER HARBOUR 

Present Proposed 

Wharfage, North Shore 0.25 miles 7.13 miles 

Wharfage, South Shore ... 4.22 miles 3.98 miles 

Total 4.47 miles 1 1.1 1 miles 

The figures serve to show the importance of conserving for strictly harbour purposes 
the entire waterfrontage of Burrard Inlet, for although much of the shore line east of the 
Second Narrows Bridge will eventually come in for harbour and industrial use, that 
portion between the First and Second Narrows will always constitute the true harbour. 

The South Shore will develop more rapidly, especially tor commercial vessels. The 
North Shore is more adaptable for handling cargo of great bulk, such as grain and lumber, 
requiring much storage space for cars. As indicated by the plates, the North Shore offers 
opportunity for the establishment of industries by reason of the large amount of flat 
areas immediately to the rear of the proposed harbour frontage. 

In general, then, it is recommended that the South Shore be reserved for active marine 
commercial wharfage, including fish docks and general coastwise and high-class deep sea 
trade, and the North Shore for less active bulk cargo, shipyards, grain elevators and the 
like, including industries that may require wharfage. 



164 A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 

COMPARISON OF ACREAGE— PRESENT and FUTURE. 

Substantiating the above recommended general use of the harbour, a comparison 
of the trackage area, present and proposed, is interesting. 

South Shore — Present Area ~ 155 acres 

Proposed Area 185 acres 

340 acres 

North Shore — Present Area..... . 24 acres 

Proposed Area 947 acres 

971 acres 
PUBLIC CONTROL OF and ACCESS TO WATERFRONT. 

It is urgent that immediate steps be taken to insure the gradual carrying out of a 
programme that will have for its ultimate object the complete development for harbour 
purposes of the entire shore line of Burrard Inlet. 

The essential first step is to secure absolute control of the waterfrontage through the 
Harbour Commission and sufficient of the back ground to accommodate the railroad 
tracks and accessory facilities that are necessary. The land should, if possible, be purchased 
outright and then developed industrially with limited leaseholds, until it is needed for 
docks and piers. Possibly a form of option may be arranged whereby at a fixed price 
the land may be acquired later, meantime its use to be controlled by the Harbour Com- 
mission. 

It should not be neglected, in the development ot either shore, to provide public 
access to the waterfront. This may be done by extending wide avenues or street ends 
entirely to the pier head line and holding them reserved for public use. 

There are no problems involved in the future expansion of the harbour that have 
not been solved in the past. For the south shore methods used and types of pier con- 
struction required would be about the same, except that from about Victoria Drive east- 
ward, on account of the closeness to shore of deep water, the quay type of construction, 
rather than slips and piers, will be required. Additional room for much needed trackage 
can be made available along this section, as far as the Second Narrows Bridge. 

On the North Shore construction will, in general, be comparatively much cheaper, 
as there are extensive shallows of easily dredged material. With the exception of a length 
of about a mile and a-half extending from Moodyville westward, pier and clip construction 
is practicable. 

An essential feature of North Shore development is a new crossing at the Second 
Narrows of sufficient width to carry two railroad tracks and a highway of tour traffic lanes 
capacity. It does not require great foresight to anticipate this improvement, as traffic con- 
ditions on the present bridge are intolerable. When even a small portion ot the expected 
concentration of harbour and industrial life takes place on the North Shore, the mingling 
of vehicular and railroad traffic on this important structure will eventually force its 
reconstruction, or replacement by a dam, as has been suggested. Whether a dam or a 
double-deck bridge should be used is a matter of cost, practicability and effectiveness. 
A most thorough investigation is necessary before a preference may be indicated. 



TRANSPORTATION REPORT 



i6 S 



SPECIAL IMPROVEMENTS RECOMMENDED FOR 

EARLY CONSIDERATION 
Fish Dock.. 

Considering the importance of the fishing industry and its volume, the present water- 
front facilities for handling the business are inadequate. This industry requires an ex- 
ceptional degree of supervision in order to preserve sanitary conditions and promote 
speed and efficiency in movement. 

The unloading pier, located at the 
foot of Gore Avenue, is built of wood 
and is of the floating type of construc- 
tion. It is owned by the Canadian Pacific 
Railway and leased to several parties. 
There are fifteen dealers, each occupy- 
ing separate premises. 

There is no feature of the present 
fish dock that can be commended or 
should be retained. What is required is 
a complete new pier, built along modern 
lines, with its own refrigeration, with 
mechanical appliances and abundant 
anchorage for the great number of small 
boats that bring in the fish. It must 




Gore Avenue Fish Wharf. 
There is an Urgent Need for Modern and Up-to-Date 
Facilities for This Important Industry. 



have good access for teams and trucks. A packing and storage plant should be an 
integral part of the fish dock, so arranged that the product can be moved directly into 
cars for shipment or vessels for export. 

The site chosen must necessarily be somewhere along the commercial section of the 
south shore, and of such size that all of the buiness can be concentrated in the one location. 

The construction of a modern fish dock is one of the most useful improvements that 
could be made at this time and, if carried out, will immensely encourage an essential 
industry of the port and insure the proper preparation and marketing of one of Vancouver's 
principal sources of food. 

Tug-Boat Wharfage. 

It is recommended that more adequate tug-boat wharfage be provided. The importance 
of this industry to port business is very great and its requirements are immediate avail- 
ability, fitness of equipment and prompt service. At present there are from 90 to 100 
tug-boats operating in the port, and there are five anchorages where these boats may 
be tied up. Scarcely any of these are adequate and at times are occupied by other vessels, 
making it necessary for the tug-boats to seek temporary dockage. 

If possible, a central location along the south shore should be sought and provided 
where all of this sort of craft may be concentrated. 

The wharf may be of the floating type, hence not unduly expensive, but it should 
have ample room for storage of supplies, duplicate machinery parts, quarters for the men 
and offices. The obvious advantage of such an arrangement is that tugs would be avail- 



,66 A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 

able at one central point with a single call. For the anchorage of scows, dolphins or other 
means should be provided in the vicinity of the tug-boat wharfage. Accommodations 
for approximately fifty scows appear to be needed at this time. 

Channel Improvement. 

The Harbour Commission doubtless has plans for the widening and deepening of 
the channel through First Narrows. This is an improvement of decided benefit to naviga- 
tion, as the channel is used for such a variety of craft that wide steering room is essential. 
The current is at times rather swift and some inconvenience is experienced when log 
booms and sea-going vessels attempt a simultaneous passage. It is believed that a total 
width of 1800 feet may be obtained with at least 1200 feet at 35-foot depth, low water. 

Coal Harbour. 

Coal Harbour is located at the extreme westerly end of the harbour and has an area 
of approximately 160 acres. On account of its proximity to Stanley Park, its freedom from 
railroad operations and industry, and its accessibility to the public, Coal Harbour possesses 
both an aesthetic and a utilitarian value that should not be overlooked. It forms an admir- 
able anchorage for yachts of all kinds during the winter months and indeed is now used 
extensively for this purpose. The Royal Vancouver Yacht Club has established their 
summer anchorage quarters on English Bay between Alma Road and the Jericho Country 
Club and has built there a club house to accommodate 600 members. This was a good 
move, as passage through First Narrows is at times difficult for yachts of the sailing class, 
and in addition it removes from the main harbour a class of vessels for which a commercial 
harbour has no need. 

There is no hesitancy in recommending that Coal Harbour be reserved for the use 
of the lighter craft of a recreational nature and for equipment and club houses devoted 
essentially to aquatic sports. 

At present much of Coal Harbour frontage is occupied by nondescript buildings 
and some residential house boats, all of which should be removed. An extension ot the 
landscape treatment similar to that along the west shore of Coal Harbour would be 
appropriate. 
Ship Yards and Dry Docks. 

There appears to be no reason why Vancouver should not become a shipbuilding 
centre. Certainly it would be of great advantage for so important a seaport to be able to 
accommodate in docks any vessel able to make the harbour. Once well established and 
properly encouraged, the shipbuilding industry is fairly permanent in nature and constant 
in operation. It attracts quite a number of allied industries and employs many men of a 
desirable class. 

There is, at present, one very well-equipped dry dock, that of the Burrard Dry Dock 
Company, which is located on the North Shore between Lonsdale Avenue and St. George 
Street. The dry dock has an over-all length of 566 feet, a width of 98 feet and a 30-foot 
draft. Its lifting capacity is 20,000 tons. There are two shipbuilding butts, one a pier ot 
concrete 50 feet wide and 700 feet long. The machine shops are very complete. 

The North Shore is a suitable location for this industry, and in the future harbour 
plan space for at least three times the present ship building capacity may be safely reserved. 

The magnificent graving dock at Victoria for the present relieves the necessity for 
any immediate expenditure for similar elaborate facilities here. 



TRANSPORTATION REPORT 



167 



Lumber Mills in Burrard Inlet. 

This is a type of industry that should not be encouraged in Burrard Inlet, for the 
principal reason that they occupy too much waterfrontage and their operation interferes 
with navigation. Yet it is essential that so great an industry should be fostered. It has 
frequently been said that the Fraser River district is the logical place for mills of this 
sort, and while it may be a loss to Vancouver to prohibit the use of its harbour for milling 
purposes, it is believed good policy to do so. The complaint most often encountered was 
that directed toward the interference of log rafts with vessels, especially when both are 
entering the channel. 

Deadman's Island. 

This island in Coal Harbour does not appear to fit into any utilitarian schemes for 
harbour development. It is therefore suggested that it be dedicated to park purposes, 
for which it appears to have exceptional possibilities. It is prominent in location and 
visible from many points. With proper treatment something of unique distinction can 
be made of it. 

FERRY and COASTWISE PASSENGER SERVICE. 

With the continued growth in population of North Vancouver, West Vancouver, the 
Howe Sound area and the numerous inlets, the demand for rapid and high-class ferries 
and passenger boats will rapidly increase. These constitute the least expensive yet most 
interesting attractions to the tourists, besides offering to the people of Vancouver every 
opportunity tor healthful recreation. 

To be of the utmost value, a pier for this class of vessels should be located as close 
as possible to the business district, within easy reach by street car or motor. 

In the construction of a facility of this sort, the city can afford to contribute heavily, 
as it is a distinctly municipal undertaking. On the other hand, many other interests 
should contribute, as they derive revenue from its operation. It is recommended that 
a combined pier for both local, coastwise and ferry service be constructed as soon as possible 
and that its cost be shared by the railroads, the City and the B. C. Electric Railway 
Company. 

The preferred location is Pier "D" of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Another is at 
the foot of Gore Avenue, utilizing the present passenger dock and also the fish dock after 
the latter has been rebuilt elsewhere. 




C.P.R. Piers 



168 A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



FINANCING PORT DEVELOPMENT. 

Elsewhere the importance of encouraging the Harbour Commission's Terminal 
Railway has been stressed. Unfortunately, the extension of this road, as well as the 
acquisition of much needed land, is hampered by the lack of funds. The Harbour Com- 
mission must support itself by revenue derived from its own resources, and it is remark- 
able that the Commission has successfully operated so long under these conditions. 
Many ports are supported either partially or wholly by the state or city in which they 
are located. Considering the tremendous influence for good that an efficient harbour 
at Vancouver has, not only on the province, but the entire Dominion, its cost and main- 
tenance should be borne by the entire population, and it is urgently recommended that 
its financing be conducted on a much more liberal scale. 



PUBLIC RECREATION 



INTRODUCTION 



PARKS and playgrounds and other facilities for public recreation are today considered 
indispensable in the make-up of a great city. No city built according to well-drawn 
plans and specifications would be without such features. The people need them. 
They are fully as useful in promoting community health and happiness and contentment 
as any of the recognized urban necessities. A bathing beach, a playground, a lovely park, 
each when in full use is in a sense a factory. Its products are smiles, light hearts, ruddy 
cheeks, sound bodies, wholesome human interests. 

If the city does not provide these facilities the loss is felt, even though protests may 
be few. Vancouver would be much less desirable as a home if Stanley Park did not exist. 
Many would not care to live in the city if the bathing beaches were abandoned to shipping 
and the small parks and playgrounds were turned into sites for more homes and industries. 
A Vancouver without these pleasant open spaces would function with no greater efficiency 
for industry and commerce, but it would be distinctly less satisfying as a place where 
men and women could live and bring up children. 

The desire for parks and recreation grounds in the city is not confined to any class or 
any district. The insistent demand which resulted in the creation of Grandview Park 
is evidence of the interest of the people in such matters. The attractiveness of Point Grey 
as a residential district is due in part to the willingness of municipal authorities there to 
set aside public park and play areas. Point Grey has character. It attracts a class of 
citizens who want parks and are willing to pay for them. The parks bring new citizens, 
and they in turn create additional property wealth which can be taxed to pay for lands 
already acquired and new areas needed to serve the new population. 

If there is any doubt that parks have an influence upon property values, it can be 
dispelled by an example from South Vancouver. Prior to the establishment of Prince 
Edward Park the municipality had scores of tax sale lots on the market in that district. 
The average price was $150.00 per lot, with very few being sold at that figure. The park, 
2.6 acres, was set aside from these municipal lands. Within a few months thereafter all 
the lots facing the park were sold at prices averaging $340.00 per lot. Now sales are being 
made in other blocks near the park at prices correspondingly higher. The simple act of 
the council in setting aside that 2.6 acre park changed the character of the district and 
made property in the neighbourhood more desirable and more valuable. 

South Vancouver, however, had done, until this year, 1928, too little in the way of 
providing park areas for its people. Like Vancouver proper, it stands below its neighbour, 
Point Grey, in assessed valuation per capita and per acre. 

Area in Assessed Per Capita Per Acre 

Acres Population Valuation Valuation Valuation 

South Vancouver 9,200 45,000 30,252,516 675 33 2 ° 

Vancouver IO ,547 143,000 232,895,120 1660 2210 

Point Grey 8,516 29,000 61,214,311 2105 7200 

These figures show plainly that character and attractiveness, quite as much as 
industry and commerce, create taxable wealth. The ability of parks and other pleasure 



170 



A PLAN' FOR VANCOUVER 




Stanley Park — A Discovery 



resources to increase the attractiveness of a city is no longer questioned. A park of adequate 
size in every neighbourhood is, in a sense, a form of insurance against a decline of neighbour- 
hood value and attractiveness. These areas themselves almost never lose value and they 
tend to keep property nearby from dropping in value. 

It is for such reasons as these that a city-wide balanced plan of recreation facilities 
is made part of the city plan. Future growth of the city is assured. Its present equipment 
of public recreation grounds is inadequate for the population already here. New areas 
must be secured. The money spent for them should be spent wisely, not for areas that 
duplicate the service of existing parks, not for grounds too small or badly located, nor 
for certain favored districts. The only sound method of keeping the growth of recreation 
grounds and facilities in reasonable accord with population is to follow a well-considered 
plan based upon a thorough study of such growth. 

This is such a plan. It emphasizes the importance of reserving space for parks now, 
in the period of rapid population increase. Development can come later. For several years 
the greater portion of available funds should be put into purchase of new park and play- 
ground sites, acquisition of parkway and boulevard routes and preservation of water- 
frontage and beach areas. Timely action on many projects will save the taxpayers millions 
of dollars later. And if a general plan is consistently followed, the ultimate scheme will 
produce remarkable returns. Vancouver will take a place second to none in the world 
if it can complete such a system of recreational facilities as is outlined in the following 
pages. The plan may seem extravagant to some, but it is not out of scale with the greatness 
of the city or beyond its future needs. 



PUBLIC RECREATION REPORT 



Part I. 
OUTLINE OF RECREATION PLAN 

CLASSIFICATION OF POPULATION and RECREATIONAL FACILITIES. 
(Plate 39, page 172). 

Small Children. 

Small children, below school age, ordinarily are closely attached to the home. The 
provision of fresh air, contacts with nature and space for free, protected play is considered 
a parental obligation. Yet it is a well-known fact that homes in the city are becoming 
less suitable as play spaces for small children. Apartment dwelling is increasing, yards 
are becoming smaller, the streets are more hazardous. It is clearly reasonable to expect 
that the city itself will be called upon more and more to supply protected playgrounds 
and other areas needed by this group. These little folks will get the most good out ot 
adequate home grounds, small play lots in each block, nearby supervised playgrounds 
to which they can go with their parents or older brothers and sisters, drives and prom- 
enades which they can enjoy with theii elders. If it is possible to find the space, an acre 
of ground in one or two units should be set aside for these little tots in every quarter 
of a square mile of residential territory. 

Children of School Age. 

Children ot school age are under the guidance and control of educational authorities 
a considerable portion of the time. The school probably has superseded the home as a 
creative influence in the life of the child. The recreational activities of school children 
manifestly should be centered in a supervised playground, preferably one adjacent to 
and operated in connection with the school. School and playground should function 
together. In addition to the established play centre referred to above, the school child 
will still need and use home grounds and protected play lots. Other facilities attractive 
to this group are swimming pools, camps, park play areas, community centres, playfields, 
outlying mountain reservations and large parks. 

Youth. 

Youth may have a large part of its recreational needs served by the educational 
institutions. Every high school and college should have an adequate field for sports as 
part of the institution. However, there are a number who no longer enjoy school contacts 
and must .depend, in most cases, upon the municipality for recreation facilities. School 
playfields and also school buildings tor community centres may sometimes be available 
for this class in out-of-school hours, but ordinarily for certain games and sports they must 
be served by playfields, athletic fields, tennis courts and other recreational facilities fur- 
nished by the municipality in parks or other public grounds. 

Adults. 

Adults are generally more interested in quiet, passive recreation than in boisterous, 
competitive sports. For them there should be neighbourhood parks, large outlying parks, 
pleasure drives, small rest areas and community centres. The small section of adult 
population that does enjoy tennis, baseball and similar activities will use nearby available 
athletic centres. 

How to provide facilities or how to combine facilities for the different needs of these 
groups in the most economic way is the object of a well-balanced recreational programme. 



CLASSIFICATION/ POPULATION 




FACILITIES WHICH SHOULD BE AVAILABLE 




A D U L T S 



HOME GROUNDS 

INTERIOR BLOCK PLAYGROUNDS 

NEARBY CHILDREN'S PLAYGROUNDS 

cV KINDERGARTENS 
DRIVES \ 

PROMENADES J 



IN PARKS 



HOME GROUNDS 
INTERIOR BLOCK PLAYGROUNDS 
PLAY AREAS IN PARKS 
SWIMMING POOLS 
BATHING BEACHES 

BOY 6- GIRL SCOUT CAMPS 
SCHOOL PLAYGROUNDS 
PLAYFIELDS FOR ATHLETICS 
COMMUNITY CENTERS 
OUTLYING NATURALISTIC DARKS 



PLAYFIELDS 
SWIMMING POOLS 
BATHING BEACHE5 

NEIGHBORHOOD PARKS 
LAPGE PARKS 
COMMUNITY CENTERS 
PLEASURE DRIVES 



HAPLAND BACTHOLC'.' A 
CITY DUN ENGINEER 



CHART SHOWING A 

CLASSIFICATION^ POPULATION 
cV RECREATION FACILITIES 



Page [72 



Plate 39 



PUBLIC RECREATION REPORT 173 

TYPES OF RECREATIONAL FACILITIES and STANDARDS FOR THEIR 
DEVELOPMENT. 

(Plate 40, Page 174). 

The accompanying plate has been prepared to show in a general and diagrammatic 
way principles that ordinarily should govern the location of various units of a recreation 
system. 

Playgrounds. 

Playground location in the city is amenable to the same formula recommended by 
qualified educational authorities for the location of public elementary schools. Each 
elementary school should serve a homogenous residential district approximately' a mile 
square and should be as near as possible the centre of this district. Under such conditions 
a population of 8,000 — 12,000 would be found in the district when finally built up, and 
enrollment at the public school would be between 850 and 1300. A modern playground, 
serving all the recreational needs of the children of the district. The school site should 
comprise at least five acres with provision for at least 100 square feet of unobstructed 
play space per child and no other interests should occupy space in the same block. The 
returns from any investment in land for school or playground purposes will be reduced 
if located alongside railways, in industrial districts, on major streets, on car lines or in 
districts that are losing residential character. 

School playgrounds, however, cannot as a rule serve the very small children below 
school age. Where home grounds cannot afford them the necessary play area, interior 
block playgrounds may be found satisfactory. These provide a safe place in which the 
younger children may play more or less under the watchful eyes of mothers. Such play- 
grounds are especially valuable in apartment house districts. The chief requirement is to 
make lots 130 feet or more deep, dedicating an easement for play purposes over the rear 
25-40 feet of each tier of lots. The easement, running for 10 or 20 years and subject to 
automatic renewal, unless opposed by the majority of owners, may be for the benefit 
of either the general public or for owners of property in the block. Such interior block 
playgrounds require too much attention to be properly maintained by the ordinary Parks 
Board staff, but the small play area is of real practical value when its maintenance is assured 
through a strong neighbourhood organization. 

Plavfields. 

These recreation areas generally draw from districts approximately a mile and a-half 
in diameter. A playfield should be found at every high school. Every high school site, 
in order to provide for an adequate playfield, should comprise from 15 to 25 acres. Certain 
neighbourhood parks and large parks should contain playfields, and even parkway areas 
may be widened to permit development of such facilities. The factors which seriously 
affect the usefulness of playgrounds, such as railroad yards, industrial districts, car lines 
and major thoroughfares, do not interfere so much with the use of playfields which attract 
older boys and girls who are able to travel farther and cross such barriers with safety. 

Community Centres. 

Every populous neighbourhood should have a building for its indoor social and 
recreational activities. The junior high, or in some cases the public schools are the logical 
neighbourhood centres and should be designed for such out-of-school uses. Thev need 
gymnasiums, auditoriums, branch library, art gallery and similar features. A first class 
community centre will attract attendance from a mile to a mile and a-half. 




INTERIOR. BLOCK PlAy AREAS 
OFfER. PR.OHCHON TO 
On DO. EN WHO WOULD OlMEfrJ 
St BE UPON iHfc s mtii. 



I&iotKiwiniuassivtJ/ 
lOT DEPTHS SHOULD * 
PROVIDE- IHTEMOPv V^S>^ 
BLOCK. PLAYGROU NDS \ {gv, 




PROTECTED PLAY AREAS 




COMHUMlIYCIITtRS ARt- 
NdGH&OaHOOD MUTING 
Pl*Cfc5- SCHOOLS -SHELTER) 

MOUSES IN PARKS & ' 

OTHER BUHDINGS 
WhiCH MAT 61 USI" 

FOR *D(I* RKRfAHOfT 
MAY SIftYt- 




COMMUNITY CENTERS 



%. 







S1HCOI PlfcYGROUKM (i 
(OiUiN tUEAST & ACRES 
PLAYGROUNDS SHOULD* 
KDOSQ ft PLR CHUD ENRO 



PUYGROUNDS WITH SUPtRVlSON 
l»VE IN 1DUCATIONAL AS 1YUL k\ 
RICREAtlONfcl SIGNIFICANCE. 

IRIC1S Of '4 Mill RADIUS 
SHOULD ft SERVED 



SUPERVISED SCHOOL PLAYGROUNDS 




C1B.1AIW SECTIONS Of THE 
PLEASURE DRIVE S»5I£W 
SMOUlD &E OF tHE 
FORMAL EOmE-YAflP TYPE 



THE PlUSUAE OMVt- 
SYSTEM SHOU 
IIS OftJGlh IN TH 

HE AM Of- TME-C 




OlHUV SICTiOISOF tut PLEASURE 
DRIVE- SYSTEM SMOUiE>r»tOI IhE- 

. N'rQRMAL NtluHALIStlC TYP[— 



PLEASURE DRIVES 



SWIMMING noOLS-lCNW 
COURTS- fOOTBAn 1/ 
6ASEBAII HUBS Al 
OtVElOPtDlNCONNECH 
WITH HAYMtLPS 



■PLfcYMilDS GLNlRAuV 
(SHOULD URVI Distil 
'Ol FROM 1-lHMIlt 
RADIUS ysnOUlD Bt 

jiROM p-qp*tJHAnmi 





lONE SIT Of PlAVFlUDS SHOUlD 
Bl lOtAIED AI AIL JUNIOR, ir^ 
ISEMOR «iGH VhOOlS 
[ANOTHER. SEI SHOUL.0B1IN 
1parh,<; or sricuu s i rtt 



P L A Y F I C- L D S 





[VERY SOlilll.i V 
Of RlSlDlNTlA 
SHOULD HAVE 

HUOHtOB ■!-'■: H 



A NEIGHBORHOOD PAR 
BE ABLE- 10 RINDER, IIRSt 
CLASS SIRVIC1 SHOULD HAM 
»TLl*SI W ACRIS-rRItlAABU 
10-Jt ACRES 




PARK. OF THIS 

TYPE SHOULO MH 

* PORTION 01 115 

ARIA USIO AS A. 

P. T [ IE LP 



NEIGHBORHOOD PARKS 



SWIMMING POOLS 
BATHING BEACHES 
OUTDOOR THEATRES 
TENNIS COUNTS 

SPECIAL FACILITIES 



BARTHOLOMEW # ASSOCIATES 

ClII PUN 4/ lANOKWl INOlNURS 



TYPES 

RECREATION 



OF 

FACILITIES 



VANCOUVER 
TOWN PUNNING COMMISSION 
1526 



a, 

a 



PUBLIC RECREATION REPORT 175 

Neighbourhood Parks. 

Neighbourhood parks are indispensable in the modern city. They are intimate com- 
munity recreation areas. Their great value depends chiefly upon their accessibility. A 
neighbourhood park should be within walking distance of practically every person in the 
city — one-half mile is generally considered a fair radius of the service area. 

Neighbourhood parks should be large enough to bring some impression of the country 
to the city. Twenty acres is a fair minimum size, though from 30 to 75 acres is recom- 
mended where possible. The fact that parks of this type are planned to fit into the thickly 
built up interior of the city suggests limitations as to size. They must be compact, thorough- 
ly serviceable areas designed to offer the maximum recreational advantages to those 
who live around them. They must not be of clumsy shape or loosely developed or they will 
interfere with the functioning of the city without offering compensating advantages. 

Theoretically, a neighbourhood park of 20 or 30 acres should occupy the centre of 
each square mile of residential territory in the city. The placement of such a park should 
be determined primarily by the boundaries of the district which it is to serve. Considera- 
tions of topography, groves of trees and the like should not be permitted to weigh too 
heavily against a central location. With a normal population density around it, each park 
of this type may be expected to serve approximately 2500 families. The number of people 
who will use the park, however, will be dependent upon the character of the district. 
A determination of residential areas is a prerequisite to effective neighbourhood park 
location as well as school and playground location. The availability of automobiles may 
lessen the interest of some in a recreation area so close at hand; but there will always 
be a large number who will be unable to seek relief from oppressive city conditions in long 
drives or visits to more outlying recreation areas. Many of these will enjoy walking to 
an attractive neighbourhood park. 

Large Parks. 

The modern city should be encircled by a series of large outlying natural parks. 
These areas, all connected by a system of pleasure drives, should offer wholesome retreat 
from the noisy, busy city. Topography should be a predominant factor in their location 
and their general treatment should be highly naturalistic. They should embrace and 
preserve for the city dweller all types of the native landscape around the city. Woods 
and hills, lakes and valleys of streams naturally suggest themselves as public reservations. 
More and more are contacts with wild nature necessary in this age of confinement and 
artificiality; the city must set aside choice bits of such country for later use. Each large 
park area may be developed with some distinct feature — one may be preserved as a 
wholly wild, natural park, another used as a golf course, another as an arboretum and 
botanic garden with special floral displays, while still another may serve as a zoological 
garden. 

Pleasure Drives. 

Wide, restricted traffic ways, designed to afford the motorist genuine pleasure in 
driving over them should connect all large parks. Such routes should take the form of 
boulevards where topography and existing land subdivision suggest straight, formal 
lines and parkways where streams may be followed and lines may meander over irregular 
terrain. 

In order to permit regulation of traffic, pleasure routes should be selected preferably 
through unsubdivided territory and be so planted that heavy utilitarian traffic will find 



176 A PLAN' FOR VANCOUVER 

no necessity for using either boulevard or parkway as a thoroughfare. If possible a major 
street should lie parallel to every pleasure route. Ordinary existing streets or highways 
should not be considered as possible boulevards, as it is practically impossible to restrict 
traffic on such routes to pleasure vehicles only. 

Specialized Facilities. 

Bathing beaches, swimming pools, outdoor theatres, and the like, are recreation 
features that may also be located in or connected with parks. 

Rates of Space to Population and Area. 

All the units listed above, play lots and school grounds for small children, playfields 
for youth, community centres, neighbourhood parks, large parks and pleasure drives, 
when considered as a system, reach every age group and touch every part of the city. 
In total area there should be approximately one acre for every iod persons in the city. 
For in any square mile of residential territory (8,000-12,000 persons) the apportionment 
of space should be somewhat as follows: 

Acres 

4 play lots of i acre each ...................... . ......... 4 

1 elementary school playground .... 3 

1 junior high (}{ of total playfield) ................. 3 

1 senior high (' , ; of total playfield) 3 

1 neighbourhood park -°~3° 

1 mile of pleasure drive (averaging over 250 feet wide) ....... 32 

Area in large outlying parks and reservations ................. ................ ......... 30-50 

95~ I2 5 

Excepting the area in outlying large parks and reservations, this represents approx- 
imately 10 per cent, of each square mile. In developing new territory the aim should be 
to follow these general formulas as far as possible. 

The figures in regard to park lands (including school playgrounds) now used or set 
aside, and including Little Mountain Park and 246 acres in South Vancouver reserved 
but not dedicated are (November, 1928) as follows: 






Vancouver IO >547 

Point Grey 8,516 

South Vancouver. 9,-00 



n 


* 2 


c 






■8 J 




< . 


c 

_ - 


« 3 


c < 


rt u ri 

£ 5 I 










u. 1- 


















&.< 


S. < < 


a- i- 


2- 2- 


[x]Cs,Qh 


0. a. 


i>345 


12.8 


143,000 


105 


375,000 


276 


200 


2-3 


29,000 


145 


140,000 


700 


426 


4.6 


45,000 


105 


220,000 


516 



28,263 1,981 -.1 217,000 no 7 35,000 371 

At present it can be said that Vancouver is fairly well served as compared with other 
cities. There is need for greater areas for the future city, particularly in Point Grey and 
South Vancouver. The present total of 1981 acres must be considerably increased to 
provide ten per cent, of the area of the new city in park lands and should be increased 
to 7,350 acres. This means four times the present park areas within the municipalities 
of Vancouver, Point Grey and South Vancouver. 



PUBLIC RECREATION REPORT 177 



Part II. 

EXISTING PARKS IN VANCOUVER 

It was in the year 1886 that Vancouver was incorporated as a city and the steel 
of the Canadian Pacific Railway joined the West to the East. The very next year Stanley 
Park, a military reserve of 1,000 acres, was leased to the City of Vancouver. It was opened 
and christened by Lord Stanley, then Governor-General of the Dominion, in 1889 and 
given its present name. In 1908 the park was leased to the city for a period of ninety-nine 
years, renewable. 

In 1889 Clark Park was dedicated to the city by Mr. E. J. Clark of Vancouver, 
and in the same year Hastings Park was acquired by gift from the Provincial Government. 
In 1909 this park of 160 acres was divided, one portion consisting of eighty acres being 
turned over to the Exhibition Association, the other section to the Parks Board for 
administration. Subsequently the whole area has come under the jurisdiction of the 
Vancouver Exhibition Association and a portion developed as a municipal golf course 
under their control. 

Stanley Park and Clark Park were the first parks of consequence to be reserved. 
To date the following park areas have come into public use by dedication, gift or nominal 
lease (Schedule 2). 

PARKS SECURED WITHOUT COST 

Year Park Area By Whom Dedicated 



1889 Clark Park 7.34 acres Mr. E. J. Clark 

1889 Hastings Park 160.0 acres Provincial Government Grant 

191 1 McBride Park 5.5 acres Provincial Government Grant 

1924 Victory Square 0.9 acres Provincial Government Grant 

1887 Stanley Park 1000.0 acres Dominion Government Lease 

1927 Grandview Park 2.4 acres Dominion Government Lease 

Since the dates mentioned, other parks have been acquired, but largely by purchase, 
and particularly between the years 1902 and 191 2 (as shown on the accompanying Schedule 
2). It will be noted that the average cost per acre is high, and the maximum is over 
$40,000.00 per acre. Bought in an early stage of the city's development, these parks would 
have cost but a mere fraction of what they did. 



178 A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



Schedule 2 
PARKS PURCHASED 

Cost of Land Per Acre Including Loan Expenses. 

Year Cost 

Purchased Name of Park Acres Cost Per Acre 

i 902-1 i English Bay Park ... 4.3 $143,438.75 $33,357.00 

1902 Cambie (Recreation Ground) 3. 25,000.00 8,333.00 

1902 Oppenheimer (Powell St. Recreation 

Ground) 31,800.00 13,250.00 

1902 McLean (Harris Square Recreation 

Ground) 2.4 15,900.00 6,625.00 

1902 Strathcona (Fairview) 5.5 5,306.00 964.00 

1907 Tatlow (Kitsilano) 2.7 10,600.00 3,925.00 

1909 Victoria 2.4 28,100.00 11,700.00 

1909 Robson (13th and St. George) 2.7 21,200.00 7,852.00 

1909-13 Kitsilano Beach 4.3 63,600.00 14,790.00 

191 1 Douglas (China Creek) 3.9 38,125.00 20,065.00 

1912 Garden 2.4 43,505.00 18,127.00 

1912 Connaught 14.8 145,616.89 9,839.00 

1912 Pandora (Nanaimo and Alberta) 3.7 130,663.82 35,314.00 

1912 Sunnyside (D.L. 301) 2.4 39,880.38 16,616.00 

1912 Woodland (McLean and Keefer) ... .... 1.8 77,766.00 43,203.00 

1912 Coal Harbour (Foreshore) 2.2 84,953.36 38,615.00 

58.5 $905,455.20 

Woodland and Pandora Parks are mere open spaces in working class residential 
districts. 

The public school grounds of Vancouver should normally be counted in any inventory 
of recreation areas. They have not thus far, however, been considered part of the recreation 

system. They will be examined in detail later in connection with recommendations tor 
enlarging their usefulness to the children of the city. 



PUBLIC RECREATION REPORT 179 

POINT GREY. 

The Municipality of Point Grey, since incorporation in 1908, has gradually been 
acquiring and developing land for park purposes. This acquisition, with the exception 
of small ornamental parks at street intersections, incidental to the subdivision of which 
they form part, has been entirely by purchase on the part of the municipality. 

In 1914 the total park area in Point Grey was forty (40) acres, which has increased 
to some 13^ acres in 1928. Since incorporation some $400,000 has been voted by the rate- 
payers for park purchase and development, in addition to which considerable amounts 
have been expended annually from revenue. 

Recently the ratepayers of the municipality have shown their realization of the 
importance of proper park provision and incidentally set an example to the electorate 
of the Greater City in this respect by passing a $50,000.00 bylaw for the purchase of 
their portion of Little Mountain Park by a majority of more than twelve to one. 

SOUTH VANCOUVER. 

It is only within recent years that the Municipality of South Vancouver has been 
giving serious attention to park requirements. There was granted to the Municipality 
by the first Reeve of South Vancouver and named after him, Brewer's Park, 3.6 acres. 
Another grant was made by Councillor Gray, Gray's Park, with an area of a little over 
one acre. 

Since 1924 there have been added numerous park areas that have been dedicated 
by the Municipality out of tax sale lands. There are now in all some 122 acres. Through 
the efforts of Mr. A. J. McDonald, Chairman Parks Committee of South Vancouver, 
there have been reserved from sale a further 106 acres, made up of four parcels, varying 
from ten to nearly forty acres. There is a further 140 acres of tax sale lands, which by 
the vote of the Municipality has been reserved from sale with the intention of using it 
as a municipal golf course. A municipal automobile camp in this vicinity has an area 
of ten acres and is taken advantage of to some extent by tourists. 

These reservations represent lands valued at approximately $200,000. Thus South 
Vancouver, by timely action, secures over 200 acres of park lands, which would cost 
at the rate Vancouver has paid for only 58.5 acres, $3,000.00. It is safe to state that these 
reservations in South Vancouver will be worth three million dollars in a few years and 
will add additional millions to the valuation of other property in the city. 

As yet, most of the park areas are undeveloped, but $5,000.00 was recently spent 
on Memorial Park by the Gyro Club in children's playground equipment, and $15,000.00 
by the municipality in general development. 

LITTLE MOUNTAIN PARK. 

While the area known as Little Mountain Park lies only in Point Grey and South 
Vancouver, being largely in the latter municipality, arrangements were made some years 
ago by both these municipalities and the City of Vancouver jointly to purchase the area. 
Though delays have occurred, it is expected that after amalgamation arrangements for 
this purchase will be finally completed. 

The following table shows for Vancouver, Point Grey and South Vancouver informa- 
tion in regard to the location and present use of both developed and undeveloped park lands. 



i8o 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



PARKS AND RECREATION GROUNDS 



VANCOUVER 


Park 


Area 


Location 


Type of Development 


Alexandra 


4-3 


English Bay 


.Bathing Beach 


Cambie Grounds 


3-° 


Cambie and Georgia Streets.. .. 


Athletic Ground. 


Clark Park 


7.0 


4th and Commercial 


General 


Clinton 


.... 3.5 


Grant and Clinton 




Connaught 


14.8 


10th and Larch 


Athletic Ground. 


Douglas 


1.9 


Broadway E. and Clark Drive 


Ravine (unimproved). 


Garden 


2.4 


2nd and Templeton 
10th and Pine 




Granville 


1.8 


Athletic Ground. 


Haro Playground 


. . .8 


Haro and Bute 


Playground (Super). 


Hastings 


... 160.0 


North Hastings 


Exhibition Gr. Golf. 


Kitsilano 


17.6 


Arbutus and Cornwall 


Bathing Beach (Super) 
Playground General. 


McBride Park 


5-5 


4th and Waterloo. 


Athletic Ground. 


McLean 


2.4 


Georgia and Dunlevy 


Playground (Super). 


Oppenheimer 


2.4 


Powell and Dunlevy 




Pandora 


3-7 


Nanaimo and Pandora 


Playground (Super). 


Prince Edward 


3-5 


23rd and Prince Edward ....... 




Renfrew 


3-° 


22nd and Renfrew 


Athletic Ground 


Renfrew Ball 


11. 25 


1 6th and Slocan 


Athletic Ground. 


Robson 


4-5 


Kingsway and Caroline 


Athletic Ground and 
Playground (Super). 


Rupert 


9.0 


19th and Rupert 




Strathcona 


5-5 


10th and Cambie 


General. 


Stanley Park 


1000. 


First Narrows. 


Natural Park. 


Sunnyside 


2.4 


17th and Glen 


General Park. 


Tatlow Park 


2-7 


3rd and McDonald 


General Park. 


Templeton 


4.2 


Turner and Templeton 


Athletic Ground. 


Thornton 


3-8 


Union Station 


Ornamental. 


Trout Lake 


35-° 


S. Boundary and Lakewood. 


..Undeveloped. 


Victoria 


2.4 


Victoria and Kitchener 


Floral. 


Victory Square 


•9 


Hastings and Cambie 


Floral. 


Woodland 


1.8 


Woodland and Keefer 


Athletic Ground. 


Dunbar 


3-4 


1 2th and Dunbar 


Tennis. 


Coal Harbour 


2 . 2 


Coal Harbour 


Tennis. 


H addon Gift 


4.0 


West ot Kitsilano Reserve .... 


Undeveloped. 




3-° 


Grant and Clinton 


Undeveloped. 


Grandview 


-•4 


Commercial and William 


Athletic Ground. 



PUBLIC RECREATION REPORT 



PARKS AND RECREATION GROUNDS 



POINT GREY PARKS 



Park 



Acres 



Location 



Type of Development 



Athletic Park 
Arkell Park 

Angus 

Braemar 
Chaldecott 

Devonshire 

Douglas 
Eburne 

Georgia 

Heather 
Kerrisdale 



. 6.25 Oak and Park Drive 

.20 50th and Marine Drive 

2.20 Angus Drive Ornamental. 

. 3.125 26th and Willow 

. 8.55 25th and Wallace 

3.95 Selkirk and Devonshire Crescent 

.13.16 20th and Heather Athletic Ground. 

2.404 71st and Oak 

.21.58 Crown and Marine Drive 

. 2.40 1 8th and Heather ... Tennis, Playground. 

. 3.805 41st and Larch. ... Bowling Greens and 

Athletic Ground. 

. 9.87 Trimble and Marine Drive N... Bathing Beach. 

. 4.35 Blanca and Marine Drive 

9.669 72nd and Carrier.. 

. 8.445 51st and Yew ...Wading Pool. 

.69 49th and Marine Drive Ornamental. 

A %-53 J3 r d an d Dunbar Athletic Ground. 

5.82 64th and Angus Drive 

. 1.60 33rd, 36th W. of Arbutus 

. 3.50 The Crescent ...Floral. 

. 4.232 25th and Trafalgar . 

. 0.983 2nd and Blanca 

. 9.44 6th and Trimble 

West Boulevard Floral. 

8.53 29th and Carnarvon ...Undeveloped. 

1.90 22nd and Balaclava... ...Undeveloped. 

14.21 1 6th and Carnarvon ... Undeveloped. 



Locarno 

Marine Drive 
Marpole 



Maple Grove 

Marine Triangle 

Memorial 

River View 

Ravine 
Shaughnessy 

Trafalgar 

Westmount 
West Point Grey 
Municipal Grounds 



POINT GREY and SOUTH VANCOUVER 

Little Mountain Park 100.00 Cambie and 29th Reservoir. 



182 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



SOUTH VANCOUVER PARKS 



Park 



. icres 



Location and Development 



Brewer's Park . 
Collingwood ... 
Gray's Park 
Memorial. 
Xorquay 
Prince Edward 



Riverview 
Moberley 



3.60 


Victoria Drive at 26th Avenue. 


3-3° 


Euclid and McHardy. 


1.22 


34th and Windsor. 


33SO 


43rd and Prince Albert (Recreational) 


3-°4 


Kingsway and Wales. 


2.6o 


47th and Prince Edward. 


6.63 


53rd and Main. 


3-58 


67th and Marlborough. 


2.15 


<;2nd and Tvne. 


2.56 


43rd and Wales. 


I.27 


Kingsway and Xanaimo. 


20.27 


Trout Lake. 


2.24 


37th and Main. 


I. OO 


Cambie and Marine Drive. 


2.00 


Elliott and Marine Drive. 


7-79 


<;6th and Elliott. 


1.46 


66th and Wales. 


0.627 


19th and Main. 


1.83 


65th and George. 


4.46 


47th and Nanaimo. 


10.00 


Adjoining Mountain View Cemetery. 


0.21 


Municipal Hall Grounds (Floral). 


S- l 3 


34th and Knight. 


19.80 


51st and Argyle. 


32.00 


46th and Carlton. 


1.80 


Joyce and Price Road. 


5->3 


59th and Ross. 


10.00 


Boundarv and Champlain. 


24.65 


61st and Carlton. 



PUBLIC AREAS AVAILABLE FOR RECREATION. 
(Plate 41, Page 184). 

On the accompanying map there is shown the relationship of various types ot recrea- 
tional facilities and areas provided in Vancouver and District. There is evidently an 
appreciation of the value of parks. But not all the standards herein laid down have been 



PUBLIC RECREATION" REPORT 



i83 



met. In certain districts but few of the parks have been developed, and, as already 
mentioned, provision must be made for the future. The object of the succeeding studies 
will be to determine what improvement, if any, might be made in existing facilities and 
what further facilities should be provided in accordance with the standards set up. 

A general survey of all the park assets of Greater Vancouver reveals the fact that: 

1. The city has but one park that is outstanding as to size and character. Stanley 
Park, in the minds of many visitors, is Vancouver and Vancouver is Stanley Park. Because 
of the dominance of this unit the absence of a park system and the lack of other parks 
of notable merit there is a disposition to over-build in it, to use it as a repository for all 
the animal collections, gardens, antiquities, statues and fountains tor which space has to 
be found from time to time. This excess of interest in Stanley Park and the constant 
expenditure of funds upon roads, walls, walks and other works needs to be corrected, 
not only for the preservation of the truly valuable qualities of the park itself, but tor 
the purpose of focussing public attention upon the need of a well-rounded park system. 

2. The city does not possess a well-distributed system of local or neighbourhood 
parks. With the exception of Connaught Park, 14.8 acres, and Clark Park (which can 
scarcely be considered under this classification) there is not an area ot sufficient size to 
be representative of this most usable type of park. All except Strathcona are under five 
acres. Parks of this size have some value, but cannot be developed to render proper service 
to all living in the district or to any appreciable extent affect nearby property values. 

3. Vancouver misses the great value of a continuous system ot pleasure drives. 
A city that has such an appeal to visitors needs a well-marked, specially developed park- 
like chain of drives running through the city over which visitors might be taken and 
over which the thousands who enjoy motoring might drive tor pleasure. 

4. The public schools have not been properly fitted into the recreation scheme. 
Many of the schools are without play areas ot adequate size. Few are well arranged tor 
play use and none have been fenced, planted and developed in accordance with standards 
commonly accepted elsewhere. 

5. The beaches and waterfront 
areas of the city, which are plainly 
marked for recreation use, are slowly 
being appropriated tor private purposes. 
Values are increasing. Vacant areas are 
being built upon. (See Plate 48, page 204, 
as to undeveloped areas). It is obvious 
that the ultimate need of increased 
waterfrontage and beach area is not ap- 
preciated or greater tunds would annually 
be put into the acquisition or control 
of desirable shore properties. There is no 
matter ot greater urgency than that ot 

undertakingasystematic and determined 

c \_ r 1 MacDonald School. 

campaign ot waterfront acquisition along t, . ■ t„ i 1 \* v <.• l m j 

r 6 1 . o I hts is lypical of Many Vancouver School Grounds- 

such lines as are laid down in the plans Showing Lack of Planting and Poor Grouping 

following. of Buildings. 









~ 




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™ 



PUBLIC RECREATION REPORT 185 



Part III. 
RECREATIONAL PROGRAMME 

EXISTING AND PROPOSED PLAYGROUNDS. 

As has previously been noted, the ideal recreation plan would provide play space 
for the children of the city in the following manner. 

1. By small play lots, such as Woodland Park, 1.8 acres; Cambie, 3.0 acres; Renfrew, 
3.0 acres in the city proper. Heather, 2.4 acres, and Kerrisdale, 3.8 acres in Point Grey, 
and Prince Edward, 2.6 acres in South Vancouver. Many more such small play lots should 
be developed, especially in congested neighbourhoods. 

2. By developing all school sites, so that ample, attractive playgrounds may be 
found adjacent to each building. 

ADMINISTRATION OF PLAYGROUNDS. 

(Plate 42, Page 186). 

Modern experience proves that the playground should be used both in and out of 
school hours, and that such play should be supervised. 

The accompanying plate illustrates graphically the importance to safety, health 
and happiness of the supervised playground in modern city development. 

The present supervised playgrounds in Vancouver number seven, and are known 
as McLean, Ceperley, Haro, Kitsilano, Pandora, Grandview and Robson Playgrounds. 
They are not in connection with school grounds, as is both economic and desirable. The 
supervision of these seven playgrounds, the location of which is shown on Plate 44, page 1 92, 
is only for the summer months. Supervision of playgrounds should, of course, be carried 
on throughout the year. 

In the 1912 Annual Park Report this statement is made: "Study of the way in which 
different cities control their playgrounds shows a large variety of methods. Out of 285 
cities which reported on the subject, 84 placed the control in the hands of the Recreation 
or Playground Association, 35 under the School Board, 23 by tne Park Boards, and the 
others under various combinations of management. Therefore, it is probable that in 
the future Vancouver will find it advantageous to place this work under the control of 
one department or create a special commission to guide the movement." 

As the result of this and more recent experience, and in the absence of a Playground 
Association, it is strongly recommended that a joint committee from the School Board 
and Parks Board be formed to arrange for all year-round supervision of schools and other 
playgrounds under a permanent playground supervisor. 



ADMINISTRATION OF PLAY 
& RECREATION GROUNDS 



LLUSTRATING CHANGING CONDITIONS 
SURROUNDING CHILD LIFE IN THE- 
CITY AND SUPPORTING ARGUMENTS FOR 
ADEQUATE PLAYGROUNDS AT ALL SCHOOLS 



BARTHOlOMeiV {/ASSOCIATES 

CltT Plan fcj i*N0SC»*t MGINE[-ft_C~ 




THE PRESENT DAY 



ADEQUATE PLAY FACILITIES 
NEEDED AT All SCHOOLS 



Page 



Plate 4 j 



PUBLIC RECRKATION Rfc.PORT 



187 



% 




Supervised Pla\ground in Robson Park 



There is a certain amount of economy in having all children's play activities centered 
in the public school system and administered chiefly by school officials. Supervised play 
as it is now developed is to a considerable degree educational in character. It is not in- 
cumbent upon the Parks Board to enter the field of education. It has other work to do. 
The School Board must recognize the value of play as an educational force and be pre- 
pared to utilize the natural play impulses of the child in its school programme. It is 
important, therefore, that an adequate playground be considered an essential part of 
the equipment of every school. In this connection see Plate 43, page 188, showing layout 
of typical modern school playground. 

As previously mentioned, each school should show at least 100 square feet of play- 
space per pupil enrolled, the minimum net area of the playground being two acres. In 
districts that are only partially built up, the grounds should be enlarged, if necessary, 
to accommodate the maximum anticipated enrollment. The present conditions at each 
school in the city are shown in Schedules 1, 2 and 3. 

The recommendations as to the providing of new school sites, the abandonment 
of others, and the enlarging of certain sites are shown on Plate 43. These recommenda- 
tions are based on the studies of present and future population, and the effect of abandon- 
ment or the provision of new facilities. More detailed study in conjunction with the 
School Board is recommended before any further additions are made to existing facilities. 



A PLAN" FOR VANCOUVER 













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PUBLIC RECREATION REPORT 



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A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



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PUBLIC RECREATION REPORT 193 

Plate 44 illustrates the distribution of existing schools and playgrounds. Except as 
influenced by topographical conditions, it would have been desirable economically and 
otherwise for the schools to be spaced one mile apart. 

When the school sites already proposed are developed there will be required further 
new sites as shown on the Plate. These have been located according to the standards 
set up in this report. 

It is unfortunate that so many sites have been located on what are, or what are 
planned to be, major streets. Theoretically, the school might be located in the centre of 
the rectangle formed by the intersection of major streets. It should be borne in mind 
for future locations that major streets are not desirable neighbours for school sites. Proposed 
zoning regulations assist by requiring service stations or garages to be not nearer than 
200 feet from the entrance of a school. 

There are several school sites that might be abandoned with advantage in the future. 
The site at the corner of Broadway and Granville, a busy major street intersection, now 
used as a Commercial High School, is not a suitable site for a school and is retarding 
desirable business development. The Aberdeen School is quite inadequate as regards 
playground area and is located on a major thoroughfare on which commercial develop- 
ment may be expected in the immediate future. 

The following schools are on major streets and in business districts. The schools 
marked by an asterisk are at present inadequately provided with playground area. Those 
suggested for abandonment are underlined, though Central School should be retained 
for some time. 

Vancouver Public: Aberdeen*, Central, Dawson*, Kitsilano, MacDonald*, Mount 
Pleasant, Strathcona*. 

Vancouver High: Britannia Annex, Fairview, Kin^ George. 

South Vancouver Public: General Brock, Sir Guy Carleton, Alexander McKenzie, 
North Arm, Secord. 

Point Grey Public: Oak Street. 

In the order of urgency, the programme of school playground development should 
be as follows (see Plate 44): 

En'arge Strathcona School Grounds. 
Enlarge Hastings School Grounds. 
Enlarge Florence Nightingale School Grounds. 
Enlarge Lord Nelson School Grounds. 
Enlarge Lord Tennyson School Grounds. 
Enlarge General Gordon School Grounds. 

Construct new school in West End district. 
Abandon Aberdeen School. 
Abandon Dawson School. 

Enlarge Simon Fraser School Grounds. 
Enlarge Seymour School Grounds. 

Abandon MacDonald School. 

Enlarge I. aura Secord School Grounds. 



PUBLIC RECREATION REPORT 195 



Construct new school in Hastings Townsite. 

Abandon Kitsilano School Grounds. 

Enlarge Henry Hudson School Grounds. 

Enlarge Charles Dickens School Grounds. 

And proceed generally with indicated programme for South Vancouver and Point 
Grey districts. 

Existing development of adjoining properties may render the carrying out of some 
of these recommendations impossible of achievement. In such cases consideration must 
be given to increasing the play areas by the reconstruction of school buildings and elimina- 
tion of subsidiary structures. 

(Plate 45). 

The youth of the city require playfields and athletic grounds. Those who are in 
school find adequate grounds adjacent the school for such uses. Junior High School sites 
should not be less than 15 acres in total area, and Senior High School sites from 15 to 
25 acres. Such space is needed to accommodate the ultimate school buildings and a 
properly proportioned playfield. 

On the accompanying map there is shown the location of high schools and existing 
playfields. At some of the high schools adequate playfields are provided. A list of high 
schools and playfields with play areas is as follows: 



196 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



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PUBLIC RECREATION" REPORT 



•97 




Tatlow Park, Vancouver. 
A Good Example of Neighbourhood Park Development. 



In the order of urgency, the programme of high school and playfield development 
should be as follows (see Plate 45, page 194): 

Abandon Britannia High School Annex. 

Enlarge Templeton Junior High School Grounds. 

Enlarge Clark Park. 

Abandon Fairview School. 

Enlarge John Oliver High School Grounds. 

Enlarge Lord Byng High School Grounds. 

Enlarge Kerrisdale Park. 

Enlarge Renfrew Grounds. 

Abandon King George High School. 

and, if retained, Cambie Street Grounds require enlargement. 

Additional playfields are required, as shown on the map, to serve areas of from a 
mile to one and a-half miles from each playfield. 

For the youth of the city who no longer are in school, and for active adults, there 
are needed many athletic areas in public parks. Vancouver has many small parks which 
have a playfield character, or may be developed as such, but the proper unit for these 
facilities is the neighbourhood park. 



198 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



EXISTING and PROPOSED NEIGHBOURHOOD PARKS. 

A neighbourhood park of 20 to 30 acres, when properly laid out and improved, will 
offer recreation opportunities to everyone living within walking distance, that is, within 
a distance of half a mile. It should be, first of all, a park, not a barren sports field. It 
should contain woodland areas, lawns, gardens, shelters, concert courts, lakes, fountains 
and other features commonly found in a park. There will be secluded spaces for the play 
of children and open fields within the park for the more boisterous games and sports. 
The portions of the park devoted to active recreation may have an aggregate area of 
from 7 to 12 acres. Rarely is more space needed it there is one such park serving every 
square mile of residential territory. The remaining 13 to 18 acres should be used for land- 
scape effects and the preservation of the park-like character of the unit. Experience has 
shown that one neighbourhood park area of 20 or 30 acres can be brought to a degree 
of efficiency and serviceability far exceeding that ot four or five areas of five acres each. 

Plate 46 shows all areas which may reasonably be classified as neighbourhood parks, 
whether developed or not. The district served by each is also indicated. Of all the existing 
parks of this type, only a few can be pointed to as indicating the general nature of such 
units ot the system. There is not yet a complete well-developed neighbourhood park 
in all Vancouver. Several areas will in future years lend themselves well to this type of 
improvement. Tatlow Park has some of the qualities desired in a neighbourhood park, 
although the area is small. Maple Grove Park in Point Grey is also noteworthy, but 
suffers from lack of a well-considered landscape plan. 

Vancouver does not yet appreciate the services of the landscape architect or attach 
proper value to his planning services. He is concerned primarily with the problem of 
fitting the land to human use and enjoyment and his work is well-nigh indispensable in 
giving park lands their maximum utility, whether in the production of pleasure and 
happiness through sheer beauty or through tacilities for active play and recreation. The 
park lands ot Vancouver would all produce greater returns upon the investment made 
in them it they were developed through the joint co-operative services of landscape 

architect, engineer and gardener. The 
problem ot making a neighbourhood 
park render efficient all-year service to 
all ages and classes is not merely a 
matter of constructing walks that are 
durable, pools that do not leak or ot 
planting trees and shrubs that will surely 
grow. The basic design of the area, the 
proper fitting together of its parts, are all 
important as the first steps after the 
site has been reserved. 

The specific proposals for new neigh- 
bourhood park acquisitions and enlarge- 
ment ot certain existing sites are shown 
on Plate 46, insert. 




The H'ading Pool, Maple Grove Park 




EXISTING &PKOPOSED 
NEIGHBOURHOOD 

LEGEND 

MM EXISTING NEIGHBOURHOOD PARKS 

' ■ PROPOSED EXTENSIONS &- PROPOSED 

NEW NEIGHBOURHOOD PARKS 

CIRCLES ARE 1/ZM1LE INRADIUS VINDICATE THE 
DISTRICT SERVED . THOSE OF SOLID LINE SURROU 
EXISTINS PARKS 6r-THE DOTTED THE PROPOSED PARI 



3CAif /m feer 



MARIANO BARTHOLOMEW 

erASSOCIATtJ 
TOWH PIAMWIHO rOHSunAKTS 



Plate 70 



PUBLIC RECRF.ATION REPORT 



199 




Bath House, Second Beach 

LARGE PARKS and PLEASURE DRIVES. 

(Plate 47, page 200). 

Of Stanley Park, Vancouver cannot be too proud — one thousand acres of natural 
beauty in a wonderful setting. Elbert Hubbard said, "There are parks and parks, but 
there is no park in the world that will exhaust your stock of adjectives and subdue you 
into silence like Stanley Park at Vancouver." "In all mv travels I have never seen a 
more unique or attractive park than this," was how Mr. W. E. Curtis, the traveller, 
summed up his impressions. 







Saddle 


Grand 


Autos 


Bicycles 


Horses 


Total 


38 


821 


947 


16,470 


1,114 


660 


i,9-5 


5 6 ,954 


1,685 


500 


955 


53,398 


14,164 


1,046 


177 


132,664 


23,73! 


i,338 


-94 


192,209 



PUBLIC RECREATION* REPORT 201 

Stanley Park each year, however, is becoming more of a responsibility. Its proximity 
to the central business district, its accessibility, the lack of other parks of comparable 
attractiveness, all combine to throw an increasingly heavy burden of traffic and use upon it. 

The growth of visitors to the Park is shown in the following table: 

GROWTH OF VISITORS AND TRAFFIC 
IN STANLEY PARK 

Year Persotis 

'9°5 T 4>644 

1911. ...... 53,255 

i9'3 5°,-5 8 

19-3 1*7,277 

1925 . 166,846 

This constant increase in use is having the inevitable effect of tending by slow process 
to destroy the very qualities of the park which give it character. One of the greatest 
needs of Stanley Park is a carefully studied landscape plan of the entire area and its im- 
mediate surroundings, a plan which as far as possible will anticipate all future needs and 
uses of the park. A plan which can be consistently followed in making improvements, 
and which, when finally carried out, will give Vancouver a park which thereafter will 
require only minor changes and annual maintenance. Until such a plan is prepared, the 
park will continue to sink below its possibilities and become more and more unsatisfactory. 

The utilization of the Park as a site for zoos, gardens, vacht clubs, fountains, monu- 
ments, playgrounds and other features requires careful consideration. As long as develop- 
ment is haphazard, the park will never have that unity of character or that simple and 
orderly arrangement which that magnificent creation of nature, the great forest, demands. 

Vancouver needs several additional large parks to divide interest with Stanley Park, 
to lessen the decorating, cultivating and furnishing which goes on in it now. Several 
large park sites having remarkable possibilities are available. These all should be made 
part of a park system in scale with the metropolis to be. 

Central Park is well located and has an area of some 225 acres. There are many 
large trees but no interesting change in levels, nor is it near any body of water. 

There should be a large park provided at Burnaby Mountain, as shown on the ac- 
companying plate. An area here might be reserved of some 1,300 acres, as the lands are 
largely publicly owned and are too steep for economic residential development. Such a park 
would undoubtedly add to the value of homes on the southern slopes and can be made to 
fit into a scheme of development for that area. Burnaby Mountain at its summit is the 
highest point in the Vancouver area, and from this point can be obtained an unrivalled 
panorama of the North Shore mountains, the harbour and the city itself 

The Musqueam Indian Reserve provides an important and well-located site, com- 
prising 392.5 acres, for a large park on the flats of the North Arm of the Fraser River. 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



The Kitsilano Reserve, though only some 80 acres, is a very important part of the 
proposed park system, and the following report was made on this property: 

"It is quite certain that future studies of the recreation needs of Greater Van- 
couver will confirm my present belief that all, or practically all, the Kitsilano area 
will be required as a park. Present studies of the Civic Centre project, the alignment 
of the proposed Burrard Street Bridge, and the treatment of the waterfront of the 
city indicate clearly the necessity of retaining public ownership and control of the 
tract. It would be a mistake indeed tor the Town Planning Commission to allow 
the impression to get abroad that the Indian Reserve Lands have little or no value 
except for private, industrial or residential use. It would be a serious error of judgment 
for the present municipal officials of Vancouver to permit these lands to pass out 
of public hands in the belief that the people have no interest in them or that their 
best interests will be served by the sale of the lands." 

"The public interest in the Reserve was first expressed when the area was set 
aside for the use and benefit of Indians resident in British Columbia. The Government 
was willing in those early days to set the tract apart from others because it was in- 
terested in the welfare of these first inhabitants of the province. The purpose was 
laudable whilst the Indians used the land." 

"But now they have gone and the parcel is virtually a waste space. All around it, 
however, is a growing population. Those who live in the vicinity of the Reserve now 
are those who are creating the Greater Vancouver, who are making the present day 
province. Can it be that neither the Dominion nor Provincial Governments have 
any interest in these people? It is difficult to believe that the citizens of Vancouver 
will be denied consideration if they ask for it. The Planning Commission must take 
the lead in pointing out the great possibilities and potential usefulness of the Reserve 
lands." 

"It may be well to set forth a few of the services which this area might render 
if properly developed as a public park. First, with reference to a possible Civic Centre, 
control of the opposite bank of False Creek is absolutely essential. One great ad- 
vantage of the Burrard Site over 
all others suggested is its position 
on the water. There is no better view 
of a magnificent building group than 
across a stretch of water. Park area 
on the south end of Burrard Street 
Bridge would give the bridge a set- 
ting and a right-of-way and provide 
a standpoint from which the Civic 
Centre could be seen to greatest ad- 
vantage. As a matter of fact, it will 
be impossible to devise a Civic 
Centre composition reflecting the 
future greatness of Vancouver with- 
out assuming that the Reserve will 

remain in public hands and be used copyright, w.st, n c, 1. Airway*. Ltd. 

as a park foreground of the centre." An Aerial View of the Kitsilano Reserve. 




PUBLIC RECREATION REPORT 



"A park here will become in actuality a most useful element in the intown 
recreation system. It will serve purposes which otherwise will have to be accommo- 
dated in Stanley Park, to the increasing detriment of the latter. The inroads upon 
the priceless natural assets of Stanley Park have already gone far enough and the 
only way this slow process of cultivation can be stopped is by provision of supple- 
mentary park areas. The Reserve should carry the tennis courts, baseball fields and 
other recreational facilities needed by a dense population. 

"It must not be forgotten that the Reserve will have surrounding it in future 
vears the most concentrated population of the metropolitan area. If the Reserve 
is sacrificed, this population will find no area of equal adequacy or convenience, 
and certainly not one so available as the Reserve is today." 

"The Town Planning Commission is under obligation to state the case for those 
who are to follow. It knows from its studies that thousands and thousands will live 
in apartments, hotels and closely packed dwellings in the vicinity of the Reserve in 
future years. It knows that their recreation needs will be far greater than is the case 
in these districts now. 

"It is a stroke of fortune truly that the Reserve has come down to the present 
time in public ownership. If the case were otherwise, not so much could be said. 
But, since matters stand as they are, it would seem most unfortunate if a way cannot 
be found for the transference of title to this property, so that it may continue to be 
of service to the people of all Vancouver and the province. There may be difficulties 
in the way of rights-of-way and existing leases, but these are not insurmountable 
obstacles. They can be resolved in time. Perhaps it may take twenty-five years to 
clear up all matters at issue regarding use of the lands. What is twenty-five years in 
the life time of a great city? It is of the utmost importance to get started toward 
the ultimate objective. If the people of Vancouver want this park, they can have it." 

The efforts of the Commission since the foregoing was written are highly commendable. 
Mr. W. A. Clark, Chairman of the Committee on Kitsilano Reserve Lands, has been 
indefatigable in correspondence and conference with Federal and Provincial officials, 
and it may be said that the danger of industrialization of this Reserve is, as a consequence, 
very remote and its eventual use for park purposes practically assured if the efforts of 
the Commission and the city are continued. 

Each of the proposed park areas lends itself to some special service. Burnaby Mountain, 
a forest reserve, in a sense another Stanley Park, an outlook point of great value, a great 
natural park; Burnaby Lake a game refuge, an aquatic park, perhaps a botanical garden, 
Kitsilano, a sports area with a great municipal stadium, numbers of tennis courts and 
other facilities; Deer Lake might be made a zoological park, permitting the removal of 
the animals from Stanley Park, where they are offensive and objectionable, to a site 
that can be properly prepared for them and be progressively developed to house the 
foremost animal collection in Canada. Musqueam Reserve as a sports area and scenic 
park, differing from the rest as its natural topography differs; the other areas as picnic 
parks, gardens, woodlands, golf courses and whatever uses the land may suggest. 



PUBLIC RECREATION REPORT 



20< 



UNDEVELOPED AREAS. 

(Plate 48). 

The accompanying Plate shows the very large areas that are still undeveloped, 
especially in Point Grey and South Vancouver districts. 

It cannot, therefore, be claimed that development has proceeded to an extent that 
makes the acquisition of new park sites a very expensive matter. Reference was made 
to the high cost per acre of parks acquired in the City of Vancouver between 1902 and 
191 2. Future parks need cost but very little if proper steps are taken now for their acquisi- 
tion, especially in view of the fact that many acres of undeveloped areas in Vancouver, 
South Vancouver and Point Grey are publicly held. 

BEACH and SHORE DEVELOPMENT. 

The recreational waterfront of Vancouver is as closely linked with the progress and 
development of the city as the harbour and commercial waterfrontage. In the general 
town planning scheme it is essential to set up a proper balance in the use of the shore 
line and beaches of the city. By far the greater part of the shores of Burrard Inlet must 
be reserved tor industry and commerce. This use is wholly logical. The shores of Stanley 
Park are definitely reserved as part of the marine landscape and their use for this purpose 
has given the city distinction and character. The shores of English Bay are in a transition 
stage. The lands along the water are largely in private hands, but few improvements exist 
upon them to fix their character definitely or to raise prices to exorbitant levels. 

Of the total English Bay waterfrontage, from Stanley Park to Burrard Street, on 
the north side, and from the B.C. Electric trestle to the University Lands, on the south, 
a total of 5.4 miles, the ownerships are as follows: Public, 1.6 miles; private, 3.8 miles. 

This shows only 30 per cent, of the frontage now under public control. The entire 
shore line should be a public possession, and, as may be seen in plate 47, page 200, a pleasure 
drive should follow it throughout. There are few cities indeed which have such an oppor- 
tunity as now lies before Vancouver, to save its foreshore for recreation and scenic purposes 
without handicapping shipping or industry. Chicago is paying princely sums to recover 
waterfrontage such as Vancouver can have at small cost by timely action. There is no 
question as to the propriety of using the shores of English Bay for purposes other than 
those commonly known as utilitarian. 
The st "vice of each foot of these beaches 
in producing wholesome pleasure and 
sound bodies for thousands every year is 
just as important and as vital to the wel- 
fare of the city as if these same stretches 
of shore were occupied by smoking fact- 
ories or busy wharves and docks. Whowill 
say, as long as there is a proper balance of 
these land uses and no interference, that 
one use is more important than another? 
An exhaustive survey of industrial sites 
appears in the transportation report and 
indicates no shortage of usable water- 
frontage for the bread-and-butter act- 
ivities of the city of the future. English Buy Bathing Reach. 




2o6 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



In the final development of the public shores of both the Inlet and the Bay, it is 
believed that the following general plans should be followed: 

1. Coal Harbour should be cleaned up. An effort should be made to secure a complete 
reconstruction of the street frontage along Georgia Street from Cardero or the 
intersection of Georgia and Pender Streets to the park. The city, the Canadian Pacific 
Railway or private capital should be interested in rebuilding the structures which 
serve the waterfront here, doing away with small, nondescript, single buildings 
and replacing them with well-designed, permanent structures. 

2. From the Arena west the waterfront should be reclaimed and a sea wall built along 
this section, terminating in a filled recreation pier running out toward the channel 
from the Arena and terminating in a bastion. This wide filled pier with planting on 
it, and perhaps a covered promenade, would shut off the view of the remainder 
of the Coal Harbour waterfront from the park entrance. 

3. Deadman's Island should be reclaimed and consolidated with the park, perhaps 
being made the home of the yacht clubs which now, from a landscape standpoint, 
seem to be poorly located along the shores of the park. 

4. Considerable revision of drives, parking spaces and promenades is desirable all around 
the park, especially in the vicinity of second beach, but these are matters to be 
taken up in the preparation of a general development plan for the park. 

5. Vacant property on the north shore of English Bay should be acquired as fast as 
funds permit. This is where there is now the greatest danger of development which 
will set the city back twenty years in its plan to control this waterfrontage. 

6. The planning of Kitsilano Reserve waterfrontage should be co-ordinated with the 
Civic Centre plans on the opposite shore. 

7. The two blocks between Arbutus and Yew Streets and north of Cornwall should be 
acquired at an early date to round out Kitsilano Beach Park. 

8. All vacant lands lying between Point Grey Road and the foreshore east of Alma 

Road should be purchased. Theimproved 
parcels can be acquired later as the dwell- 
ings become obsolete. 

9. All the land lying between Marine 
Drive and the water should be placed 
under municipal or local government 
control. Vista lines through the trees 
need to be opened. The whole drive 
shows the need of a more definite and 
fixed policy with respect to its mainten- 
ance and development. The signs on trees 
and poorly maintained outlook points 
are evidence of this. There are inade- 
quate guarantees now against the further 
invasion of this area by tea houses, 
rilling stations, camps and dwellings. 
All these interests should be on the 
opposite side of the drive. 




Copyright, WiJ.ni (' 



idn Airways, I.I.I. 



Aerial View of the English Bay Foreshore, 

Recommended as a Murine Drive Promenade. 



PUBLIC RECREATION REPORT 207 

PLEASURE DRIVES. 

The growing use of the automobile is focusing the attention of cities more and more 
upon the need of a system of parkways and formal boulevards. 

The motor car is a pleasure-giving device of extraordinary value. In every month 
there are millions of hours spent by people of all classes, just riding, riding for pleasure. 
There is fascination in a changing picture such as one gets from the window of a smooth- 
running motor car. The same thousands who provide daily support for the motion pictures 
are equally devoted to riding in leisure hours here and there in an automobile. Few 
families today are without a car, and, regardless of economic conditions, they manage 
to ride. 

This riding, however, is rarely aimless. There is generally a desire to go over some 
particular route or to some special objectives. The parks in Vancouver, the University, 
Grouse Mountain are such objectives. The principal pleasure routes are Marine Drive, 
Douglas Road, Kingsway and the routes through Stanley Park. Marine Drive is one of 
the outstanding features of the region, a pleasure route of which all Canada can rightly 
be proud. As time goes on, it can be made second to none on the continent. 

Vancouver lacks, however, a continuous chain of pleasure drives developed for the 
primary purpose of accommodating the increasing thousands of vehicles driven for pleasure. 
It is time the city considered giving those who find great enjoyment in these leisure-time 
and holiday tours a special route touching many of the larger parks and having qualities 
not possessed by ordinary city streets. The basic framework of such a system is already 
available. With little effort, except consistent progressive execution of a general plan, the 
city can secure many miles of pleasure drives of great merit. 

The routes proposed are shcvn upon Plate 47, page 200. Briefly, the routes may be 
analyzed as follows: 

1. Around the City Boulevard, commencing at Granville and Georgia, thence over 
Georgia to Stanley Park, around the water's edge, along English Bay, across False 
Creek by a new Burrard Street Bridge, along the south shore of the Bay (all structures 
between drive and waterfront to be cleaned out in time), around the Marine Drive 
to New Westminster, across to Burnaby Mountain, and along the shores of the 
Inlet to Hastings Park, from which point the major street system will serve to carry 
one back into the business district. 

2. A Central Parkway along a route bisecting the city longitudinally, from the 
University via 25th Avenue (132 feet wide) to Trout Lake, thence along Still Creek 
to and around Burnaby Lake and via a parkway of varying width along the Brunette 
River to New Westminster. 

3. Cross City Boulevards. 

(a) From the shores of English Bay via Waterloo Street and the replotted lands 
in Point Grey and Yew Street to Marine Drive. 

(b) From the intersection of Granville and Georgia via Cambie Street south to 
Little Mountain Park, thence southerly through the at present unsubdivided 
C.P.R. Lands to Ash Street and Marine Drive. 

(c) Follows Victoria Drive from Burrard Inlet in a southerly direction to connect 
with the Central Parkway at Trout Lake. 



scale of cross secdoh s 

, >o b O S 10 is o ?; » 

OKE INCH EQUALS TEH FEfT 

19?? 



Suggested Cross Sections of Pleasure Drives 
-Vancouver- 5.0- 



HARIAND BARTHOLOMEW 

CITV PLAN ENGINEER 







SINGLE l?OADWAY BOULEVARDS 

SIX LINES 



;,,* .s ;t. . . 






y&r •*{£& KsfiJ 




ABUIIDINGSETBACKOFJOFEETOR MORE ADDS . 

GREATLY TO THE DIGNITY OF THE STREET- PROPER i— i— '— 
TREE PLANTING WILL GIVE IT CHARACTER Ki-j-G-U-s 



THE FOUR CINE BOULEVARD CAN BE REDUCED TO 
A MINIMUM Of 8OFEFT IF NECESSARY BUT THIS WO 
ODES NOT PROVIDE FOR A FIRSTClASS TREE PLANTING 



, I I I— 1 i A MINIMUM Of 8OFEET IF NECESSARY BUT THIS WOT 

L-54-g4s4-&4 s -' 



4 



DOUBLE ROADWAY BOULEVARDS 



EIGHT LINES 
SIX LINES 
EOUP LINES 



F^-l — * f g& 



=CT 



THE CENTER STRIP 
OF DOUBLE ROADWAY 
BOULEVARDS SHOULD 
5E GENEROUS 
A THOROUGHFARE 
OF THIS TYPE SHOULD 
NOT BE LESS THAN 
IOO FEET WIDE 



DOUBLE ROADWAY BOULEVARDS WITH STREET CAR LINE 






EIGHT LINES 
SIX LINES 
SIX LINES 



4^ 













J 

HT IF STREET CARS 
- J APE TO BE AC- 
COMODATED ON 
A DOUBLE ROAD- 
WAY BOULEVARD 
THEYSIIOUIDBEIN 
THE CENTER STRIP 
AND OBSCURED 
BY PIANTING 



TRIPLE ROADWAY BOULEVARDS 






1 M iftfl 1 i igj^ainS) [ « jgji I 

— ■• I 1 " T — -°' 1 ^4^-4— < — 4—1- -I- *-+— ^t^-U 



4 u 



23^ 



I IT Y 



THE NATURALISTIC PARKWAY 







Page 208 



Plate 4Q 



PUBLIC RECREATION REPORT 



209 



(d) Follows Boundary Road from Burrard Inlet to Marine Drive. 

(e) From Burnaby Lake, around the easterly shores of Deer Lake to Roberts Street, 
thence southerly along Roberts to Marine Drive. 

TYPES OF PLEASURE WAYS and MINIMUM STANDARDS. 

A distinction is made between Boulevards and Parkways. The former are generally 
considered as straight, uniformly planted, formal thoroughfares, the latter informal, 
irregular, meandering drives of varying width. 

Roadway in Centre — No Street Cars. 

The minimum should be a tour-line vehicular roadway, 36 feet. Two rows of trees 
in each side parking. Building set back 30 feet. Minimum width, 80 feet. 

Double Roadway — No Street Cars. 

The minimum can be a two-line roadway each side, 20 and 20, total 40 feet. Centre 
parking not much less than the total width of roadway, say 36 feet. One row trees in each 
wide parking. Minimum width 100 feet. This type can be converted into a six-line thorough- 
fare when right-of-way is 120 feet or more, by widening each two-line roadway 6 feet, 
the widening to be from the side parking. A four-line roadwav on each side of a centre 
parking requires a minimum width of 150 feet. 

Double Roadway — Double Car Line. 

For cars, 20 feet. Planting, either side tracks, minimum 6 feet, total 52 feet. Three- 
line roadway each side, 26 and 26, total 52 feet. Double row trees in parking. Minimum 
width 1 10 feet. 

Triple Roadway. 

Centre roadway, 4 lines, 36 feet. Double row trees each side, 80 feet. Side roadways, 
2 lines each, minimum 40 feet. Minimum over all width 200 feet. 

These are in no sense invariable proposals. A closer study of existing conditions 
at the time of making detailed plans may occasionally suggest modification of proportions 
and general treatment. 

SWIMMING POOLS and TANKS. 

It would seem like carrying coals to Newcastle to urge the necessity of swimming 
baths and tanks in Vancouver, yet there is a need for such facilities, a need which is also 
urged by Mr. J. Munro, President of the Canadian Amateur Swimming Association 
(B.C. Section). They have value, not only for winter use, but experience has shown that 
many of these swimming pools are used more in summer than in winter. For indoor pools 
it is recommended that there should be two small units, rather than one large unit, so 
that accommodation is always available to the general public should one of the tanks 
be in use for some special event. Swimming tanks are of especial value in schools. 

Vancouver at present has several privately owned tanks, such as those at the 
Y.M.C.A., Chalmers' Church, Canadian Memorial Church and the old Vancouver Athletic 
Club. 

By way of comparison, it may be pointed out that in Victoria there are three tanks, 
all bigger than any in Vancouver, of 60, 85 and 150 feet in length respectively. 



2io A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 

Some of the sites suggested are opposite the C.N.R. depot on city-owned property 
(salt water). Hastings Park and Stanley Park at Lost Lagoon. Other sites, more central, 
have been mentioned, but on account of their cost the property would be difficult to 
acquire. The whole matter is undoubtedly one for serious consideration. Mr. Munro 
suggests a recreation committee of the Council in conference with the various authorities 
concerned. 

MOUNTAIN PARKS. 

In addition to the large park units noted above, Vancouver must consider among 
its park assets the mountain areas nearby. 

This city is rich indeed in having at its threshold, in the heights on the north shore 
of Burrard Inlet, an Alpine playground, and the importance of retaining these areas 
unspoiled, in all their natural grandeur, cannot be too strongly stressed. Here, within 
easy reach of the city, are unexcelled facilities for the enjoyment of winter sports, alpine 
climbing, hiking, etc. There is also Mount Garibaldi, to which a motor road must soon 
be built; the upper reaches of the North Arm, and other mountain playgrounds accessible 
to thousands in the city. These not distant retreats have great value in the park scheme, 
for they supply recreation opportunities which cannot be maintained in areas within the 
city. They offer peace and quiet, clear air and contacts with nature unadorned. The 
people of Vancouver are fortunate indeed to have park areas close at hand which can 
render such highly valuable service. 

It is on the North Shore, too, that Vancouver obtains its water supply, and, in order 
to ensure absolute freedom from contamination, the watersheds above the intakes are 
necessarily inviolate and closed to the public, except under special conditions. 

It is recommended that, when the Water Board has finally decided upon the areas 
required in order to supply the future city, steps be taken to protect those areas not so 
required for the citizens. Hollyburn Ridge, Lynn Valley and the slopes of the ridges 
along the west side of the North Arm particularly lend themselves for retention for this 
purpose. 

CONCLUSION. 

In conclusion, it may be said again that this whole system of parks and recreation 
grounds is planned to reach every age group in every portion of the city. Those who find 
great satisfaction and mental refreshment in the contemplation of natural landscape 
features will have scenic drives, woodlands, lakes and water courses preserved for them. 
Those who enjoy gardens and promenades will find their desires satisfied in neighbourhood 
parks and squares. The pleasures of motoring on Sundays and holidays will be gratified 
on long, well-planted and developed parkways and boulevards touching, at intervals, 
parks of different types. The gclfers, cricket and ball players and athletes will meet on 
easily accessible grounds set aside for these uses. The children of every school district 
will find grounds of their own close at hand upon which they can play in safety. A city 
of a million inhabitants with such a system of public grounds provided for the use of the 
people would be a healthy city, a happy city, one in which people would be proud to live. 
The cost of securing all these things, it spread wisely over a period of ten or twenty years, 
would scarcely be felt and would not bear comparison with the benefits and advantages 
accruing to the city. 



ZONING" MAP 




DHnnOQBOC 



im^gFPBf 



VANCOUVER 

BRITI SH COL UMBIA 

VANCOUVER, 
TOWN PLANNING COMMISSION 
l<32T 



UARLAND BARTHOLOMEW 
& ASSOCIATES 
TOWN PLANNING CONSULTANTS 



Plate 50 



ZONING 



INTRODUCTION". 

It is probably true that no city has ever launched a Town Planning Programme 
realizing to the full all the advantages to be gained thereby. As a rule there are one or 
more compelling factors that emphasize to some of the citizens the need tor some phase 
of Town Planning. In the case of the rapidly growing City of Vancouver, building diffi- 
culties, which frequently tended to become a "storm centre of conflicting opinion and 
personal animosities," beset the Council. The solution of these difficulties lay in the 
adoption of a modern zoning by-law, the preparation of which involves the study of those 
different phases of a city's growth, which, in combination, make up the city plan. 

When consultants were engaged by the Town Planning Commission, they were asked 
to prepare, as a first step, a zoning by-law. This was shown to be impossible if the by-law 
were to be of real future usefulness. Time was required for such a measure to be prepared. 
As a temporary solution of the problem, and largely to prevent the intrusion of apartment 
houses in single or two-family residential areas, an interim zoning by-law was prepared 
and approved by the Town Planning Commission, recommended to the Council, and 
became law on 5th February, 1927. Only three kinds of districts were provided for: One 
and two-family districts, apartment districts and unrestricted districts. In the first two 
mentioned districts, the size of yards was regulated, but no provision was made for 
restricting building height. In the unrestricted districts no regulations of any kind were 
prescribed. 

And now, after more than two years' 
study, a comprehensive zoning by-law, co- 
ordinated with the other phases of the plan, 
has been approved by the City Council, the 
by-law being passed December 17th, iq:S. 
(Plate <;o, Insert). 

It is necessary, in the preparing of a 
comprehensive zoning by-law, to make, in 
addition to giving due consideration to the 
other phases of the city plan, certain 
studies and investigations, which are 
peculiar to zoning alone. 

On the succeeding pages these studies 
and the results of the investigations will 
be brief!) summarized. 




A Store Intrusion in the West End. 



-12 A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 

USE MAP. 

This map, on which is indicated the use of all land and buildings within the City of 
Vancouver, represents the result of a careful survey, each and every property being 
inspected in its preparation. 

INDUSTRIAL MAP. 

This map indicates the locations of all industries, the railway owned lands and 
garages and was prepared to facilitate the study of these features. 

The information obtained in these two studies has been tabulated, and is as follows: 



USE OF BUILDINGS AND LAND IN THE CITY OF VANCOUVER 



Use 


Number 


Acreage 


Percentage 


Totals 


Residential: 










One-Family 


2 ^! ,07q 


2,200 


21.00 




Two-Familv 

Multiple Dwellings..., 


35 1 

622 


36 
90 


•3o 
.80 


- 21.30 
.80 


Commercial: 










Hotels.. 

Offices 


74 


21 


.20 




Stores 


4.4-5 


207 


2.00— 


2.20 


Industrial: 










Industries, Light ..... .. 

Heavy 




I 'JO 


1.25 
'•35 






1 4.0 




Railway Lands. 




600 


„-. 


5.70 


b.30 



Institutions, Parks, Etc. 

Private Open Space. 23 .20 

Semi-Public Buildings 38 .35 

Hospitals 28 .25 

Public Buildings 10 .10 

Schools 91 .80 

Parks . ... . 1,380 '3-'° 

Streets and Lanes 3>°79 29.20 

Farms and Large Holdings 24(1 2.30 — — 46.30 

Unoccupied 2,228 21.10 21.10 



100% 100% 



ZONING REPORT 



213 



Though compiled in a more general way, these figures for Point Grey may be used 
for comparison with the foregoing table. 



Use 



Acreage Percentage Totals 



Occupied 3,645 

(Mostly Residential). 

Institutions, Parks, Etc. 

Musqueam Indian Reserve 

Bed of North Arm, Fraser River. 

Schools 

Parks 

Streets and Lanes.. 

Golf Courses 

Unoccupied. 



9,182 



39- 6 



410 


4-5 


371 


4.0 


26 


°-3 


U3 


!-5 


2,100 


23.0 


490 


5-3- 


2,007 


21.8 



39-6 



100% 



38.6 



21. 



100% 



HEIGHT MAP. 

The Height Map (November, 1927) shows all buildings of three or more storeys in 
height. There were found to be 839 such buildings, and of these only 3^3 were in excess 
of three storevs. An analysis of the latter is as follows: 



Number 



Accumulative 

Storevs Number Percent Percent 

13 or more 5 1.5 1.5 

»-ia~ 5 J -5 3-° 

9-10 . 8 2.0 5.0 

7-8 38 11.0 16.0 

4- 6 297 84.0 100.0 

353 IO °% 



5 over 1 2 storeys 

10 over 10 storeys 

18 over 8 storeys 

<;6 over 6 storeys 

353 over 3 storeys 



LOT WIDTH MAP. 

The Lot Width Map indicates the width of all lots, whether occupied or not. It was 
found that the majority of residential lots are 33 feet in width. These are chiefly located 
in Hastings Townsite and west of Trafalgar Street. South of False Creek between Trafalgar 
and Cambie Streets the majority of residential lots are of a width of 50 feet or more. 

DENSITY MAP. 

The Density Map indicates the number of square feet of lot area per family for 
each occupied property. 



ai 4 A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 

SPECIAL STUDIES. 

Streets largely undeveloped, but zoned for business (unrestricted) under Interim 
Zoning By-Law. 

In particular, Fourth Avenue and Broadway in the Kitsilano district have been for 
years considered business streets; there has, however, been but little development, as 
there has been small demand for stores and no inclination to erect residences, where their 
desirability was imperilled by the possible construction of commercial buildings. To 
justify the placing of certain portions of these streets in a residential classification, studies 
were prepared to demonstrate the sporadic nature of the business development, not- 
withstanding the built-up character of adjacent residential areas. 

As a result, certain sections were recommended by the Commission for inclusion in 
the three-storey multiple dwelling classification. These recommendations, however, 
aroused a considerable diversification of opinion on the part of the property owners, and 
in passing upon the provisions of the by-law, the City Council ruled that these areas 
were to be placed under commercial classifications. 

The following table shows the result of the studies made on Fourth Avenue and 
Broadway. 

FOURTH AVENUE and BROADWAY 

ZONED THROUGHOUT AS UNRESTRICTED, BUT LARGELY UNDEVELOPED 

FOR BUSINESS. 

IANUARY, 1928 
FOURTH AVENUE - 

Alma Road-Granville: 

Total Available Frontage 17,680 feet 

Total Store Frontage .. 4>74^ feet 

Less Vacant Frontage 475 feet 4,-7' feet 

Per Cent, of Available Frontage Developed with Occupied Stores -4% 

BROADWAY- 

Ai.ma Road-Granville: 

Total Available Frontage. ... 18,440 feet 

Total Store Frontage 1,876 feet 

Less Vacant Frontage 335 feet T >54° feet 

Per Cent, of Available Frontage Developed with Occupied Stores 8% 

Granville-Kings way: 

Total Available Frontage ... ... 15,240 feet 

Total Store Frontage 3,800 feet 

Less Vacant Frontage 424 feet 3,37^ feet 

Per Cent, of Available Frontage Developed with Occupied Stores ... 22% 

Kingsway-Grandview Highway: 
Total Available Frontage... 11,540 feet 

Total Store Frontage 1 ,4 1 9 feet 

Less Vacant Frontage .... 144 feet ] ,-75 *eet 

Per Cent, of Available Frontage Developed with Occupied Stores 11% 



ZONING REPORT 



215 




Plate 51 



TREND OF BUILDING DEVELOPMENT. 

(Plate 51). 

From the 1st of January, 1923, to 1 ith August, 1927, there were erected in Vancouver 
4,633 buildings, distributed by years as follows: 

1926 
1182 



Dwellings 
Others 



1921 1924 1925 1920 1927 

448 616 822 1 1 82 884 
145 104 174 211 107 



59.1 



720 



996 



1393 



95 ] 



The map shows the location of those buildings and was compiled from the records 
in the office of the City Architect. 

WIND ROSES DIAGRAM. 

The meteorological records were consulted and diagrams prepared showing the prevail- 
ing winds by seasons and by years for the past four years. These indicate that the general 
prevailing winds are from the east and south-east. Wind velocities, however, are generally 
extremely low. 



DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION. 

(Plate 17, Page 92). 

A dot map was prepared showing the distribution o\ population in Greater Vancouver. 
Each dot representing <;o persons. This was prepared from the location of residences, 
or where this information was not available, from the number of water services. The 
number of persons per family or per residence was taken to be from three to over five, and 
was checked with the estimated population in the various districts. These figures, obtained 
from various sources, were as follows: 



2l6 



A PLAN FOR VANCOL'VKR 





A Comparison. Two Vancouver Apartments. 



This Apartment Occupies soo% of its Site, and is an 
Example of Too Intensive Property Use. 



An Apartment Conforming with the 
Zoning Regulations. 



Vancouver ij.3,<;6o 

Point Grey 29,000 

South Vancouver... 45,000 

Burnaby 26,000 

New Westminster ... 20,000 



(September, 1928) 
Wrigley Directories Ltd. 
191,360 

45,no 

41,210 
21,710 
-J, 1 4° 



263,560 3--,53° 

For Vancouver the number ot dwellings, one-family, two-family and multiple, was 
found to be 23,079, 351 and 662 respectively. The total number of families was counted 
as 29,859 and the total population (on a careful estimate of persons per family, the factor 
varying in different parts of the city) to be 143,560 in January, 1928, or, on the average, 
4.8 persons per family; the census returns for 1921 gives q.45 persons per dwelling and 
4.2 persons per family. The population at 1st January, 1927, as given by the City Assessor, 
was 137,197, and a 5% increase is therefore shown by the figure 143,560 since obtained 
(142,150 was the Assessor's figure in July, 1927). 

A detailed survey was made of all apartment houses and tables were prepared showing 
the name, location, number of storeys, ground area, percentage of site covered by building, 
number of suites, number of suites vacant, estimated population and the amount of lot 
area per family for each apartment building. 

Ot large apartments, the most congested was the Royal Alexandra, recently damaged 
by fire. It is seven storeys in height and has but 86 feet of lot area per family. Of 107 
apartment buildings in the West End, just half, or 54, were found to provide less than 
400 square feet of lot area per family, or less than the amount generally considered to 
be a desirable minimum. 

In the whole city there were found 662 apartment houses, having a population of 
12,764, or less than 20 persons per apartment house. This figure includes those buildings 
in which only a portion is utilized for apartment purposes, as well as those devoted entirely 
to that use. 



ZONING REPORT 



GENERAL ZONING DATA. 

For comparison with other cities, a tabulation was adopted and used in determining 
the relative sizes of districts to be prescribed by the zoning by-law. 

In examining this table, attention is directed to the amount of occupied store frontage 
in relation to the population served as determined by its distance from the general business 
district. While the total amount of store frontage in a city, especially in the central business 
district, depends on the character of the city and its relationship to surrounding areas, 
the amount in zones removed from the general business district can be compared with 
profit with similar figures for other cities. The greater the distance from the general business 
district the less is found to be the number of feet of occupied store frontage per ioo 
population. 

In Vancouver the figures for the zone nearest the general business district are about 
fifty feet, while the zone furthest removed from the general business district shows less 
than 12 feet of business frontage per ioo persons of local contributing population, the 
average being 39.5 feet. 

ZONING DATA 

1. Area of City _____ _____ 10,547.2 

2. Developed Areas: 

(a) Streets and Lanes 3>°79 

(b) Parks- 1,380 

(c) Schools, Hospitals, Institutions, Churches _ 167 

(d) Built-up Areas Other than (c) ..... _____ 2,824 



acres 


16.50 sq. 


mi. 


acres 


4.80 sq. 


mi., 41.4% 


acres 


2.16 sq. 


mi., 18.5% 


acres 


.26 sq. 


mi., 22 % 


acres 


4.42 sq. 


mi., 37.9% 



Total Developed Area.. 7>45° acres 11.64 sq. mi., IOO % 

3. Population: 

(a) Of City 143,560 

(b) Per Square Mile of Developed Area l2 ,33° 

4. Single-Family Dwellings: 

(a) Number 2 3>°79 

(J>) Number of Persons Housed . 103,855 (4.5 persons per dwelling) 

(c) Per Cent, of Population Housed 7 2 -3% 

(d) Per Cent, of Developed Area Occupied ... 2 9-5% (2,200 acres of total 7,450) 

5. Two-Family Dwellings: 

(a) Number.... .. 351 

(b) Number of Persons Housed 2,457 (7 persons per dwelling) 

(c) Per Cent, of Population Housed !-7% 

(d) Per Cent, of Developed Area Occupied .<;% (36 acres of total 7,450) 

6. Multiple Dwellings: 

(a) Number of Buildings 662 

(b) Number of Apartment Suites 5,586 

(c) Number of Persons Housed . 12,764 (Population) 

(d) Per Cent, of Population Housed 8.9% (Not including hotels, etc.) 

(e) Per Cent, of Developed Area Occupied i-2% (90 acres of total 7,450) 



2i 8 A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 

(/') Number of Blocks Having One or More 

Multiple Dwellings..... 421 

(g) Average Number of Buildings Per Block 
Occupied by One or More Multiple Dwel- 
lings .. 1% 

(h) Average Number of Persons Per Family in 

Apartments 2>£ per family. 

7. Retail Business: 

(a) Number of Stores 4,425 (Vacant 295, or 4,130 occupied) 

(b) Per Cent, of Developed Area Occupied... 3.1% (228 acres of 7,450) 

(c) Frontage Total (feet) 102,356 (Occupied 96,232) 

{d) Average Frontage per Store 23.1 feet 

(1?) Frontage per 100 Persons .. 71.3 feet (Occupied, 67 feet) 

1. General Business District: 

Total Frontage . 48,981 (occupied) 

Population Served (Total Population of City). 143,560 

Frontage per 100 34.2 

2. First Zone, Approximately One-Half Mile to One Mile Beyond 

General Business District: 

Total Frontage 22,317 (occupied) 

Population Served (Population in 1st Zone)... 37**57 

Frontage per 100 Persons ;o. 1 

3. Second Zone Beyond General Business District, Approximately 

2^-Mile to 2 Miles: 

Total Frontage T 8,317 (occupied) 

Population Served (Population in 2nd Zone) .... 52,934 

Frontage per 100 Persons 35.1 

4. Third Zone, Approximately 2 Miles to 2 l A Miles Beyond General 

Business District: 

Frontage .... 5,055 (occupied) 

Population Served '7,967 

Frontage per 100 Persons . 28.1 

5. Fourth Zone, Approximately 2'< Miles to 4 Miles Beyond General 

Business District: 
Frontage... 1,298 (occupied) 

Population Served . 11,178 

Frontage per 100 Persons [1.6 

8. Light Industry: 

(a) Area Occupied (square miles) .... 130 acres, 0.2 sq. miles 

(/?) Per Cent, of Developed Area Occupied ... 1.7% 

(c) Square Feet per 100 Persons 3>945 sc l- ft- 

9. Heavy Industry: 

(a) Area Occupied (square miles).. 140 acres, .22 sq. miles 

(b) Per Cent, of Developed Area Occupied ... 1.9% 

(c) Square Feet per 100 Persons . . 4,248 sq. ft. 



ZONING REPORT 



219 



10. Present Uses in Per Cent (Area Basis): 

One-Family Dwellings 73.6 2,200 acres 

Two-Family Dwellings... 1.2 36 

Multiple-Family Dwellings 3.0 90 

Schools, Churches, etc. 5.6 167 

Retail Business 7.6 228 

Light Industry 4.3 130 

Heavy Industry 4.7 140 

Total Built-up Area of City 100% -,991 acres 

ADEQUATE PROVISION MADE FOR COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT. 

The relation ot population to business frontage has received a good deal of attention 
in the zoning studies. To obtain this information, tables were prepared showing, for each 
block, its gross and net area, its present population and the occupied business frontage. 
As estimated, there will be a population, within the present city limits, of over 370,000 
persons when the city has filled up with the population possible under the density permitted 
in the zoning by-law. The present amount ot business frontage per 100 persons throughout 
the city is 67 feet, and there has been provided for the future a frontage of 73 feet. 

The Commission feels well repaid tor the labour occasioned in the preparation of this 
information, which, in addition to its usefulness in the framing of the zoning by-law, 
has already been ot considerable service to several public and semi-public organizations, 
according to letters received from them. 

The population estimate for West Vancouver is 8,000, and for North Vancouver 
City and District 22,000. Adding to these figures the south shore population of 263,560, 
the population ot the city and surroundings totals 293,560. (Wrigley's Directories give 
344,160, September, 1928). A consideration of these estimates, together with the existing 
37,350 feet of business frontage in the general business district, shows that there are 12.5 
feet of general business frontage per 100 persons of contributing population. With this 
figure as a basis, there would be required 125,000 feet of business frontage in this district, 
when the population ot the city reaches 1,000,000. This estimate is high, as it does not 
take into account the effect ot the formation of important secondary business centres. 
It is therefore reasonable to disregard, for the purposes of this estimate, the comparatively 
small business frontage devoted to any population within the general business district 
itself. 

In the General Business District there are I4K miles of frontage on proposed major 
streets, and io}4 miles of frontage on other streets, making a total of 25 miles of frontage 
or some 130,000 feet. These approximate calculations are put forward merely as a general 
corroboration of the statement that the present general business district is sufficiently 
large to permit of a development that will serve Vancouver for the future. 

There are proposed for the City of Vancouver 131 miles of frontages on major streets, 
ot which i4 T j miles are in the general business district, leaving llS}4 miles, or 615,000 feet, 
ot local frontage. If this were all to be used for stores, taking the very generous factor of 
50 feet per 100 population, there could be served 1,230,000 persons within the Vancouver 
district, but, as previously mentioned, the future population within the district is estimated 
at about 370,000. This comparison is sufficient to show that it is not necessary or good 
practice to make provision for the development of major streets with stores throughout 
their length. 



220 A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 

GENERAL PROVISIONS OF ZONING BY-LAW. 

(Plate 50, Insert, Page 211). 

As passed December 17th, 1928, the Zoning By-law supersedes the "Interim" Zoning 
By-law, which' was passed in February, 1927. 

Instead of three, there are now ten districts and in each district complete regulations 
are provided, not only as to use, but also as to height, size of yards required and the 
density of population to be permitted. 

The suggested preamble not now included in the Zoning By-law fully explains its scope: 

"A By-law to regulate and restrict the location and use of buildings and the use 
of land within the City of Vancouver; to limit the height and bulk of buildings; to 
prescribe the size of yards and other open spaces and the maximum density of popu- 
lation and for these purposes to divide the city into districts. 

Whereas, after considering the recommendations of the Vancouver Town Planning 
Commission, it appears advisable and expedient to make regulations and divide the 
city into districts as hereinafter provided, pursuant to the Town Planning Act, having 
due regard to: 

(a) The promotion of public health, safety, convenience and welfare. 
{b) The prevention of the overcrowding of land and the preservation of the amenity 

of residential districts. 
(c) The securing of adequate provisions for light, air and reasonable access. 
id) The value of the land and the nature of its use and occupancy. 

(e) The character of each district, the character of the buildings already erected 
and the peculiar suitability of the district for particular uses. 

(f) The conservation of property values and the direction of building development. 

USE DISTRICTS. 

Under the provisions of the Zoning By-law the following uses are permitted: 

A. ONE-FAMILY DWELLING DISTRICTS. 

One-family dwellings, churches, public schools, public museums, libraries, golf courses, 
parks and playgrounds; also farming and truck gardening and nurseries and greenhouses, 
used only for the propagating and cultivating of plants; and accessory buildings such 
as private garages and stables under suitable restrictions. Billboards are not permitted. 

B. TWO-FAMILY DWELLING DISTRICTS. 

Uses and buildings permitted in the one-family dwelling district, two-family dwellings, 
group houses comprising detached or semi-detached dwellings, private clubs, fraternities, 
lodges, excepting those the chief activity of which is a service customarily carried on as 
a business, and sanitariums or hospitals, other than for isolation cases or for the treatment 
of animals. 

C. THREE-STOREY MULTIPLE-DWELLING DISTRICTS. 

Uses permitted in "A" and "B" dwelling districts, multiple dwellings, provided that 
group houses, row houses or terraces shall not comprise more than four (4) attached 
dwellings; hotels or apartment hotels, boarding and lodging houses, excepting those 
containing business, other than for the sole convenience of the guests in the building, 
institutions of an educational or philanthropic nature and storage garages as accessory 
buildings. 



ZONING REPORT 




A Point Grev Street. 

Zoning Protects Residential Development Such as This 

From Commercial Intrusions. 




Zoning Prohibits the Erection of Billboards 
in Residential Districts. 



D. SIX-STOREY MULTIPLE-DWELLING DISTRICTS. 

Uses permitted in "C" dwelling district. 

E. LOCAL COMMERCIAL DISTRICTS. 

Uses permitted in dwelling districts, together with retail stores, service or gas stations 
and public garages. 

F. THREE-STOREY COMMERCIAL DISTRICTS. 

Uses permitted in dwelling districts, retail stores, service or gas stations, public 
garages, funeral undertaking establishments and, under certain restrictions as to amount 
of floor space used, bakeries, candy or jam factories, dyeing and cleaning works and 
laundries or printing shops. 

G. SIX-STOREY COMMERCIAL DISTRICTS. 

Uses permitted in the three-storey commercial districts. 

H. SIX-STOREY LIGHT INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS. 

Uses permitted in dwelling and commercial districts and any manufactures not 
objectionable due to smoke, odour, noise or vibration. 

I. GENERAL BUSINESS DISTRICTS. 

Uses permitted in the six-storey light industrial district. 

J. HEAVY INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS. 

All uses not prohibited by any other law or by-law. 

Certain uses permitted in some of these districts are, however, also subject to the 
approval of the Council. Beside certain objectionable heavy industries there are included 
as subject to the Council's approval the following: 



ZONING RF.PORT 223 

The keeping of horses, cows, goats, pigs, sheep, poultry, or the keeping of dogs 
tor breeding purposes. 

Houseboats. 

Livery stable, sale or boarding stable or stable in which horses are to be kept 
for hire or delivery or express purposes. 

Dog hospital. 

The keeping ot live poultry for retail or wholesale trade. 

Also, unless with the approval of the Council, dwellings are not permitted in 
a heavy industrial district. 

LOCATION OF USE DISTRICTS. 

(Plate 52). 

Industrial Districts. 

Of first consideration was the determination of the location of industrial areas. 
A general study ot the region was made and the areas suitable for industrial development 
have been shown on a map for the Greater Vancouver district. These naturally include 
those areas that are, or that can be, economically served by water or rail transportation, 
and take into account the changes that may be expected in the future. It is worthy of 
note that the results of an independent study by engineers consulted in regard to future 
electric power requirements confirm the recommendations of this Commission. 

The areas now zoned as industrial for the City of Vancouver itself are part of the 
larger scheme tor the entire area. 

The direction of the prevailing winds has been considered in locating industrial 
districts in order, where possible, to have the smoke from such districts blown away 
from, instead of toward, residential and commercial districts. 

General Business District. 

The next step was the determination of the size and location of the future general 
business district. As explained in the major street report, the ultimate centre of business 
values will be at a point most nearly central to the various streams of traffic (vehicular 
and street car) coming from all parts of the city. A study of the main approach thorough- 
fares to the north, south, east and west indicated that the centre of the future business 
district has already reached its logical location at the intersection of Georgia and Granville 
Streets. 

Six-Storey Commercial Districts. 

The West End presented some difficult zoning problems. It is comparatively easy 
to compute the expected population that will be possible under the proposed zoning 
regulations, and hence the amount of business frontage can be calculated. If, however, 
commercial districts are restricted in this scientific and reasonable way, they do not meet 
with the wishes of owners of property who have anticipated certain streets as future 
business streets. For this reason the entire frontage of Davie, Denman and Robson Streets 
have been zoned as six-storey commercial districts, although such classification is in excess 
of the estimated requirements for the district. 

Six-storey commercial districts have also been provided on Georgia and Alberni 
Streets between Cardero Street and Stanley Park on Granville Street South, between 
Broadway and Sixteenth Avenue, and on Broadway between Granville Street and Cambie 
Street. 



TYPES OF 

RESIDENTIAL 

BUILDINGS 



VANCOUVER^ B.C. 

LLUSTRATING THE 

APPLICATION gT 
ZONING REGULATIONS 

VANCOUVER. 
TOWN PLANNING COMMISSION 

HARLAND BARTHOLOMEW 

C-. .- ASSOCIATES 

TOWN PLANNING CONSULTANTS — 




APPLICATION OFX; 
HEIGHT REGULATIONS^ 
TO DIFFERENT TYPES OF 
BUILDINGS 



FRONT YARD LINES 
FOR BUILT-UP PROPERTY 

f,KS E xR £ ?c 1 , M , C 2: E T ! "?: i " G ," )a,T y » RC,s fSsHSpSKHRptM DOES NOT 
F'CEEDIOFEET 6- THAT WHEN OOTH ADJOINING SITES ARE EH V ELOPED THE 
DEPTH NEED NOT E>E CREATED THAN THAT OF THE DEEPER FRONT YARD. 



J_ 



J_ 



_L 



FRONTS SIDE YARDS 
ON REVERSED CORNER LOTS 

A THE SIDE YARD PECULATION SHALL APPLY TO THE STREET SIDE Of A COR- 
NER LOT EKCEPT IN THE CASE Of REVtflSfO FRONTAGE. 

B^SS^^RSff LOT FAC£S *** '>"l«£CrMW STREET THERE SHALL IV A SiDE 
YAfft* ONTkESTRELT SIM OFThECORMBLOTNQT LISS mANOkF HX\t THt 

ACCESSORY BUILWN«SCWTHECC*NERLQrsmuOCWrauT«™F0r*T 

™i L u S2 T S?*^ ™ l &UILDABII WIDTH Or A CORKER LOT TO LESS 
THAN 7<o FEET. 





APPLICATION OF AREA REGULATIONS TO DIFFERENT TYPES OF BUILDINGS 



> PAGT C ThE Ot »■■■ TARD 



STORES 



^3 



»mtw 



s 



aaaaagfif 



KSHLSSS? 5 AnE LOCATED IN A BLOCK 
ZONED PARTLY FOR BUSINESS tV PARTLY 
FOR DWELLINGS. THE STORES SHALL 
NOT PROJECT BEYOND THE FRONT - 
YARD LINE OF THE DWFLLINGS 




CREASED 6V ONE FOOT FOR EACH — 

BUILDING ABUTTING THEREON THEWIOTh 
OF THE PLACE SHALL NOT BE LESS THAN 
30 FEET NOR LESS THAN THREE TIMES 
THE WIDTH OF THE SIDE YARD 



ABOVE ? STORIES THE MO. 
UlREDSDE YARD SMALL BE 

INCREASED I FOOT FOR EACH 
ADDITIONAL STOREY G- SHALL 
NOT BE LESS T* AN I % INCHES 
FOR EACH FOOT Of BUILDING 
LENGTH FROM FRONTTOREAR 



the required side yard small 
be increase d by 1 foot for. 
each stairway opening onto 
orscrved by such side yard 



. _._ , ,-, . _. LfNGTH FROM FRONT TOREAR 

APPLICATION OF AREA REGULATIONS — SIX STOREY MULTIPLE DWELLING DISTRICT 

I I , (PARTICULAR, , CASES) 




& STOREY 

APAOTWKT 







NOTE A FRONT YARD IS REQUIff.ED 
OF NOT LESS THAN I "2 FEET IN DEPTH 
A SITE AREA IS REQUIRED OF NOT 
LESS THAN THE NUMBER OF SC^UARE 
FEET OBTAINED BY DIVIDING 1720 
S.OUARE FEET BY THE NUMBER OF 
STORIES USED FORDWELUNG PURPOSES 
PROVIDED THE MAXIMUM ARIA NEED NOT 
EXCEED 7SO SQ. FEET PER FAMILY *- 



ZONING REPORT 225 

Commercial Districts. 

To adequately serve the local needs of residents, local commercial and three-storey 
commercial districts are provided. The function of the local commercial district is, in 
general, to provide a site for the "corner" store, the grocery store and the drug store in 
one and two-family dwelling districts. The three-storey commercial district is to provide 
the same service for three-storey multiple-dwelling districts and, as well, to permit of 
"secondary" business districts, such as, for example, those along Commercial Drive and 
Broadway. 

Dwelling Districts. 

At present Vancouver is largely a city of one-family homes, and large areas for one- 
family dwellings have been provided. Whether or not these will remain one-family or 
become two-family districts can be safely left to the wishes of the owners themselves, and 
the by-law amended accordingly when occasion arises. 

Provision has also been made in suitable localities lor multiple-dwellings or apartments. 
The height to which these structures may be erected has been limited to three storeys, 
except in the West End, where a height of six storeys is permitted. 

CLASSIFICATION OF PARKS and BATHING BEACHES. 

The uses permitted in a one-family dwelling district include parks and playgrounds. 
Public beaches or beaches adjoining municipal lands have been classified under this head. 
Other areas, such as undeveloped beaches and parks under private ownership have been 
classified (according to usual zoning practice) as of the district of which they form part. 
For example, south of Beach Avenue and east of Denman Street, the area has been classified 
as a six-storey multiple dwelling district or apartment district. It is the hope of the Com- 
mission that some day this property will be publicly owned and a part of the park and 
boulevard system. Until, however, the land has been acquired, it is not considered a 
reasonable exercise of the zoning powers conferred on the city to restrict such areas to a 
one-family dwelling district, as some citizens have suggested. Similarly, the Kitsilano 
Reserve Lands and the Canadian Pacific Railway "Hotel Site," the latter already developed 
as a park but still privately owned, have been classified as being two-family dwelling 
districts until, as recommended, they come under the ownership and full control of the city. 

NON-CONFORMING USES. 

After determining in a tentative manner the boundaries of the various districts, a 
map was prepared showing all existing uses of property where such uses did not conform 
with the uses permitted in the districts. This provided a desirable check on the work 
of zoning; several minor changes in boundaries were made as a result of such study. 

PERCENTAGE OF DIFFERENT USES. 

An estimate was prepared of the percentage of the city's area used for different 
purposes and can be compared with the uses permitted under the present and interim 
zoning by-laws. These comparisons are as follows: 



226 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



Use Present 

Industrial (and 

Unrestricted) 8.3% 

Commercial 



Permitted Under Permitted Under 
Interim Zoning Present Zoning 



By-law 



:i.i% 



By-law 



Heavy 
Light' 



Per Ce)it. 



13-5 
?.8 



Residential 



2.2% 

.80% 

0.3% 
21.0% 

Schools, Churches, etc. 4.0% 

Streets and Lanes -9--% 

Parks ,.... 13.1% 

Unoccupied.. -i-i% 



100% 



7-6% 
29.0% 



29.2% 
13-1% 

100% 



Central Business 2.5 

6-Storey Com .5 

3-Storey Com... 2.0 

Local Com 6 

6-Storey Apt 2.0 

3-Storey Apt 6.9 

2-Family Dwell. ... 2.8 

i-Family Dwell. 21. 1 



29.2 
J3- 1 



Acreage 

i,4 2 < 
608 

265 

5 2 

207 

59 

214 

733 
295 

2,230 



3>°79 
1,380 



100% 



io,547 



HEIGHT AND AREA REGULATIONS. 

(Plate 53, Page 224). 

The following are, in part, the height, yard and density regulations for the various 
districts: 

A. One-Family Dwelling Districts. 
Height: 35 feet or 2^2 storeys. 

Front Yard: 20 feet, except that where 40% of the frontage has been built upon the 

average front yard shall be maintained. 
25 feet, measured from centre line of lane. 
Two, each 10% of width of lot with a maximum of 5 feet and minimum 

with windows of 4 feet. 
4,800 square feet per family, except for existing lots of smaller area, or 

when the City Engineer permits, in conformity with the neighbourhood, 

a subdivision of lots of not less than 3,600 square feet. 

B. Two-Family Dwelling Districts. 
Height: 35 feet or l x /i storeys. 

Front Yard: 20 feet, except that where 40% of the frontage has been built upon, the 
average front yard shall be maintained. 

Rear Yard: 25 feet, measured from centre line of lane. 

Side Yard: Two, each 10% width of lot with a maximum of 5 feet and minimum with 
windows of 4 feet. 

Site Area: 2,400 square feet per family, but for one-family dwellings same require- 
ments as for "A" district. 



Rear Yard: 

Side Yard: 

Site Area: 



ZONING REPORT 227 

C. Three-Storey Multiple Dwelling Districts. 
Height: 45 feet or 3 storeys. 

Front Yard: 20 feet, except that where 40% of the frontage has been built on, the average 
front yard shall be maintained. 

Rear Yard: 25 feet, 15 feet on corner sites, measured from centre line of lane. 

Side Yards: Two, each 10% of width of lot with a maximum of 5 feet and a minimum 
with windows of 4 feet, each side yard to be increased by one foot for 
each storey above the second, and each side yard to be not less than 1% 
inches in width for each foot of building length from front to rear. 

Site Area: 750 square feet per family, but for one or two-family dwellings same require- 
ments as for "B" district. 

D. Six Storey Multiple-Dwelling Districts. 

Height: 75 feet or 6 storeys. 

Front Yard: 12 feet. 

Rear Yard: As for "C" district. 

Side Yards: As for "C" district. 

Site Area: 1,720 square feet divided by the number of storeys gives the number of 
square feet per family, but the maximum need not exceed 750 square feet 
per family, but for one or two-family dwellings same requirements as 
for "B" district. 

E. Local Commercial Districts. 
Height: 35 feet or 2 storeys. 

Front Yard: None, except in the case of a dwelling 20 feet, or where stores are located 
in a block zoned partly for business and partly for dwellings, in which 
case the stores shall not project beyond the front yard line of the dwellings. 

Rear Yard: 25 feet measured from centre line of lane. 

Side Yards: 3 feet adjoining a dwelling district or, if provided, where not required, 
3 feet; but for dwellings see "A" district requirements. 

Site Area: 2,400 square feet per family. 

F. Three-Storey Commercial Districts. 
Height: 45 feet or 3 storeys. 

Front Yard: As for "E" district. 

Rear Yard: 10-14 ^ eet measured from centre line of lane. 
Side Yard: As for "E" district, but for dwellings "C" district. 

Site Area: 750 square feet per family, but for one or two-family dwellings same require- 
ments as for "B" district. 

G. Six-Storey Commercial Districts. 
Height: 75 feet or 6 storeys. 
Front Yard: None. 

Rear Yard: As for "F" district. 
Side Yard: As for "F" district. 
Site Area: As for "D" district. 

H. Six-Storey Light Industrial Districts. 
Height: 75 feet or 6 storeys. 

Front Yard: None. 



228 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



Rear Yard: 10-14 feet from centre line of lane. 

Side Yard: 3 feet adjoining dwelling districts or, if provided, but for dwellings "C" 

district requirements. 
Site Area: As for "D" district. 

I. General Business District. 

Height: 120 feet or 10 storeys on 80-foot streets, and to 200 feet with setback 1:3. 

Front Yard: None. 

Side Yard: As for "H" district. 

Rear Yard: None. 

J. Hfavy Industrial District. 

Height: 100 feet or 8 storeys. 

Front Yard: None. 

Rear Yard: None. 

Side Yard: None, but 3 feet if provided. 

COMMENTS ON HEIGHT and AREA REGULATIONS. 

Heights. 

The heights permitted in the various districts conform in general to existing building 
practice and are such that under normal conditions they should permit (in conjunction 
with yard and density regulations) of the economic use of land, provide light and air and 
prevent undue congestion. 

In "A" and "B" dwelling districts, dwellings may be erected to three storeys in 
height by providing side yards of 15 feet in width. 

In "A" and "B" dwelling districts public or semi-public buildings, where permitted, 
may be erected 75 feet in height by providing additional side yards width. 

Under the proposed zoning by-law the heights of certain structures, such as grain 
elevators or sugar refineries, are not limited; chimneys, towers and similar structures not 
exceeding 10% of the area of the main building are also unrestricted in height. 

Height of Buildings in General Business 
District. 

The limitation of the height of buildings in the 
down-town district has received a great deal of 
thought. Were the area known as the general business 
district fully developed, there would be no need of any 
tall buildings, and, theoretically, buildings of six 
storeys in height would fulfill the requirements for 
the Vancouver of the future. At one time it was 
considered that the height might therefore be limited 
to ten storeys. Having regard, however, to the fact 
that the present height regulations are incorporated 
in the Vancouver City Charter, and that several 
buildings have already been erected, or are to be 
erected, in conformity with the Charter regulations, 
it was decided to make those regulations a part of 
the zoning provisions for the general business district. 
These regulations, however, have been modified by a 





;«s 



Setbacks — Vancouver Hotel. 



ZONING REPORT 



--'/ 




Light and Air Apartments Erected Under the 
Provisions of the Interim Zoning By-law. 



Too Intrusive Use of Land. This Class of Due/ling 
Can no Lonzer be Erected in I ancouver. 



setback after a height at the street line is reached of one and one-half times the width 
of the street. On a street 80 feet or more in width, the only change from the Charter 
regulations is that above 120 feet in height the superstructure of one-third of the base 
area must set back one foot for every three feet of height instead of being built, as was 
possible, to the street line. On a 66-foot street a building can be erected to 99 feet, and 
above that a similar setback is required. The resulting provision for light and air being 
identical with that on an 80-foot street, and the effect on traffic congestion is kept pro- 
portionate to the width of the street. 

In preparing the setback regulations, careful studies were made as to the possible 
amount of sunlight reaching the street surface, shining on building facades or actually 
entering rooms through the windows. The amount of sunshine possible in Vancouver 
for the winter months is little more than half that possible for the summer months. For 
the months of November, December, January and February, records for the past four 
years show that on account of weather conditions only from 15% to 20% of the possible 
sunshine was received. In these months, therefore, the amount of sunshine received is 
almost negligible. 

Sunlight curves were plotted for monthly intervals throughout the year. The curve 
for the date of 21st October or 21st February (neglecting the four months in the year when 
no appreciable sunshine is received) was adopted as the basis of sunlight studies. 

It was established that for streets oriented as Granville and Hastings Streets, a 1 =3 
setback above the height permitted at the street line cuts off but little more sunlight 
than a 1 :2 setback, and, being much more desirable from an architectural standpoint, the 
1 13 setback was therefore adopted. 

SIZE OF YARDS. 

Front Yards. 

The front yard requirements for dwelling districts are less than those now generally 
prescribed in other cities on the continent, but are dictated by existing conditions and 
popular opinion. Twelve feet is not a sufficient setback for an attractive apartment, but 
the front yard regulation is strengthened by the fact that no important projections except 
steps may be erected in any front yard. 



FUTURE STREET WIDENING BY PRESENT BUILDING LINE 

VANCOUVER^ 

BRITISH COLUM&I A 



® 



WIDENING FROM GGTOoOFEET 

STPEET5 WITH LESS THAN \0% DEVELOPED fPONTAGE INTEPPCRING WITH WIDENING 




centre umc 

STREET 



BEfOREWIDENING 

BUILDINGS SETBACK BEHIND FUTURE LIME OF STREET 



6' i t. 27' ■ 




AFTEP WIDENING 

NO INTERFERENCE WITH BUILDINGS 



WIDENING FROM <6£> TO IOO FEET 

STREETS WITH LESS THAN IC&DEVELOPEDF PONTAGE INTERFERING WITH WIDENING 



CENrOfl.lNr 



f""" 11 " Iliiimiiin^rt 

EflEBJgJ 



EE 



F 



1 



«' J iS- 

E »' 



BEFORE WIDENING 

MAIN POISON OFRUIIDING SETBACK TO THE ruTURE LINE 
OF 3TQEET WITH TCMOORARV ONE STOREY PROJECTION TO 
40 FOOT LINE 




AFTER WIDENING 



TEMPORARY PROJECTIONS REMOVED O STREET 
WIOENF/0 WITHOUT INTERFERENCE WITH MAIN 
PORTtON or BUILDING 



(P) WIDENING FROM 6£>TO<20 OR IOO FEET 

^-^ STPEETS WITH MOPE THAN 1 0% DEVELOPED FRONTAGE INTERFERING WITH WIDENING 



_mimiiuiiiffl, 



CENTRE LIKE 
STften 



pi m i npn i ii 




IS it 



BEFORE WIDENING 



.miHTIIITIMr^ 



TUTT 



to' 



AFTER WIDENING 



MAIN Portion Or- BUILDING SETBACK. TOTHCFUTURE LINE TEMPORARY PROJECTIONS REMOVED G- STREET WIDENED 

^NE WITHOUT INTERFERENCE WITH MAIN PORTION OF BUILDING 



VANCOUVER TOWN PLANNING COMMISSION 
i s e e 



HAPLAND BARTHOLOMEW 6 ASSOCIATES 

to*/h planning Consultants 



ZONING REPORT 231 

Rear Yards. 

For dwellings the general depth of rear yard prescribed is 2^ feet. In computing the 
required depth of rear yard, one-half the width of a lane may be assumed to be a part 
of the yard. This provides between the rear of dwellings an/interval of 50 feet, the distance 
generally regarded as the minimum for desirable housing conditions. 

On corner sites for multiple dwelling districts, the rear yard may be reduced to 15 
feet, and for lots less than 120 feet in depth the depth of rear yard need not exceed 20% 
of the depth of the lot. 

Side Yards. 

In one and two-familv dwelling districts the maximum side yard required is 5 feet, 
making the distance between dwellings where such side yards are provided 10 feet; this 
insures a better fire rate than if a lesser distance were provided, the change in rates being 
made at 10 feet. 

Recent experience in Vancouver has confirmed the desirability of including a provision 
that at corners where a corner building flanks a street on which dwellings front, there 
should be provided a side yard, and for accessory buildings the full setback. This require- 
ment is limited by providing that the buildable width of a lot is not to be reduced to less 
than 26 feet. 

For multiple dwellings the side yard is to be increased one foot for each full storey 
above the second. To provide for sunlight and air it is also a requirement that the width 
of the side yard to be a function of the length. The usual rule is 1 1 i inches of yard width 
for every foot of building length. Sunlight diagrams show the reasonableness of this 
requirement and establish the need of such a rule for buildings of three as well as six 
storeys in height. The regulation eventually suggested as a concession to the existing 
conditions in the West End was \% inches of yard width for every foot of building length, 
making the ordinary maximum width of side yard about 11 feet. 

DENSITY OF POPULATION PERMITTED. 

The regulation calling for at least 4,800 square feet of site area per family, except for 
existing lots of less area, is one designed to prevent the subdivision of lots into anything 
smaller than, say, 40 x 120 feet. It would not ordinarily permit of the further division of 
a 50-foot lot. The density regulation for the three-storey dwelling district will allow 
eight families in an apartment on a 50 x 120 foot lot. In the West End the original normal 
lot was 66 x 131 feet, with streets 66 feet wide and lanes ^3 f eet wide. After considerable 
study a special density regulation for the average 66-foot lot has been proposed for this 
apartment area, so that in general there will be permitted five suites per floor or thirty 
tamiles in a six-storey apartment on a 66 x 131 foot lot. While the density in a six-storey 
building will be greater than permitted in most cities, yet the crowding of a large number 
of suites in a two-storey apartment will be prevented. 

BUILDING LINES. 

(Plate 54). 

While opposition has been met in regard to the prescribing of building lines on certain 
streets that are recommended to be widened in future, these objections should be overcome 
by presenting the actual figures of the total frontage to be widened (a large amount of 
which is in residential districts where a front yard, in any event, is required) and the 
comparatively small amount of frontage now developed in such a way as to interfere with 
future widening. The information compiled may be summarized as follows: 



232 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



Length in Frontage Frontage Developed to 

Major Street Plan Miles in Miles Interfere with Widening. 

Streets not to be Widened 55.0 83.0 

Streets to be Widened .. 14.5 24.0 o- 10%, average 3.2% 

9.5 16.0 10-100%, average 27% 

New Streets 8.0 8.0 

87.0 131-0 

x-\ll Streets (approximately) 335 570 

The frontage to be widened represents about 7% of the total street frontage in Vancouver. 

STREETS TO BE WIDENED 

Zo?ied as Developed as 

Frontage Business Frontage Business Frontage 

Largely "Residential" Streets 24 miles 3 miles 1 mile 

Largely "Business" Streets 16 miles 14 miles 5 miles 

All Streets to be Widened 49 miles 17 miles 6 miles 

A strong objection has been made to building lines prescribed on flanking streets so 
as to reduce the buildable width of a lot. This might be made a matter of appeal by any 
person who considers a site to be reduced by a building line to an unbuildable width or 
depth. It could also be provided that should the Board of Appeal concur in such view, the 
Council might be given an opportunity to purchase or otherwise deal with the case, or 
failing which, within thirty days of the application for a building permit, the said permit 
should be granted without the enforcement of the building line. 

Whether by an amendment to the zoning by-law or by a separate building line by-law, 
the very important matter of building lines should have early it not immediate attention. 



APPEALS. 

A zoning by-law must deal in a broad way with the conditions found and the regula- 
tions prescribed for each district. It would involve unnecessary time and expense to 
consider in detail every particular piece of property in advance of building. In some special 
cases, however, the literal enforcement of the by-law might work unnecessary hardship 
and a Board of Appeal is constituted to make such relaxations as the special cases call 
for, so that the interests of individuals are not unnecessarily sacrificed for the benefit 
of the community. 

The use of a district cannot be changed by the Board, which, however, may permit 
public or semi-public buildings, aeroplane landing fields or public utilities in districts 
from which they are otherwise prohibited and may permit, under certain conditions, 
the extension of a non-conforming use. 

Experience in other cities shows that while the function of the Board of Appeal is to 
see that justice is done, the Board, to carry out their duties most effectively, should act 
with the greatest caution. 



ZONING REPORT 233 

ENFORCEMENT. 

The provisions of the zoning by-law are administered in general by the City Architect 
and his staff. Other civic officials are also concerned, as for instance the License Inspector, 
who issues licenses for the carrying on of the industrial and commercial uses. 

AMENDMENTS. 

Provision for changes in the Zoning By-law is made in the Town Planning Act. 

Amendments to the by-law may be requested by application to the City Council, 
and, if considered, the procedure is similar to that for the passing of the original Zoning 
By-law. 

HOUSING. 

A matter of vital interest to any city is the subject of housing. The question has been 
raised as to its relation to the "Town Plan" and particularly to the relation between 
housing and zoning. 

One of the principal objects of a plan is undoubtedly to provide suitable areas for the 
erection of homes for those who engaged in the industrial or commercial life of the city, 
and, further, to provide suitable access between the home and both the place of work 
and the place of play. In such provision, the major street plan, the transit (street car and 
bus) plan, the public recreation plan, and zoning, all have a part. 

The planning of new subdivisions should be criticized from the standpoint of the 
future home served at reasonable cost with all utilities. In this connection a very interesting 
comparison was made a few years ago by Mr. A. G. Dalzell, M.E.I.C, then Assistant 
City Engineer of Vancouver, as to the cost of development of equal areas in Shaughnessy 
and Ward 8. He demonstrated that the decidedly higher class property as planned on the 
high land had cost considerably less for the development of utilities than the less desirable 
low land in Ward 8. 

To better conditions for areas already poorly planned, "replotting" legislation has been 
enacted. A specific replotting scheme has been worked out for a portion of Hastings 
Townsite so that streets with reasonable grades can be provided and utilities more cheaply 
installed, as has been done in Point Grey under a special Act. 

'Vhether or not the city itself should engage in the building of homes is a matter that 
on this continent has generally been decided in the negative, though numerous schemes 
have been carried out by private corporations or under government auspices. The greatest 
attempt to aid home building in Canada has been made under provincial government 
auspices, assisted by cheap money from the federal government. Housing Commissions 
were formed in numerous cities during the war. The most successful ventures have been 
those where housing companies (such as, for example, in Toronto) have organized under 
provincial enactment, raised a certain amount of capital, the balance being underwritten 
by city or province at a low rate of interest. The general opinion seems to be that such 
building is in its nature a matter of private rather than of public enterprise. In Vancouver 
the zoning by-law has been prepared with every attention for present and future housing 
needs as far as they could be considered within the scope of the Commission. 

As has been mentioned, Vancouver is largely a city of one-family homes and is 
surrounded by similar development in the adjoining municipalities. Large areas are now 



2j4 A PLAN" FOR VANCOUVER 

available for such development, though a considerable proportion has yet to be served 
by utilities. That the one-family dwelling is the desirable unit for happy living is the 
general concensus of opinion of all authorities. 

To fill various housing needs, two-family districts (where preferred by the owners 
to a one-family development) and three-storey and six-storey dwelling districts are 
prescribed under the zoning regulations, that should promote healthful conditions and 
yet permit of economic development. Group houses facing on a "place" and known to 
the South as "bungalow courts" are permitted, but there are few areas where such develop- 
ment would be suitable. Where deep lots are available, group housing may, however, 
form a pleasant alternative to the ordinary apartment development. 

Row houses or terraces are restricted to not more than four dwellings, and "cabins" 
such as now exist are not permitted. No dwellings are permitted in a heavy industrial 
district without the special consent of the Council, and the provisions of the zoning by-law 
are such that dwellings carry important restrictions with them if erected in less restrictive 
districts. 

Evidently zoning, as well as the other phases of a town plan, touch closely on the 
matter of housing. The housing problem, however, as outlined by some, can only be 
solved when the city or state is in a position to guarantee to every individual householder 
a wage sufficient for the payment of a reasonable rent. While town planning can go far 
to create and maintain desirable housing conditions, it is beyond its scope, as outlined 
by Provincial Acts, to concern itself with the very important economic problem involved 
in such an understanding, a problem which demands separate study and treatment. 




Legend & Summary 
Zoning Regulations 



District 



OmfAwuy Dikum 



cwilocwiOQunc 



TWO -Fam.lv 
Urn nntiTTio in 

OW fAMM WSTIMCT 

two rAMuj muMC 
—r«rtcuias nc 



Height 



Pear 

Yard 



3'OHStTR 
LEU THAN 
40M WIDTH 



V 

3'OHSnu 
LESS THAN 
40'MWVM 



Legend & Summary 
Zoning Regulations 



District Symbol 



Omfmi 



-FAMILY. 



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yq-Familv: 
uxn pdwittu ih 

ONI FAMILY 04S7WCT 

TwofAUtiformmc 
hhwicuus rre 



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tonuimo in 

TWO FAM*y DffTMcn 
AHWTkam tCMWNG 
HOUSU HOTELS fir 

Atxwotw uns 



lo'ju. Business . 



Uni PCRHfTTlD IH 

vutftru nrtuma 
ootiuctx 
utaii stobcs 



€ 



— PtfttHTTtD M 



cijrww co«cmcms 



U6HTIHMKTRIAL 



Usokuittzd m 
fmMifiM Mnwew 
wtucaAiuccs4jir 
lumncruKt hot 

OBJECTIOHABLE BY 
HEASC* Of WOKE 

DUST COO* NOISE 
O* VIMATIOH 



hwmustktal. 
tan nwiTTiDiir 



«xrom nwism 

DWE11IMSS HOT 
PERMITTED 



Height 



JS OH 



SITES 

IS' OH 
CORHU 



Rear 
Yard 



3'OH sins 
less thah 
ao'ih width 



S 

30HSITK 
USS THAH 

AO'lMWBm 



5 

3 OM SITES 
LESS THAH 

40Mvroni 
piusrron 

EACH STOW 
ABOVE 2 



Side 
Yard 



AAKMMHO 
_WELLIHO 
DrmiCTA* 
IFPftOTIDIu 
THEM HOT 
.ilQUIRED 
HOHC 
ELSWHEU 



Mumw 

WIUIM 
DISTRICT 
NONE 
ELSEOWC 



SAME AS 

LOCAL 
BUSINESS 



SAME AS 

couw.au. 



MOT 

riouikd 

IF FtOTIMD 
HOT LESS 
WAH 3' 



50% Of 
SITEASEA 

CHIHTEKK 
SITE 

AOXOH 
COMER on 



AbovcLeGEND & SUMWABV TO BE BUD IN CONJUNCTION WITH U.'liA' 



Municipal Boumoarv 



Scale Of Feet 




Point 

B.C 

District 

Point Grey Town Planning Commission 

1927 

Harland Bartholomew and Associates 
Town Planning Consultants 



Note. This Map does not form part of By-law 

and is published for reference only. 



Plate 



55 



POINT GREY ZONING 

DESCRIPTION" OF THE POINT GREY ZONING BY-LAW. 

(Plate is). 

In 1922 the Municipality of Point Grey passed, under the provisions of the Municipal 
Act, zoning regulations, which, it has been claimed, were the most comprehensive of such 
regulations passed up to that time anywhere in Canada. On October 24th, 1927, there 
was enacted in Point Grey a zoning by-law under the provisions of the Town Planning Act. 
In the preparation of this by-law the endeavour was made to have its provisions such 
that they would be in keeping with the zoning by-law expected to be passed in the City 
of Vancouver. According to the terms ot the amalgamation ot Point Grey and South 
Vancouver and the city on January 1st, 1929, a zoning by-law has to be passed for the 
greater city that will take the place of any zoning by-laws in existence prior to the amalga- 
mation. This being the case, it is of some interest to note in what particulars the Point 
Grey by-law differs from that of Vancouver. The municipality of Point Grey is essentially 
a residential development and this point was emphasized when the by-law was being passed. 
There was, in general, no urge from the public lor greater areas for commercial purposes, 
and in many instance the demand was met for the deletion of certain local business districts 
that had been designed to fill neighbourhood needs. 

In Point Grey there are only seven classifications, as compared with ten classifications 
in Vancouver; in Point Grey the six-storey multiple dwelling, the six-storey commercial 
and the general business classifications are omitted. In the residence districts in Point 
Grey the front yard regulation is 24 feet, while for Vancouver it is only 20 feet. The side 
yard regulation in Point Grey calls for a 5-foot side yard, but may be reduced to 3 feet 
for lots less than 40 feet; in Vancouver, while the side yard regulation has a maximum 
width ot 5 leet, it need not be greater than 10% of the site width. In Point Grey for 
multiple dwellings the side yard has to be increased 1 foot for each storey above the 
second, as in the case ot Vancouver, but there is not the Vancouver regulation of 1 ^4-inch 
side yard for each foot of length of building. 

In the Point Grey by-law, density is regulated by the percentage of open space 
required; ;n Vancouver by the number ot square feet of site area required per family. 
The regulations in regard to commercial districts are generally similar, except that the 
Vancouver regulations are such that in the case of, for example, 20-foot lanes, there is 
provided also a 4-toot setback on either side, that is to be kept clear of buildings. 

In Point Grey the light industrial classification allows for only three storeys, while 
in Vancouver six storeys are permitted. Similar differences exist in regard to the heavy 
industrial classification, Point Grey permitting six storeys, while in Vancouver eight 
storeys are permitted. 

There are other minor differences which are not of sufficient importance to be included 
in a statement ot this character, but a very important difference must, however, be noted. 
In the Point Grey by-law building lines have been included for all streets on which future 
widening is expected, the advantage ot which provision cannot be too strongly stressed. 
Something similar must be done in regard to those other areas that are to make up the 
new City of Vancouver. 



CIVIC ART 

THE APPEARANCE OF THE CITY 

In the preceding reports many schemes have been outlined for the improvement of 
Vancouver. A system of major streets has been proposed as the most satisfactory and 
effective means of caring for the daily flow of heavy traffic throughout the city. A trans- 
portation plan is offered by which rail and water facilities may be progressively enlarged 
and better fitted to the needs of industries and shipping interests. A transit plan is now 
available, indicating desirable changes and betterments of street car routing and operation. 
A zoning by-law has been drawn to assure the community a more orderly development 
of private property and greater stability of values. Recreation and park areas have like- 
wise been studied and systematized with reference to public needs and to other civic 
features. 

All these schemes constitute the basic pattern of a greater city. Together they make 
up the plans and specifications by which a more healthful and more efficient Vancouver 
of" the future may be built. But it is only incidentally that these elements of the town 
plan touch the appearance of the city. The plan, to be properly balanced and complete, 
must clearly show how the city may be made more pleasing to the eye. 

It is not enough merely to build a clean, healthful, orderly, smooth-functioning urban 
organism, although every agency of government should strive toward this end. In every 
possible way it must erase from the mind of the city dweller the monotony of daily tasks, 
the ugliness of factories, shops and tenements and the fatigue of urban noises. It can do 
this by showing a decent regard for its appearance, and by various devices it must occasion- 
ally touch the emotions. The city becomes a remembered city, a beloved city, not by its 
ability to manufacture or to sell, but by its ability to create and hold bits of sheer beauty 
and loveliness. A Stanley Park, a glorious display of public buildings, an inspiring shaft 
or breath-taking vista, a bridge of noble proportions, such features as these are priceless 
treasures. They redeem the city and make it really great. 

CONSERVE NATURAL BEAUTIES. 

Vancouver has been given a notable start toward greatness by nature. The marine 
landscapes which have been placed about the city cannot be sold or easily destroyed. But 
they are now occasionally disfigured by a pall of unnecessary smoke. And too few vantage 
points have been created from which the waters of the Inlet and Bay and the mountain 
background may be viewed. 

The Parks Board has done extremely well in building a drive and promenade around 
Stanley Park. The Board has not made the common mistake of giving the automobile 
riders first position along the sea wall. There is a disposition in park circles to make too 
many concessions to the motorist. The fact is overlooked that few elements of natural 
scenery are seen to advantage from a moving vehicle. The pedestrian deserves primary 
consideration, for he is willing to exert himself to see the landscape under advantageous 
conditions. 



238 A PLAN* FOR VANCOUVER 

In the system of proposed parkways and boulevards, one aim has been to carry 
the motor-loving public to new points from which the magnificent panorama of Vancouver 
may be seen; Little Mountain and Capitol Hill are ot great value for this purpose. The 
drives along the Inlet above Hastings and Marine Drive provide magnificent vistas of 
sea and mountain, but they need to be improved to make them more effective. 

In the development of these features of the park system, occasional stopping places 
must be provided for motors, but wherever these are placed, they should be so arranged 
that the motors themselves are kept out of the view. Those who come to such places 
should be encouraged to get out and walk a few steps at least to outlook points. By proper 
trimming and planting of trees and shrubs, by walls and steps, terraces and balustrades, 
the impressiveness of the view may be heightened for those who stand or sit in those 
special locations. 

There are few bits of natural scenery in Vancouver more deserving of protection 
than the views over English Bay. It will be a great loss to the people of the city if buildings 
and other obstructions are allowed to fill the space between Beach Avenue and the water. 
The importance of clearing up the entire shore of English Bay and putting it under public 
control was noted in the report on pleasure drives and is again emphasized here. 

In many places and in various ways throughout the city opportunities may be found 
to conserve and use the natural beauties of the city's site. Eminences like Little Mountain 
should be saved for public use, and on such elevations towers or shafts are appropriate. 
Many streets that run steeply up a hill may be terminated by a school or hospital. It is 
even better to place a dwelling on the line of such a street than to allow it to come to an 
inglorious and impassable end in mere nothingness. Sharp slopes ot hills may be saved 
to provide a background of green for the massed dwellings ot the lower and more favorable 
slopes. Water courses, when preserved an nature/ are not only charming as a relief to the 
structural monotony of the city, but valuable assets as well. They provide rights of way 
for the trunk sewers that will later be needed. They become assets rather than liabilities 
in the districts through which they pass, and create and stabilize property values. They 
offer space also for active recreation. So it is urged that the city acquire these interesting 
and generally neglected topographic features while they are obtainable at low cost rather 
than allow them to become rubbish heaps, dumps and cancerous spots in the urban body. 

BUILD A GREAT CIVIC CENTRE. 

(Plate 57, Page 240). 

The opportunity for grouping public buildings in cities is often considered desirable, 
both in facilitation of public business and in the promotion ot civic art. Where public 
buildings can be grouped without sacrifice of the functions which thev are expected to 
perform, there is more advantage and economy than if separate individual sites of ample 
size and of imposing location are to be secured for each building. 

In a city such as Vancouver, which is still in the early stages ot its growth, and which 
has natural beauties of unusual character, there is an opportunity for the creation of a 
civic centre of surpassing merit. 

The selection of a site for a civic centre involves several important considerations, 
among which may be mentioned: 



CIVIC ART REPORT 239 

1. Proximity to central business district. 

2. Focal position. 

3. Character of site and surroundings. 

4. Character ot buildings comprising the group. 

Unless these various considerations are satisfactorily dealt with, the civic centre will 
be deficient, inconvenient and a source of public dissatisfaction, rather than of justifiable 
civic pride. 

The present City of Vancouver is the centre of a large metropolitan area which has 
physical characteristics that demand unity of planning and of provision for public services, 
some of which are already being undertaken by such agencies as the Sewerage and Water 
Boards. Modern tendencies in municipal government are toward unification of govern- 
mental authority in metropolitan areas. It is reasonable to suppose, therefore, that the 
civic centre should be designed as a permanent centre for the future metropolis. 

PROXIMITY OF CIVIC CENTRE TO CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT. 

A civic centre should not be located within the central business district, for it is 
important to secure adequate area without prohibitive cost, and public buildings are an 
obstruction rather than a benefit in areas of high commercial value. A civic centre is, 
consequently, best located at the edge of the central business district. It will thus be 
convenient to the greatest number ot people without being obstructive. A location adjacent 
to, but not within the central business district, will permit withdrawal from intensive 
traffic congestion — a consideration of some importance to the character and use of the 
buildings comprising the group. 

FOCAL POSITION OF CIVIC CENTRE. 

Traffic approaching a central business district will use numerous thoroughfares. 
Certain ot these thoroughfares will carry more traffic than others, according to the manner 
in which population distributes itself throughout the city and region. A location of the 
civic centre adjacent to such important thoroughfares is desirable in order that the centre 
may be seen by large numbers of persons who travel daily to and from the business district. 
A civic centre so located will be a constant stimulus to civic pride. An isolated location, 
while perhaps satisfying the first requirement of proximity to the central business district, 
would fail to be a genuine "centre." Where population distributes itself largely to the 
south and east ot a central business district, as is the case in Vancouver, a location of the 
civic centre north ot the central business district would be bad planning. 

CHARACTER OF SITE and SURROUNDINGS. 

Where topographic conditions permit the use of high ground for the location of the 
civic centre, a much more imposing plan can be devised than if the terrain is perfectly level. 
Low areas should, of course, be avoided. There is sufficient variation in ground level 
adjacent to the central business district of Vancouver to permit of a commanding location 
for the civic centre. 

The character ot surrounding property has considerable significance in the location 
and in the design ot a civic centre. If the surroundings are of an industrial character, 
or of cheap commercial or residential character, and will probably always remain such, 



240 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 




Plate 5- 



CIVIC ART REPORT 241 

the beauty of the civic centre will have to be created through harmonious architectural 
design of a self-contained group. Where natural beauty exists there will be possible a 
blending of good architectural design and natural beauty that is most to be desired. 
Vancouver possesses unsurpassed natural beauty in the proximity of mountains and of 
naturally beautiful water prospects. These should be incorporated in the design for a 
civic centre. 

CHARACTER OF BUILDINGS COMPRISING THE GROUP. 

Ordinarily there are two classifications of buildings that may comprise a civic centre, 
namely, buildings of an administrative character, such as a city hall or court house, and 
others of a cultural character, such as an art museum or library. In some cities separation 
is made between the types of buildings and two centres are created, one administrative in 
character and the other of cultural nature — the art museum, public library and municipal 
auditorium. 

POSSIBILITIES OF CIVIC CENTRE LOCATION. 

In deciding upon the proper location of a civic centre in Vancouver, having due regard 
for each of the considerations above mentioned, it is first necessary to determine the 
size and location of the future business district. As Vancouver grows the business district 
will continue to expand. 

The ideal business district is a gridiron into which traffic from all sections of the city 
is fed in an uniform manner, the point of entry in the business district corresponding as 
nearly as possible to the geographical position of the area in which the traffic originates. 
The present business district of Vancouver is more or less of a gridiron and of ample size 
to serve the needs of a city considerably in excess of one million population. Certain new 
entries for purposes of more uniform distribution will be desirable, such as the proposed 
Burrard Street Bridge and an extension of Kingsway from its present terminus at Main 
Street across False Creek to the intersection of Robson and Beatty Streets. 

It has been suggested that False Creek, might be filled and become the central business 
district, or that the entire business district might shift to the south side of False Creek. 
Both these suggestions are economically impracticable, in so far as present information 
indicates. To fill False Creek would be extremely expensive and would involve enormous 
sacrifice of values now established. Its desirability is doubtful either from a standpoint 
of economics or a standpoint of practicability. The future of the False Creek area has 
been dealt with in some detail in the report on transportation. 

While some substantial increase in business values and business activities may be 
expected south of False Creek, this area is not well suited to the future central business 
district, because of somewhat forbidding street grades and the inherent difficulties of so 
revising the street structure of the city to make a genuine focus where traffic from various 
parts of the city could be successfully centered upon some definite area and successfully 
distributed therein. 

Anticipating, therefore, the future development of the business district as being 
substantially bounded by Burrard Street on the west, Pacific Street on the south and 



242 



A PLAN' FOR VANCOUVER 




Gener.il I ieiv of the Burrard Street Civic Centre Site. 

extending along Hastings and Pender Streets to the north and east, and applying the 
principles first expressed above, we may draw the following conclusions: 

1. A civic centre should be immediately adjacent to one of the boundaries of the future 
business district, such as Burrard Street, Pacific Street, Hastings or Pender Streets. 

2. The civic centre site should be along 
the southern or eastern boundary of 
the business district, sincethemajority 
of the ultimate population will live in 
this direction. 

3. The present character of the southern 
and eastern boundaries of the business 
district is largely industrial and low 
cost residential, making it necessary 
either to relyupon architectural design 
for satisfactory effects or to reclaim 
certain portions of this area and there- 
by establish more appropriate sur- 
roundings for the centre. 

Theoretically, the ideal location for 
the civic centre of Vancouver would be 
midway between Granville Street and 
Cambie Street Bridges, all of the area 
between the civic centre and False Creek, 
including the entire shores of False Creek, 
constituting one great large park. This 
would satisfy the four fundamental require- 
ments — proximity to business district, focal 
position, character of site and surround- 
ings, and the logical location of each of 




Plan of Civic Centre. 



CIVIC ART REPORT 



2 43 



the buildings comprising the group. There being no hill at this location, however, and 
the possibility of converting the shores of False Creek into a large park being improbable, 
it not impracticable, other opportunities must be sought. There are but two other locations 
which would seem to satisfy the four fundamental requirements. These are: 

1. Central School site. 

2. The area between False Creek and the top of the hill north of Pacific Street, lying 
between Granville Street and Burrard Street, and, 

Or west of Burrard Street, which will hereinafter be referred to as the Burrard 
Street site. 



CENTRAL SCHOOL SITE. 

This site, which has heretofore been approved and popularly considered as the best 
location for the civic centre, has numerous advantages. It is adjacent to the business district. 
It lies between the Hastings Street and Pender Street entries to the business district on 
the north and the Georgia Viaduct and possible future Kingsway entry to the business 
district on the south and is, consequently, a logical locus. It is on high ground which, 
however, falls off to the south ot Georgia Street. 

Its principal deficiency is in its surroundings, particularly to the west and east, where 
the industries and railroad developments along False Creek will probably forever preclude 
the development of a proper neighbourhood tor monumental buildings. A civic centre 
at this location would have to be so designed as virtually to turn its back to False Creek 
and to relv entirely upon meritorious architecture tor its aesthetic value. It is not telt 
that there is sufficient area or that the immediate surroundings are such as to give a 
proper setting to the buildings proposed tor this location. 

BURRARD STREET SITE. 

This site satisfies all ot the fundamental requirements tor the location ot a civic centre. 
It is immediately adjacent to the business district. It is focal in position, particularly 
when considered in connection with the new Burrard Street Bridge and the existing 
Granville Street Bridge, the latter being the heaviest vehicular traffic entry to the business 
district, according to the traffic count 
of 27<-h January, 1927. The site has a 
marvellous outlook upon English Bay 
and upon a large portion ot the exist- 
ing city, although its immediate sur- 
roundings are of a low cost residential 
character and the immediate foreground 
ot False Creek is objectionable. 

The ground has a maximum eleva- 
tion of 190 feet. There are remarkably 
fine opportunities here for the develop- 
ment of a superb building group. A new 
bridge is proposed from the intersection 
of Burrard and Pacific Streets south- 
west across the mouth of False Creek Foreshore Development, Montaeux, Switzerland. 




244 A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 

to serve the entire Kitsilano, Point Grey and University districts. If this bridge is 
designed in a monumental manner and the shores of English Bay acquired for park and 
boulevard purposes, as they unquestionably should be, a group of magnificent public 
buildings could be fitted into this setting in a manner probably unsurpassed in this or 
any other country. The "Plan of Civic Centre" suggests the area required and the general 
arrangement of buildings. The time is ripe to start this undertaking by initial purchase 
of land. 

COMPARATIVE COSTS. 

A comparison of acreage and cost between the Central School and Burrard Street 
Sites has been made as follows: 

Burrard Street Site: Area Land Improvements Total 

Davie to Burnaby 7.6 $269,800 $241,000 $ 510,000 

Burnaby to Pacific [5.2 459,600 281,600 741,200 

Pacific to Waterfront . 10.8 314,225 130,300 444,525 

Central School Site: 

For City Hall and Park ........ 

For Auditorium, Museum, Library 
and Central Park or Square 

14.0 52,205,350 

The accompanying plate 56, showing a suggested treatment, was prepared with the 
advice and enthusiastic co-operation of Mr. G. L. T. Sharp, Vancouver Architect and 
Chairman of the Civic Art Committee of the Town Planning Commission. It should be 
emphasized that this drawing does not purport to represent any definite scheme, but 
has as its object the demonstration of the wonderful possibilities of the site. 

HOW TO FINANCE THIS PROJECT. 

The Vancouver Civic Centre scheme in its entirety is a porject of very considerable 
magnitude, involving, as it does, the acquisition of considerable property and the con- 
struction of a bridge in which aesthetic considerations rival the utilitarian, as well as the 
erection of the buildings comprising the civic centre group. It will be seen from Plate 55 
that the scheme provides for the complete encirclement of English Bay by park develop- 
ment. Stanley Park, the English Bay beach, Kitsilano Park and the two blocks immediately 
west of the Reserve, recently acquired through the munificence of Mr. Harvey Hadden, 
of London, England, are already city property. The acquisition of the northern foreshore, 
south of Beach and Pacific Avenues, between the English Bay beach and Burrard Street, 
the civic centre site and the entire Kitsilano Reserve remain to be accomplished. The 
experience of Camden, N.J., in purchasing property for civic centre purposes is worthy 
of note. The Commissioners purchased, in addition to thirty-five acres required for the 
civic centre, seventeen acres of adjacent property. Two years later, three of these seventeen 
acres were disposed of at tour times the amount of the original purchase price, with the 



33-6 






$1,626,525 


5-7 


? 1, 3 50,000 


5 89,050 


? 1, 439,020 


8-3 


599.35° 


166,950 


766,300 



CIVIC ART REPORT 245 

important proviso that buildings erected thereon must meet with the approval of Camden's 
Planning Consultants in respect to their architecture. At this rate of sale the remaining 
surplus land is expected to pay for the entire civic centre, and the harmonious character 
of surrounding development is assured. 

The establishment of a civic centre is bound to give rise to a substantial increase in 
property values in its vicinity, and the purchase of adjoining blocks, as an investment, 
and in order to make possible the architectural control of abutting buildings should 
commend itself to the earnest consideration of the authorities. 

The trend of the property market indicates a steady rise in property values in the 
area affected by these proposals and immediate negotiation for the acquisition of the 
property required, or, as has been suggested by some of the owners, the securing of 
options at existing favourable prices is of first importance. Delay in this respect will 
jeopardize the full realization of the scheme and may even force its abandonment. A little 
vision today is capable of securing for Vancouver an asset surpassing by far anything 
of the kind on the Pacific Coast. It has been suggested that this development is fifteen 
years in advance of its time. The original recommendations were made less than two 
years ago and in that time portions of the property affected have increased in value by 
more than fifty per cent. Without question, the time for action is now. 

BUILD BEAUTIFUL BRIDGES. 

"There are no structures, other than the great public buildings, which attract 
more attention, and the location and design of which are of greater importance 
than bridges." — Nelson P. Lewis, "The Planning of the Modern City." 

The importance of the Burrard Street Bridge to the success of the civic centre scheme, 
and of the general development of English Bay, cannot be too strongly emphasized. The 
bridge will be the most conspicuous unit in the entire project. It will be in the very tore- 
ground of every view from English Bav. It will act as a screen to cut off the disfiguring 
industrial development to the east. It is not too much to say that the treatment of this 
feature can make or mar the whole English Bay development. 

The early construction of the Burrard Street Bridge seems assured. Once built, 
correctly or incorrectly located, beautiful or hideous, harmonious or otherwise, it is likely 
to stav. Can the bridge location and design be properly decided without the preparation 
of plans to determine the general layout and architectural style of the entire scheme, 
of which the bridge is an integral part? It is the duty of the Town Planning Commission 
to fir. i an answer to this question and to advise the City Council accordingly. 

Considerations which are trivial, viewed in the light of the ultimate scheme, should 
not be permitted to influence either the location or design of the bridge. The grant of 
$200,000 by the Canadian Pacific Railway towards the cost of a bridge carrying a lower 
railway deck, upon which the Railway Company will have running rights over a long 
period of years, does not appear to warrant the erection of a bridge, at once unsightly and 
costly; nor does the avoiding of the British Columbia Electric Railway's temporary 
development on the Canadian Pacific Railway owned property within the Reserve excuse 
an unnecessarily long and awkward location for a single deck structure. 

What has been said in particular of Burrard Street Bridge applies generally to all 
bridges in Vancouver. It is hardly necessary to point out the fine opportunity to improve 
the city's appearance by the construction of well-designed bridges. Vancouver has a 
number of bridges of unaesthetic design that will have to be replaced. The new bridges 
should be a credit to the city. This does not mean elaborate and expensive ornaments and 



246 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



decorations, but merely proper attention to proportion and general effect. For single-deck 
bridges or viaducts with fixed spans there seems to be no doubt that this can be best 
attained by the use of concrete. 

ALL PUBLIC BUILDINGS SHOULD BE CREDITABLE. 

The city has a responsibility, not only in the erection of a civic centre, but in the 
matter of providing other attractive public buildings and grounds. A baeutiful design 
must be given the building itself and an appropriate setting provided for it. Adequate 
space and suitable planting are necessary elements of the setting. Where possible, it is 
a good idea to locate a fine public building where it will terminate a street vista. 

An appraisal of the appearance of public schools, libraries, court house and buildings 
in parks, leads to the conclusion that only the latter have a quality which is fitting. The 
school buildings, with few exceptions, are not a credit to Vancouver. They suggest that 
deplorable period in the history of education when none of the practical arts, such as 
architecture and landscape design, were supposed to have any value in shaping the child's 
mind. This theory is now generally discarded and Boards of Education recognize the useful- 
ness of pleasing and attractive school buildings in the forming of character and the training 




Copyrighted, The Coast Publishing Compai 



The Conrt House, Georgia Street 



CIVIC ART REPORT ; 4 7 

of future citizens. The Town Planning Commission should urgently recommend that 
no more factory type units be added to the schools of Vancouver. 

The court house is not a building of outstanding architectural merit, but it does have 
a certain dignity and poise. It suffers somewhat as most single public structures of such 
design do, from the inappropriateness of surroundings. How much better this grey pile 
would look if it could be seen among others of like character in a well-balanced group. 
How well it would show across a stretch of lawn or upon an eminence. In a civic centre 
each structure contributes to and gains attractiveness from the others. And if the group 
is on a hill or a slope, and the units are dignified and harmonious and of impressive com- 
position, the effect is everlastingly creditable to the city. 

MONUMENTS IN BETTER SETTINGS. 

Vancouver has not been moved to adorn herself with monuments, shafts, fountains 
and other works of this type. The cenotaph in Victory Square is a very conservative and 
appropriate symbol. The only other monuments of importance in the city are located in 
Stanley Park, which has become a sort ot museum of sculpture and statuary. 

It is not within the province of this report to pass upon the merits of these features 
in Stanley Park, but a word must be said about general policies governing their placement. 
A few choice works of the sculptors' art appropriately placed add interest and aesthetic 
value to a public park. But to use park land and park landscapes for the assembling of 
regiments of badly assorted stone and metal figures is bad public policy. There are too 
many statues and monuments in Stanley Park now. There is not one there now that is 
placed with proper regard for aesthetic principles. They do not improve the park. Thev 
do it injury. They would all show to better advantage and the park would be greatly 
improved if they were relocated and set against backgrounds designed for them. 

The city should have many small park areas suitable for monument sites. Thev 
should terminate vistas, occupy commanding positions, have dominance over their sur- 
roundings, be permitted to tell their story without disturbance, make positive contn 
butions to the adornment of the city. Traffic circles with shafts or fountains, plazas in 
front of schools, with pools and balustrades and walls carrying inscriptions or bas-reliefs, 
all such, when well done, add tremendously to the impressiveness of the city. More of 
the wealth which is created by the commerce and industry of Vancouver should go into 
these things. The culture and taste of the people are not well reflected by its present aspect. 

COMMERCIAL and INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS. 

Stores. 

As stores, factories and homes comprise the vast majority of buildings in the city, 
their effect on the appearance of the city is, of course, correspondingly great. The scattering 
of stores promiscuously throughout residence districts has done considerable damage to 
the city's appearance. The nearly universal custom of building stores out to the street 
line has hurt the appearance of a good many residence streets and at the same time has 
injured adjoining lots by making them less desirable for living purposes and reducing 
their saleable value. The zoning by-law will remedy this condition and tend to prevent 
residence districts from becoming blighted. Wherever a commercial district under the 



2 4 8 



A PLAN* FOR VANCOUVER 



zone plan is to occupy only a part of the 
frontage in any block, as in many of the 
neighbourhood store centres serving the 
residential districts, the building line 
that is fixed tor the houses in that block 
is also fixed as the building line for 
the stores. 

The tendency under the zone plan 
is for stores supplying neighbourhood 
needs to become grouped at certain 
accessible corners. There is developing 
in cities a greater interest in these 
local centres. Their architecture is being 
studied and many real estate promoters 
are building structures of uniform type 
at such points. When thus constructed 
they have architectural merit and be- 
come a credit to the neighbourhood which they serve. Certainly the corner store need 
not be the ugly object that it commonly is. 

There has been some improvement in the architectural treatment of down-town store 
fronts of late. This is a matter over which the public has no control, but credit must be 
given for the attractive departmental stores recently erected, for they vitally affect the 
city's appearance and the impression carried away by the stranger. Co-operation by 
individuals and a reliance on the advice of architects will bring improvement. 




An Appropriately Designed Transformer House in 
a Residential Xeighbourhood. 



EVEN FACTORIES MAY BE IMPROVED. 

The modern idea as to the exterior appearance of factory buildings is to put a little 
thought and care on this matter at the same time that the inside of the buildings is being 
carefully planned. Factory managers are getting away from the idea that their works 
must be ugly and repulsive structures. There is certainly a definite place for attractiveness 
in this field. There is an advertising value in pleasing industrial structures. Dark, dingy 
interiors and ugly exteriors are depressing. Well-planned buildings and green outside in 
the form of grass, vines, shrubbery and trees do a great deal to stimulate pride among 
workers. There is an incentive to follow the example and fix up the home grounds. All 
this helps make the employee a better citizen and incidentally improves the appearance 
of the city- A modern building of the factory type which has attracted attention to its 
appearance is that recently erected by Swan Bros., Sharp & Thompson, Architects. 



THE RAILWAY GATEWAY SHOULD BE IMPRESSIVE. 

In the transportation section of this report the advantages and disadvantages of a 
union passenger terminal are considered, and recommendation made for the future pro- 
vision of facilities which would take care of all the railways entering the citv. 

The present terminals in Vancouver compare favorably with those in other cities 
of similar size. The Canadian National and Great Northern Railway Stations are provided 
with appropriate surroundings which might well be developed into an impressive scheme 
to be utilized by all the railways entering Vancouver. 



CIVIC ART REPORT 



249 




Part III. 
STREET DESIGN. 

If the wavs and means by which more agreeable surroundings may be produced are 
analyzed, it will be found that an attractive city depends largely on (1) attractive streets, 
and (2) attractive buildings and grounds, parks and other open spaces, namely, whatever 
is seen from the streets. The appearance 
of the streets themselves and of the 
parks and other open spaces is largely in 
the hands ot the city government or sub- 
ject to their guidance. The appearance of 
buildings and grounds, on the other hand, 
is partly in public, but largely in private, 
control. This classification is arbitrary 
and of use only for the purpose ot 
analyzing the subject under discussion. 
The aim of this phase of the town plan 
is to formulate a programme for the Boulevard Planting. 

improvement of the looks of Vancouver. 

The design of streets has a notable bearing upon the city's appearance. A narrow 
street where a wide one belongs is obviously a mistake. A broad expanse of pavement 
on a purely local residential street robs the neighbourhood of the restful, homelike character 
that appeals to the average home-owner. The proper proportioning of streets so that 
roadways will be wide enough on major streets, and all grass and tree space will not be 
abosrbed by pavement on residential streets, is a matter which can now be controlled 
by adherence to a functional street plan. 

STREETS, CURVES and CURBS. 

Street intersections also deserve notice. Where two streets intersect at a sharp angle, 
the corner should be well rounded. A radius of from twenty to twenty-five feet at the 
curb line is needed for this purpose. This may mean putting a curve on the property 
line at the corner, a plan to be followed generally when new subdivisions are laid out. 
The object is mainly safety, but appearance gains, too. Sharp curb corners at present 
spoil the looks of many streets in Vancouver. 

Sometimes, where more than two streets intersect at or near the same point, or 
where a slight jog occurs in one of two intersecting streets, carefully enlarging the inter- 
section will make it safer and at the same time much more interesting and attractive. 
Forethought exercised when land is subdivided results usually not only in added safety 
and attractiveness for the public, but better property values adjacent to the corner which 
is given individual treatment. 

Street alignment, too, is worthy ot note in this connection. This really goes back again 
to the subdivision ot the land. In Vancouver, wherever it has been necessary to change 
the direction of a street, it has been customary in the past to introduce an angle in the 
street, taking up all the change of direction at one point. Far more street attractiveness, 
as well as better shaped lots and greater traffic satety, would usually have been produced 
in residential sections it long radius curves had been used in place of angles. 

When parkways or boulevards are laid out, special interest in the street view may 
be secured without expense by the deliberate introduction of occasional long curves, even 
where the contour of the land does not demand a change of direction. Such curves are 



250 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 




more adapted to the flow of motors, 
and are consequently more satisfying 
than angles. Though already used to 
fine effect in numerous subdivisions out- 
side the city, there are still wonderful 
possibilities in the use of curved streets 
tor local residential use. On hilly land 
they are absolutely necessary as a practi' 
cal matter; on land less rough, curved 
streets here and there throughout the city 
undoubtedly increase its attractiveness. 

POLES, WIRES, LIGHTS, ETC. 

It is not within the scope of this 
report to consider in detail all the items 
mentioned under this sub-heading. But 
they are matters that should be care- 
fully considered by the various civic 
departments. While the location ot poles 
and wires on the city streets is under 
franchise arrangement and not entirely 
under control of the city, every endeav- 
our should be made to forward their 
ultimate removal. The effect of beautiful 
buildings and well-planted boulevards is 
in a great measure nullified by these 
ungainly and unsightly erections, as a reference to nearly every illustration in this report will 
clearly show. Where it is impossible to place wires underground, they should be located along 
lanes or easements. 

Street lighting has, in the past few 
years, received a great deal of attention, 
and methods of lighting and design of 
standards leave but little to be desired. 
Vancouver has made some progress in 
modern street lighting in recent years. The 
work of lighting all the major thorough- 
fares should go on as rapidly as possible. On 
car line streets steps should be taken Ito 
combine the light standards and trolley 
wire supports in one fixture so as to 
eliminate one set of poles. 

In the past a great deal of complaint 
has been made as to street signs in Van- 
couver and vicinity. With the coming into 
being of the new city, there will be needed 
a certain amount of renaming of streets. 



A Pole Designed to Carry Street Lighting Fixture and 

Power Wires, as Well as Acting as a Support 

for Street Railway Wiring. 








Disfiguring Poles at the Bench Avenue Entrance 
to Stanley Park. 



CIVIC ART REPORT 



251 



As pointed out by Mr. Walter Deptford, a member of 
the Town Planning Commission, the same name has been 
repeated as many as five times in the City ot Vancouver 
and adjoining municipalities to designate different 
streets. Those streets that are numbered are frequently 
designated by different numbers in different municipal' 
ities, lor example, Forty-First Avenue in Point Grey 
becomes Forty-Third in South Vancouver, and eventually 
Forty-Second. When these anomalies have been rectified, 
the question of street signs should then be given serious 
attention. The accompanving photograph shows the latest 
street signs in connection with the street lighting system 
as used in Point Grey, a type found to be very satisfactory. 



SIDEWALKS IN RESIDENTIAL DISTRICTS. 



The placing ot sidewalks at the curb on residential 
streets is not good planning, though it has already been 
done in Vancouver at the request of interested owners. 
This practice is dangerous to children playing on the 
sidewalk who may unintentionally step off the walk in 
front of an approaching automobile; it allows the ped' 
estrian in rainy weather to be splashed by a passing 
vehicle, and does not permit ot an ample planting 
strip, that, lor appearances, should be provided, not only for grass and trees, but in a 
climate such as Vancouver enjoys, for flowers as well. 




Ornamental Lighting. 



STREET CONTROL 



Sidewalk Obstruction. 

From the standpoint ot the pedestrian's rights, and also for the sake of appearance, 
sidewalks should be free from obstructions. Loading and unloading of goods temporarily 
on the sidewalk is usually not very objectionable. The use of sidewalk space for storage 
or for showcases or advertising matters calls for police action. Vancouver is fortunately 
free from the gasoline curb pump, an obstruction to both pedestrian and vehicular traffic. 

Overhanging Signs. 

It is understood that in Vancouver the only overhanging signs permitted are those 
that are electrically illuminated, though the further control as to the size and amount 
of projections might be desirable. 

Billboards. 

Under the zoning by-law, no billboards are permitted in residential districts. Further 
control in other districts might be advisable, but the billboard companies cannot be 
expected to co-operate in such matters as long as building owners permit signs to cover 
great wall spaces. 



252 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



Street Planting Deserves Thorough 

Consideration. 

Residential Streets. 

For years the Parks Board has 
urged systematic planting on residential 
streets. In 1909, trees suitable for street 
planting were purchased in England, 
several thousand young seedling stock 
being planted in the Stanley Park 
nursery. The trees were ready for street 
planting before any scheme was worked 
out and considerable loss of trees resulted 
and no uniform scheme ot planting in 
any block was made effective, though 
citizens were supplied with trees without 
any charge. 

Charter powers for the City of Van' 
couver have been obtained to regulate 
the operation and maintenance of 
"boulevards" under a frontage tax, but 
no action has been taken by the Council, 
though again in 1920 the Parks Board 
purchased 5,000 trees, and these trees 
were ready tor planting two years ago 
and certain blocks in the city were 
planted as a trial demonstration. 
In the early days tree planting was carried out by interested citizens, but without 
regulation or scheme. Unsuitable and varying types of trees, poorly spaced and arranged 
have resulted in the present more or less undesirable appearance of streets where planting 
exists, and has also resulted in very considerable inconvenience, as outlined in a report 
by Mr. W. S. Rawlings, Superintendent of the Parks Board, under date of 8th January, 1926. 




Bad Boulevard Planting. 
The Result of Individual Efforts, Without System. 





Bad Street Planting. 



Good Street Planting. 



CIVIC ART REPORT 



253 




Street Planting, Victoria, B.C. 



Mr. Rawlings draws attention to the 
system in vogue in Victoria, and states : 

"Probably the finest example of 
systematic boulevarding in Canada 
is to be seen in Victoria, and it is 
doubtful if it can be excelled on the 
American Continent. Those interested 
in this method of city beautification 
would be well repaid if they paid 
a visit to Victoria and made a tour 
of the city and residential districts. 

"This system has been in force for 
a number of years now. I understand 
criticism had to be faced at the outset 
in regard to the clean sweep that had 
to be made ere a permanent planting 

scheme could be put into operation. That the policy was a wise and proper one 
none today can doubt. The construction work, including planting and seeding, 
was carried out under the local improvement plan and maintenance costs are 
chargeable under a frontage tax, similar to the powers which we have in our 
charter. 

"Another excellent example of systematic boulevarding is at Winnipeg, where 
the frontage tax for maintenance is in operation. At Calgary, under very difficult 
and adverse conditions, their well-planned and neatly maintained boulevards are a 
credit to the city. 

"If a policy for the definite and permanent boulevarding and planting were laid 
down and carried out, in a few years hence we would have a system which would not 
be excelled anywhere in Canada. The evidence for this statement is what can be 
seen today in Victoria." 

Undoubtedly a scheme similar to that in Victoria should be established in Vancouver 
and a by-law to accomplish this is now being considered. 

Approach to Stanley Park. 

Particular attention should be given to the planting on Georgia Street from Granville 
westerly to the Stanley Park entrance. This street should either be planted uniformly 
throughout, or all trees removed and shrubs established between sidewalk and curb. 
This street is too important to be allowed to remain long in its present state. It needs 
a uniform treatment. 

The entrance to Stanley Park could be considerably improved as to convenience 
and appearance by providing a pedestrian tunnel under Georgia Street and marking by 
planting, development to the east of the entrance, by removing buildings on the Lagoon 
in the vicinity of Georgia Street, and, if necessary, by building suitable structures further 
south of the Lagoon. 

Coal Harbour, in its present state, is a serious disfigurement ot Stanley Park, and 
every opportunity should be taken to acquire property on the north side of Georgia Street 
as far east as the Auditorium. It would greatly change the view from within the park if 
the private structure on the axis of the bridge at the corner of Georgia and Chilco could 
be redesigned with a lower or more satisfactory exterior, or removed entirely. The park 
suffers from these bordering structures. 



-54 



A PLAN" FOR VANCOUVER 



VANCOUVER 

TOWNPLANNLNG 

COMM ISS ION 



DIAGRAMS ILLUSTRATING LANDSCAPE 
DEVELOPMENT OE HOME GROUNDS 



BAMHOIOMEW (/■ 
ASSOCIATES 








PROPER TREATMENT 
OF CORNER LOT 

NOTE-SETBACK FROM EACH STREET 
DRIVEWAY AT CORNER. Of IOT 

GARDENS IT THE REAR 
GARAGE INCONSPICUOUS 







THE LANDSCAPE OF 
THE SMALl HOME 

NOTE-COMMUNITY GARDfKS 
GARAGE COUM 
UNIFORM SET SACK. 
UNIFORM FRONT YARBS 




3S?s. 






METHOD OF 
HANDLING A LOT 
OF IRREGULAR SHAPE 

NOTE GARDEN OFF LIVING ROOM 
GARAGE, IN MOUSE t 
AISENCf OF OUTBUILDINGS 
CURVFD WALK V 
GENEROUS FRONT YARB 




.y^por f^i^a ^i«F>i? 



..-^ 



WHAT NOT TO DO 

FRONT YARD CUT IN TAG 
1Y STRAIGHT WALK 

DRIVES fGARAGE INSTEAD OF 

LAWNS E/GARDEN IN VIEW 
FROM LIVING ROOM 
FLOWER BIOS PLACED AS 
AN AFTER THOUGHT 



Plate jS 

HOME GROUNDS CAN BE GREATLY IMPROVED. 

(Plate ^). 

i. Homes. 

Observations have been made regarding some of the wavs in which both private 
individuals and public authorities have it in their power to contribute appreciably to the 
attractiveness of the city. Nothing has yet been said about the private home. Probably 
no single factor is ot greater importance in this respect. The great bulk of the city's area 
is devoted to private dwellings. The individual responsibility of each home-owner in 
producing and maintaining an attractive city is at once apparent. 

The mixture of architectural types and styles, and the haphazard placing of buildings 
of all sizes along the same street, is responsible for the disturbing effect found on some 
streets ot Vancouver. This is a matter that is subject to no control other than public taste. 
Where each individual develops his own property, he naturally does that which appeals 



CIVIC ART REPORT 255 

to him. Through education a gradual improvement of public taste should certainly be 
sought. What Vancouver needs is an agreement as to a style of building that is at once 
aesthetically pleasing and adapted to local climatic conditions. The half-timber house 
should be studied and advocated by the local architects, for it seems to be appropriate 
to these surroundings. 

The zoning by-law is of some help in preventing serious jumbling of building types. 
Under its provisions certain districts are being developed only with one-family and two- 
family houses; no apartments, boarding houses and so on are permitted. Furthermore, 
only buildings of two and a-half storeys or less in height are permitted in such districts. 
Front yard lines are being enforced in all residence zones, thereby assuring observance 
of the desire of the majority of home-owners who prefer to have attractive front yards. 
These provisions are all based on protection of health and property values, but their 
effect in improving the city's appearance is evident. 

Provisions of the zoning by-law will prevent the erection, under ordinary conditions, 
of garages or other similar buildings near the street line. Ordinarily, these will be placed 
at least 60 feet back, from the street line. Suitable provision is also made for corner sites, 
so that appearances need not be sacrificed. 

2. Planting. 

In addition to producing a smooth, weedless lawn, the average home-owner wishes 
to dress up his house and yard with shrubs, flowers, vines and trees. If all the homes 
in Vancouver that are bare of planting were to have a bit of attention along this line, 
the city would assume a vastly improved appearance. Almost any kind of planting is 
better than none at all, but of course there are good and poor ways of arranging the plant 
material. 

This is far too big a subject to attempt to discuss in any detail in a report. An abund- 
ance of information is available elsewhere for those who seek it. It may be helpful, however, 
to list briefly a few of the fundamentals, the observance of which is essential to successful 
planting of the home grounds: 

1. Keep shrubs along border of yard and against foundation of house. The homes of 
Vancouver surfer severely from lack of foundation planting in scale with the house. 

2. Avoid use of round flower beds in lawns, hot water tank flower boxes, rubber tire 
effects and other freakish displays. 

3. Make sure that plants placed in the shade are the right sort to grow there. Some 
plants thrive in the shade, others dwindle and die. 

4. Hedges are meant to serve as walls or fences. A hedge-like row of shrubs of the same 
kind and the same height planted around a front porch or along a house wall produces 
monotony. 

5. In planting against a porch or against the house itself, let certain portions of the 
foundation remain open to view practically to the ground. Vary the heights of 
shrubs, placing more shrubs and taller-growing ones at the corners and leading 
away with lower-growing ones. A tall house needs tall shrubs. Flowers belong in 
outer borders. 



256 A PLAN" FOR VANCOUVER 

6. Some shrubs and trees make good "specimens," that is, they have interesting forms 
and can be used to advantage singly to produce special effects. Most narrow-leaved 
evergreens belong to this class. Never spot up a lawn with such plants, however, 
and never plant a row of them around a house. Use them sparingly and rely on 
mass planting of shrubs in most places. 

7. Every lot should have one or two shade trees. If there is a street tree close to the 
lot and the lot is small, it may not be best to provide another tree at the front of the 
house. When possible, arrange for the trees to enframe the house when seen from 
the street. It will improve the effect. 

8. Find a sunny place along the walk or foundation for the flower bed. A lawn looks 
best when left open for as broad a space as possible. Flowers look well backed up 
by the green of shrubbery. 

9. One or two vines should climb the porch or the side of the house. It is unnecessary 
to plant many vines. 

10. It will pay to plan the planting layout for the lot on paper or have it done for you 
before doing the actual planting. Relatively few plants are needed to improve a 
small lot 100 per cent, in appearance, and a plan will make it possible to arrange 
these to the best effect. 

3. Vacant Lots. 

Vacant lots are scattered more or less through every city. There is a tendency for 
these spots to be neglected by their owners, who often live at a distance from the city, 
and who, perhaps, have no agent to assume responsibility for their upkeep. The care of 
vacant lots constitutes an important factor in the city's appearance. Citizens should co- 
operate to discourage all attempts to use these vacant areas as community waste baskets 
for the piling up of paper, tin cans, bottles and other refuse. 

CONCLUSION. 

If a town plan is to be really effective it needs the co-operation of every citizen 
as well as of the civic officials. The object of this particular civic art report is to show in 
some detail how the city's appearance can be improved through the aid of each citizen 
by keeping home grounds attractive and urging that other matters mentioned in this 
report should be thoughtfully considered by civic officials. By supporting measures and 
methods for making a more efficient city, as well as for increasing the city's attractiveness, 
and also by direct assistance as individuals in improving the appearance of the particular 
property which they happen to own, the people of Vancouver can gradually make their 
streets, parks, buildings and grounds so attractive that their city will be second to none 
in appearance. 



EXECUTION OF THE PLAN 

With the publication of this volume a more or less definite plan for the City of 
Vancouver has been laid down for the next thirty or forty years. Many projects of varying 
character are proposed. Some will require many years to complete and will involve con- 
siderable expense. Other projects can be completed at reasonably small expense in the 
near future. There follows on page 264 a programme of the order in which various projects 
constituting the plan should be undertaken. 

This programme represents an orderly system of procedure and a presumed balancing 
of costs that will prove to be more economical than has been customary in the past or than 
can be expected in the future if there were no city plan. 

FUNDAMENTAL ECONOMY OF PLANNING. 

A city is always spending money on public improvements. As a city grows in size, 
improvements become more numerous and more costly. It is important that there be a 
balancing ot various kinds of improvements as well as a consideration of the time factor 
within which all these improvements should be undertaken. If a city absorbs all of its 
bonding power for schools and water, as some have done, the city will soon be out ot 
balance socially as well as economically. It will have deprived its citizens of fundamental 
needs in sanitation and in recreation. It will have postponed the undertaking of street 
openings and widenings, public buildings, parks and recreation, until prices of land have 
become prohibitive or excessively high. To prevent this sort of unbalanced and unwise 
community growth is the fundamental purpose of a city plan. No unnecessary or extrava- 
gant projects are proposed in the city plan. It is merely a study of the entire city with 
respect to such fundamental necessities as streets, transit, transportation, zoning and 
public recreation. In so far as public money is to be spent, the city plan by reason ot 
comprehensive analysis prevents the unwise mistake of not considering all such needs, 
a mistake that would assuredly otherwise occur. A city plan does not comprehend all 
public needs, such as drainage, schools, eleemosynary institutions, and the like. The 
presence of a city plan, however, makes possible immediate consideration of all types of 
public improvement embraced in the city plan when public budgets and debenture issues 
are under consideration. 

A brief examination of the projects comprising a city plan soon dispels the idea that 
it is a municipal extravagance. Zoning, for instance, involves no capital expenditures and 
almost negligible current expense. A transit plan involves no public expense, since re- 
routings, extensions or other rearrangements are undertaken at the expense of the operating 
company. The transportation plan is carried out largely at the expense of the railroad 
companies. The city may share in the cost of grade crossing eliminations, but in so doing it 
may proceed with the assurance that these crossings are wisely located at major streets 
according to the city plan. Under the laissez-faire policy of spasmodic grade separation, 
public expenditures would probably be greater and much less satisfactory results would 
be secured, both from the standpoint of public safety and that of accommodation to the 
largest volume of vehicular traffic. 



258 A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 

It has already been shown that the civic centre proposed in the present city plan is 
both cheaper and aesthetically far superior to all proposals previously made. It will 
undoubtedly be no more expensive than the purchase of separate sites for each of the 
buildings if dispersed throughout the city. By following this plan the city will probably 
spend less money for public building sites, while it will reap the advantages of facilitation 
of public business and the most impressive locations for its public buildings. 

If, then, the four principal elements of the city plan, i.e., transit, transportation, 
zoning, and the civic centre, involve no new or unusual public expense, and, in fact, can 
be undertaken with advantage and with economy because of the city plan, what about 
the two principal remaining elements, major streets and public recreation? In regard to 
the latter, it has already been shown that the early acquisition of future park, areas, 
ahead of settlement, constitutes great savings and justifies debenture issue for present 
purchase at a low cost per acre. In other words, a well-studied recreation plan will result 
in much more park acreage, more appropriately located and more economically acquired 
than if there be no plan. We are thus left to consider those problems that are involved 
in the making effective of the major street plan — the widening and extensions of existing 
streets. Where areas have not yet been subdivided, new major streets will be acquired 
without cost. An example of this is found in the case of the 100-foot street to be dedicated 
by the provincial government in a new proposed subdivision adjacent to the present 
Grandview Highway. 

The major street plan is presumably one of the most expensive parts of the city plan. 
The expense involved is for readjustment of existing streets, necessitated entirely by original 
bad platting. A fundamental economy of the city plan is that it will hereafter prevent 
expensive mistakes of this character. The cost of correction of present difficulties will 
vary with the degree of vision exercised by the present generation. The automobile is 
here to stay. Its number will constantly increase and our streets will have to be made to 
conform to its needs and requirements. This means that certain existing streets will have 
to be extended, opened and widened. This must be done whether there be a city plan 
or not. Without a plan, many ill-advised and improperly conceived projects will be under- 
taken. Their cost will exceed the cost of a wise plan gradually undertaken. To delay or 
postpone is to invite greatly increased cost, for land adjoining these major streets rarely, 
if ever, recedes in value. Rather, it is always increasing in value, on some streets more 
rapidly than on others. In this, as in other elements of the plan, there is fundamental 
economy in the adoption and enforcement of a comprehensive plan, although the time 
factor and the methods of financing used will materially affect the total cost. This is the 
subject of further discussion below. 

METHODS OF FINANCING PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS. 

Almost without exception, cities are more or less short of public funds, particularly 
for meeting the cost of large public improvements. Each successive city administration 
is usually confronted in all cities with the complaint that "taxes are already too great." 
Generally speaking, the larger the city grows the greater becomes the demand for funds 
for an increasing variety of purposes. 

Public funds are raised through taxation for two fundamental purposes, i.e., (1) 
Maintenance and operating expense that is usually a more or less uniform annual amount, 
and (2) Capital expenditures for permanent improvements that fluctuate widely in 



EXECUTION OF THE PLAN 259 

character and cost. Since, in the last analysis, both costs come out of the pockets of the 
taxpayer, it can readily be seen that taxation, particularly for capital expenditures, will 
be excessive in certain years unless there is comprehensive financing, based upon the full 
knowledge of all public improvements which involve capital expense. There can be no 
such comprehensive financing nor full knowledge of all public improvements without a 
comprehensive city plan. If there be a comprehensive city plan, a more or less definite 
programme can be prepared, such as that suggested on page 264, and a comprehensive 
financing programme can gradually be worked out that will permit of the most economical 
procedure within reasonable and uniform rates of taxation. 

Public funds are normally secured as follows: 

1. From the annual tax duplicate. 

2. From debenture issues. 

3. From special assessment tax levies. 

4. From acquirement and sale of excess lands abutting public improvements. 

A brief description of each of these methods of raising funds, with particular reference 
to various elements of the city plan, is included below. 

(1) Funds Derived From Annual Tax Duplicate. 

Funds derived from annual tax levies are usually devoted to maintenance and operating 
costs of the city government and for the payment of principal and interest on debentures. 
Funds derived directly from annual taxation are rarely used for financing capital expendi- 
tures directly, except only in the case of small improvements which involve very little cost. 

(2) Debenture Issues. 

Debenture issues are the most commonly used forms of financing large public improve- 
ments. Many cities have made the mistake of relying too heavily upon this form of 
financing, have been too careless in prorating debenture issues more or less uniformly 
over a given period of years, and too often have issued long-term debentures for short- 
lived improvements. As a check upon all wasteful methods, an act of the provincial 
legislature limits the debentures that may be outstanding at any one time to twenty 
per cent, of the total assessed valuation of property within the city. Vancouver, con- 
sequently, has a debenture limit of twenty per cent. This is most liberal. A great majority 
of cities in the United States enjoy only a five per cent., or, at most, a ten per cent, limit. 

Debenture issues are needed to finance several important elements of the city plan, 
notably street opening and widening, railroad grade separations, parks, and public 
buildings. In very few instances, however, should either of these classes of improvements 
be financed completely by debenture issues. In the case of street opening and widening, 
and of parks, for instance, there will be enhancement in value of abutting and adjoining 
property, which enhancement in value should be recovered by special assessment of 
benefit. Only so much -of the total cost as cannot be recovered by special assessment 
of benefit should be borne by the city at large through debenture issue. In the case of 
railroad grade separation, a portion of the cost will be borne by the railroads, possibly 
a portion by benefitted private property, and the remaining cost only should be absorbed 
by debenture issue. 

In view of the limit of debentures that can be issued by the citv, and in view of the 
numerous forms of capital expenditure not related to the citv plan that must be financed 



26o A PLAN" FOR VANCOUVER 



from debenture issues, such as water supply, hospitals, and the like, it is important that 
public improvements involving benefit to private property absorb only so much of the 
city's debenture limit as can be financed in no other way. 

(3) Special Assessment for Benefit. 

Many public improvements produce considerable increment in value in abutting and 
adjoining property. This is especially true in the case of street openings and widenings. 
One of many notable illustrations of this has been the widening and extension of Michigan 
Boulevard in Chicago. Its cost was $14,000,000. Property values in the vicinity have 
enhanced in excess of $100,000,000. Obviously, it is unfair to finance a project of this 
character wholly or even largely by debenture issue, thus in effect assessing the owner of 
a small home in an outlying district in the same relative proportion as an owner of property 
abutting the improvement and whose value has been very greatly enhanced. Much of the 
major street plan and portions of the park plan, grade separation plan, and possibly even 
the civic centre plan, can be financed through the levy of special assessments for benefit 
and without unduly increasing the city's debenture obligations. 

In the use of this method of financing public improvements, however, exceedinglv 
great care must be given to the study of individual improvements in order that great 
injustices may be avoided. No general rules can be laid down or arbitrarily followed. The 
proportion of cost that can be assessed in any specific instance must be studied carefullv 
in the light of existing conditions in the particular district. A park or a 100- foot street in 
one district may enhance values very much more than in another district of quite different 
character. Many cities have found a permanent assessment board of great value in the 
use of this most important method of financing public improvements. 

(4) Acquirement and Sale of Excess Lands Abutting Public Improvements. 

In making certain public improvements, such as the opening or widening of streets, 
acquirement of parks, and the like, the City of Vancouver may acquire the whole or part 
ot any lot adjoining or adjacent to such improvement and upon completion thereof may 
dispose of the remaining unused portions of land. European cities have found this authority 
exceedingly advantageous both in bettering the character of the improvement itself, 
through encouraging appropriate development of abutting property, and through whole 
or partial recovery of the cost of the improvement by sale of the remaining property at 
favorable prices. Vancouver has not taken advantage of the powers it now enjoys in this 
respect. In the carrying out of the city plan there will doubtless be a number of oppor- 
tunities for the advantageous use of this authority. 

CARRYING OUT THE MAJOR STREET PLAN. 

In common with most other cities on this continent, Vancouver is coming face to 
face with the problem of adjusting its street plan to the modern automobile age. A con- 
stantly increasing number of machines has been and will continue to be thrown upon 
the surface of the city's streets. This traffic was not anticipated when the street plan of 
the city was laid down by successive owners of land in carrying out their respective sub- 
divisions. All cities are contending with this problem, including ways and means of financing 
the cost ot comprehensive programmes of street opening and widening. It is believed that 
a special discussion ot this problem is here necessary. 



EXECUTION OF THE PLAN 261 

Building Lines. 

Obviously, it is impossible for a city to readjust its main thoroughfare system im- 
mediately to the needs of the automobile age. It is not necessary for the city to acquire 
and widen all of its major streets immediately. Some projects, to be sure, such as the 
Pacific Street-Cambie Street distributor street, need to be carried out almost immediately. 
Many other projects, however, can be postponed for a period of ten, fifteen, or even twenty 
years. On these, however, it is important that new buildings should be required to conform 
to future street lines. If this is not done, many projects will be rendered prohibitive in cost 
and the city forever committed to thwarted traffic movements and stultified business 
conditions in certain sections. 

Wherever immediate action is not necessary, building lines should be established 
for the regulation of new structures. On ninety to ninety-five per cent, of the frontage 
of major streets, buildings already are set back to the future street lines, and no hardships 
will occur. In the remaining instances where buildings are already erected to the present 
street lines and recession would be a hardship upon a new builder, or where such a building 
line would operate harshly upon the owner of a lot of restricted size, some adjustment 
should be made. 

For several years there have been two schools of thought as to the most equitable 
and reasonable manner in which building lines as a first step in the accomplishment of 
street widening projects could be equitably established and enforced. One point of view 
has been that there should be a preliminary expropriation proceeding with compensation. 
The impracticability of this method has been demonstrated, since only one city of import- 
ance has ever succeeded in establishing its major thoroughfare plan.* The very thought 
of expropriation, in no matter how limited a degree, sets up in the minds of both the 
owners of property and of the party engaged in the determination of damage, the fact 
that there is substantial damage. The building line being of potential rather than actual 
immediate benefit necessitates complete absorption of the damage by the municipality, 
which obviously has no available funds for meeting such cost and no hope of ever recovering 
amounts so expended. This method of procedure consequently falls of its own weight, 
as has been shown by universal experience. 

The more modern and reasonable point of view that is already in operation in many 
cities corresponds to the same philosophy that has produced and sustained zoning practices. 
The automobile is a new instrument of great value and usefulness to man. It has produced 
great changes in city life. Its successful employment demands more continuous and wider 
streets, i.e., a major street plan. Since a city cannot widen all of these streets at one time, 
it is a reasonable practice to establish building lines to prevent costly encroachments and 
to protect the possibility of gradual future widening. If, in the exercise of this power, there 
is hardship in individual instances, there may be individual adjustments and modifications 
granted by a board of appeal, precisely as in zoning. Such modifications and adjustments 
should, of course, be undertaken in accordance with the spirit of the plan to protect its 
fundamental purpose and intent, and at the same time prevent unnecessary hardship 
or inequity. There are no profound difficulties in this procedure. They will be found to be 
more apparent than real. 

A careful study should be made of all major streets and a definite building line 
established for the widening of each. This plan should then be undertaken either as a 
separate ordinance or as a part of the comprehensive zoning plan. Fortunately, under 
existing legislation, Vancouver now enjoys sufficient authority to do this. 

'Minneapolis. 



;62 A PLAN" FOR VANCOUVER 

A PROGRAMME FOR CARRYING OUT THE MAJOR STREET PLAN. 

Following the preparation and establishment of building lines on major streets, there 
should be definite determination of the cost of all street openings and widenings. There 
should be prepared also preliminary estimates ot the amount ot total cost that could be 
assessed as benefit and of the remaining cost to be paid by the city at large. The sum of 
these total costs to be borne by the city should be definitely set up as a capital expenditure 
to be financed over a period of from twenty to fifty years. Debentures for individual 
projects or for groups of projects should be issued trom time to time as the Council may 
determine. 

Legislation. 

Fortunately, Vancouver now enjoys remarkably good legislation for carrying out a 
major street plan. It may levy assessments for benefits without the imposition ot arbitrary 
regulations and rules that hamper the use and enjoyment of such authority in many cities. 
It may spread the cost of assessments over a period of fifteen years, which is most reason- 
able. Acquisition of property and of improvement cost may be combined in a single pro- 
ceeding. The only serious handicap of any importance apparently restricting the ability 
of Vancouver to carry out a comprehensive city major street plan is the provision that a 
one-third petition of property owners may prohibit the Council from proceeding with a 
particular project. Legislation of this character formerly existing in many territories, such 
as California, has been repealed in so far as it applies to city-wide projects, such as major 
streets. As suggested by Comptroller Pilkington, improvements of this nature should be 
subject to public hearings only, as, for instance, in the case of a zoning by-law. 

Paving Cost. 

Official adoption and gradual execution of the major street plan will lead to more or 
less definite financial procedure with respect to paving cost. In other cities this has resulted 
in the establishment of a policy whereby the city participates only in paving costs upon 
major streets, and this only to the extent of the inability of abutting property to assume 
the cost thereof. Even under such a logical procedure, the city's share of paving becomes 
a substantial sum each vear because of the large mileage of major streets that can never 
be absorbed for commercial purposes and upon which, consequently, the abutting resident 
owners can only reasonably be assessed amounts more or less corresponding to the cost 
of improvement of a local minor street. St. Louis and numerous other cities are financing 
the citv's share of paving costs through such a procedure, the actual funds for the city's 
share of the cost, however, being derived largely from a gasoline tax, although to some 
extent debenture issues have been resorted to for this purpose. 

Perfection and Extension of the Plan. 

Directing the growth of a great city is no small task. It is a work requiring constant 
studv and attention. The present plan is in the nature ot a master plan. While complete 
in its detail, in many respects there is still much to be done. In fact, the work ot the 
Commission has but just begun with the completion of the master plan. This plan must 
be extended to include the territory of South Vancouver. There must be harmonization 
of the plan with that of Point Grey, a task which presents no major problems but which 
does involve a certain amount of detailed labor. 



EXECUTION' OF THE PEAX 26.1 

DUTIES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE TOWN PLANNING COMMISSION. 

Vancouver is destined to grow rapidly. Growth presents problems that require 
constant study and attention. It is the duty of the Town Planning Commission as of no 
other agency to keep careful and accurate records of this growth, testing from time to 
time the adequacy of the present plan and making necessary readjustments. There should 
be annual traffic counts, a careful record of the character and location of all new structures, 
analyses of population densities and shifts, and much similar information. The present 
plan is not complete in detail as to the platting of new lands or the replatting of lands 
now improperly laid out. In this and similar fields the Town Planning Commission can 
become a body of ever-increasing usefulness and value to the community. As specific 
street opening and widening projects are proposed, careful studies of the cost and efficacy 
of alternate schemes should be made. This is peculiarly the function of the Town Planning 
Commission. A complete though preliminary estimate of the cost of all major street pro- 
jects should be made, together with a determination of the areas of benefit and of the 
city's share of the cost. 

As opportunities for new work present themselves through debenture issues, the 
Town Planning Commission will be able to give the most valuable advice as to the relative 
need of various improvements, thus encouraging the wise expenditure of public funds 
and the prevention of unwise and misplaced improvements. This is of special importance 
in a city that has been so widely dispersed as Vancouver through the vast premature 
platting of so much of the land on the Burrard Peninsula. 

The Town Planning Commission can be of great help to other city departments. It 
will be in a better position to make comprehensive studies of growth and location of 
physical plant than can many of these departments themselves. A school location survey, 
the placement of fire stations, the naming and numbering of streets, and the readjustment 
of city boundaries, are all matters well within the province of the Town Planning Com- 
mission. In the same way much help can be given to private individuals and organizations. 
In other cities the Town Planning Commission is constantly consulted with respect to the 
location of churches, hospitals, institutions and new industries. All of these groups welcome 
an agency of the city government to whom they may go and ascertain not merely present 
but future plans with respect to main thoroughfares, transit lines, recreational facilities 
and zoning. 

CONSTITUTION OF THE TOWN PLANNING COMMISSION. 

I nder the provisions of the Town Planning Act of 1925, a Commission consisting of 
nine members was appointed early in 1926, together with five ex-officio members. The 
appointed members serve without pay for terms of three years each, expiration of terms 
being such as to create overlapping of membership. The names of the present members 
of the Commission will be found on page 7. 

The Vancouver Town Planning Commission is an advisory bodv to the City Council 
on matters pertaining to Town Planning as set forth in the Act. It has no other legal 
powers. In this connection, it has been observed that the most satisfactory functioning 
commissions are those whose duties are advisory rather than adminstrative, which com- 
missions, by diligent, earnest and constant endeavour, have won the support of their 
public and upon which city councils are coming to rely for recommendations carefully 
arrived at on all matters pertaining to the plan. 



264 A PLAN" FOR VANCOUVER 



IMMEDIATE PROGRAMME. 

The preparation of the plan has been completed by the publication of this report 
as adopted by the Town Planning Commission. The plan should now be adopted at once 
by the Council, in accordance with the provisions of the Town Planning Act, but the 
Council cannot be expected to carry out the plan if the public are not sympathetic, and 
it has been and should continue to be the duty of the Commission to advise the public 
in general about town planning, and in particular about any specific project. Lectures, 
lantern slides, newspaper articles and similar means will be found valuable in keeping 
the public informed and interested. In other words, the Commission should furnish leader- 
ship creating public understanding of the many problems dealt with in the citv plan. 
If there be no such agency performing this function, confusion and misunderstanding 
will result, and decisions of fundamental importance must forever rest upon the chance 
policies of opportunism and selfish political interest. 



A PROGRAMME OF IMPROVEMENTS 

OR 

THE ORDER IN WHICH THE PLAN IS TO BE MADE EFFECTIVE. 

Although much of the town plan can be effected without cost, many projects will 
involve the expenditure of public funds. In order that these projects may be undertaken 
in order of urgency, they have been compared in the light of their relative merits, and 
listed in a programme of improvements in the order recommended for their construction. 

It might again be stressed that public money will be spent whether or not a plan has 
been prepared. But with a plan balance can be secured, offsetting a Council group interested 
say in only streets or water. 

Most cities find a balanced budget an advantage when taking a comprehensive view 
of all public needs. Such a budget is only possible when a plan has been prepared and the 
order in which improvements are to be carried out has been determined. 

It has been estimated that the year 1940 will find Greater Vancouver with a population 
of 500,000 and that in i960 there is a possibility of 1,000,000 people living in Vancouver 
and vicinity- Such dates are, of course, approximate, but may be regarded as indicative 
of the time at which such population density will prevail. It will be convenient to consider 
these two general periods within which various parts of the town plan should be undertaken: 

First period, 1928-1940, or until 500,000 population. 

Second period, 1940-1960, or until 1,000,000 population. 

In both periods there are phases of the plan or regulations provided under the plan 
that can be made effective without expense, but more particularly, of course, in the first 
period, which includes the initiating measures. 



A PROGRAMME OF IMPROVEMENTS 265 

PROGRAMME FOR THE EXECUTION OF 
THE VANCOUVER PLAN 

FIRST PERIOD— 1 928-1940 

1 A). PROJECTS INVOLVING LITTLE OR NO EXPENDITURE OF 

PUBLIC FUNDS 

GENERAL 

1. Adoption ot official town plan, including major streets, transit, transportation, 
public recreation and civic art. (The zoning by-law was passed by Council December 
17th, 1928). 

MAJOR STREETS 

t. Adoption ot the major street plan. 

2. Adoption of subdivision regulations with the Commission acting as, or in advisory 
capacity to, the approving officer. 

3. Passing ot a building line by-law. 

4. Initiate replotting of north-east portion of Hastings Townsite. 

TRANSIT 

1. Adoption ot transit plan following conterences with British Columbia Electric 
Railway. 

IMMEDIATE PLAN 

2. Re-routing Nos. 12, 4 and 2 routes according to plan. 
Establish Broadway cross-town line. 

Re-routing Nos. 5, 8 and na routes. 

Establish wye on Fourth Avenue at Stephens Street, and others at suitable points. 

Construction ot clearance curves. 

INTERMEDIATE PLAN 

3. Extension ot Broadway cross-town line. Construction Hastings-Hornby loop. 
Establish b-us lines on (1) Knight Road; (2) Grandview Highway; (3) South Shore of 
English Bay; (4) From terminus of Broadway cross-town line to North Vancouver; (5) 
Forty-First Avenue to Broadway. Double tracking of existing single tracks. Total or 
partial elimination of Fairview Belt Line. 

TRANSPORTATION 

1. Adoption of transportation (harbour and railway) plan following conferences 
with Harbour Board and transportation companies. 

2. Formation of a terminal switching organization and establishment of uniform 
-witching changes tor the Vancouver district. 

3. Encourage the construction of a modern fish dock and plant and tug-boat wharfage 
on south shore of Burrard Inlet. 



266 A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 

PUBLIC RECREATION 

I. Adoption of the public recreation plan after conferences with the School Board 
and Parks Board. 

i. Abandon the elementary and high school sites so recommended in the plan, 
having due regard to financial recoupment and property market conditions. 

CIVIC ART 

1. Adoption of civic art plan. 

2. Passing of a by-law for a comprehensive street tree-planting and boulevard 
programme under supervision of the Parks Board, with provision for the assessing of 
the cost against the abutting property. 

3. Passing of by-laws regulating overhead signs and for clearing annually a certain 
mileage of poles and wires from major streets and for the future erection of same in lanes 
or easements or underground. 

1928-1940 
(B). PROJECTS INVOLVING LARGER EXPENDITURE OF PUBLIC FUNDS 

MAJOR STREETS 

1. Provide for the Pacific-Cambie Distributor Street and construct portions at once. 

2. Build Burrard Street Bridge and provide for the opening and widening of con- 
necting thoroughfares via Cedar Street and Arbutus Street. 

3. Widen Broadway from 66 to 100 feet between Cambie and Prince Edward Streets. 

4. Eliminate offset in Hastings Street at Vernon Drive. 

<;. Acquire right-of-way for Kingsway Viaduct from Main Street to Beatty Street. 

6. Acquire property for straightening of Kingsway, west of Fraser Avenue. 

7. Acquire right-of-way for new diagonal street between Grandview Highway and 
Cassiar Street. 

8. Acquire right-of-way for new connection between Eton Street and Edinburgh 
Street in north-east portion of Hastings Townsite. 

9. Acquire right-of-way for new connection between Georgia and Charles Streets. 

10. Acquire the property for all other new rights-of-way and connections at earliest 
possible moment. 

11. Generally carry out street widening programme, primarily on streets required 
for extensions to transit system. 

TRANSPORTATION 

1. Provide for a grade separation at Hastings and Carrall Streets. 

2. Construct a portion of the elevated waterfront roadway. 

3. Adopt plan for False Creek and undertake initial construction. 



A PROGRAMME OF IMPROVEMENTS 267 

PUBLIC RECREATION 

1. Acquire the following new school sites: 

(1) West End site; (2) Hastings Townsite site. 

2. Acquire the property necessary for the extension of the following existing school 
grounds: (1) Strathcona School; (2) Hastings School; (3) Florence Nightingale School; 
(4) Lord Nelson School; (5) Lord Tennyson School; (6) General Gordon School; (7) Simon 
Fraser School; (8) Seymour School; (9) Laura Secord School; (10) Henry Hudson School; 
(11) Charles Dickens School; (12) Point Grey and South Vancouver Schools as recom- 
mended. 

Note. — Arrangements should be made for the disposal at a suitable time of any 
undeveloped school sites which are not in accordance with the plan. 

3. Acquire the property necessary tor the extension of the following high school 
grounds and playtields: (1) Templeton Junior High School; (2) Clark Park; (3) John 
Oliver High School; (4) Lord Byng High School; (5) Kerrisdale Park; (6) Renfrew Grounds; 
(7) Cambie Street Grounds, if retained. 

4. Acquire Kitsilano Reserve. 

5. Acquire the following properties required for park extension: 

City of Vancouver — 

(1) Kitsilano Park to extend northward to include Canadian Pacific Railway land 
north-west of McNicoll Avenue and Maple Street 

(2) Civic centre site from Davie Street to False Creek between Bute and Burrard 
Streets; also privately-owned waterfront lots south of Beach Avenue between 
Stanley Park and Bute Street. 

(3) Robson Park to extend northward to Twelfth Avenue. 

(4) Clark Park to extend westward to Woodland Drive. 

(5) Clinton Park to extend southward to First Avenue. 

(6) Renfrew Park to extend northward to Grandview Highway. 

(7) The park site north-west of Kootenay and Graveley Streets to be extended to 
include the area bounded by Charles, Graveley, Cassiar and Kootenay Streets. 

Point Grey — 

(8) Locarno to extend southward to rear of lots facing south on First Avenue, and 
this area to extend westward to Sasamat Street. 

(9) Athletic Park (northwest of Oak Street and Marine Drive) to extend northward 
to Fifty-Ninth Avenue. 

(10) A new site bounded on the north and south by Forty-First and Forty-Third 
Avenues respectively and on the east and west by Balaclava and Blenheim 
Streets respectively; also a site south of the area bounded on the north by 
Forty-Third Avenue, on the south by the centre line of Forty-Fifth Avenue, 
on the east by Balaclava Street and on the west the rear of lots Nos. 1 to 10, 
block fronting on Blenheim Street. 



268 A PLAN" FOR VANCOUVER 

(i i) The land now leased by the Canadian Pacific Railway to the Quilchena Golf Club. 

(12) A new site bounded on the north and south by Forty-Third and Forty-Seventh 
Avenues respectively when produced, on the east and west by the rear of average- 
depth lots fronting on Oak and Hudson Streets respectively. 

South Vancouver — 

(13) Park site east of Main between Fifty-Third and Fifty-Fifth Avenues to extend 
eastward to Prince Edward Street. 

(14) A new site east of Argyle Street comprising District Lot 736 between Fifty-First 
and Fifty-Seventh Avenues. 

(15) A new site comprising Block 2, District Lot 336, west of Elliott Street, between 
Fifty-Third and Fifty-Sixth Avenues. 

(16) A new site bounded on the north and south by Asquith Avenue and Sixty-Sixth 
Avenue respectively; and on the east and west by Carlton and Vivian Streets 
respectively. (Exclude Sixty-Fourth Avenue between Carlton and Vivian Streets). 

Rurnaby — 

(17) A new site bounded by Kitchener Street and Sackville Street on the north and 
south respectively and by Gamma Avenue and Alpha Avenue on the east and 
west respectively. 

(18) A new site bounded by Second Avenue on the north and Kensington Avenue on 
the east, and on the south-west by a line connecting Second Avenue and Lome 
Avenue on the north-west with Kensington Avenue and Pandora Street on the 
south-east. 

(19) A new site comprising Rlocks 10, 11 and 12, District Lot ^9, lying south of 
Rroadway and Piper Avenue. 

(20) A new site bounded by Spruce Street and Eglington Street on the north and 
south respectively and by Percival Avenue and Mahon Avenue on the east 
and west respectively. 

(21) A new site lying on the south-west shore ot Burnaby Lake bounded on the north 
by Garden Street, on the west by Sperling Avenue and on the south by Rritish 
Columbia Electric Railway's right-of-way and Deer Lake stream. 

(22) A new site comprising Blocks 22 and 23, District Lot 82, bounded on the east 
by Nelson Avenue and on the south by Glen Street, also lots Nos. 31 to 40 
inclusive, Blocks 14 and 15, District Lot 82, lying north of the above blocks. 

(23) A new site bounded on the north and south by Milton Street and Stanley Street 
respectively, and on the east and west by Bradford Avenue and Roberts Avenue. 

(24) A new site comprising Block 2, District Lot 171, bounded on the north and 
south by Twentieth Avenue and Seventeenth Avenue respectively and on the 
east and west by Twentieth Street and Mission Avenue respectively. 

6. Acquire parkway rights-of-way. 

CIVIC ART 

1. Acquire Burrard Street civic centre site, and, if considered advisable, the abutting 
properties, and commence construction. 



A PROGRAMME OF IMPROVEMENTS 269 



SECOND PERIOD— 1940-1960 

(A). PROJECTS INVOLVING LITTLE OR NO EXPENDITURE OF 

PUBLIC FUNDS 

TRANSIT 

1. Street railway extensions on Kingsway and Smithe Street. 

2. Extension of Cambie Street line to B.C. Electric Railway (New Westminster- 
Marpole). 

3. Extension of Granville Street line from Forty-First Avenue to Marpole. 

4. Extension of Fraser Avenue line south to B.C. Electric Railway (New West- 
minster-Marpole). 

5. Extension of Victoria Drive line south to B.C. Electric Railway (New West- 
minster-Marpole). 

6. Construction of street railway tracks on Knight Road south to B.C. Electric 
Railway (New Westminster-Marpole). 

7. Construction of Wales-Central Park line (from Kingsway via Thirty-Fourth 
Avenue). 

8. Institution of additional bus lines and facilities as recommended in the transit plan. 

TRANSPORTATION 

1 . Encourage further shipyard and drydock construction. 

1 9401960 
(B.) PROJECTS INVOLVING LARGER EXPENDITURE OF PUBLIC FUNDS 

MAJOR STREETS 

1. Build Kingsway Viaduct. 

2. Further street widening and extension. 

TRANSPORTATION 

1. Finish construction of the elevated roadway. 

2. Completion of the False Creek development scheme. 

PUBLIC RECREATION 

1. Development of parks and driveways in accordance with the plan. 

CIVIC ART 

1. Complete construction of Burrard Street civic centre. 



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Photograph by Leonard Frank 

/ 'ancouver's Sentinels. 

The Lions and Capilano River, one of the Sources of the 

City's li'iilcr Supply. 



APPENDICES 



INDEX TO APPENDICES 

I. Legislation relating to subdivisions. 

II. Rules to be adopted regulating the subdivision ot land. 

III. The Vancouver Zoning By-iaw. 

IV. The Point Grey Zoning By-law. 
V. The Burrard Street Bridge. 

VI. Transportation Committee's Report. 

VII. Spanish Banks — William D. Hudson's Report. 

VIII. Vancouver Town Planning Commission's Interim Report on Parks and 
Recreation — English Bay Foreshore. 

IX. Town Planning in Point Grey. 



2 7 2 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



APPENDIX I. 
LEGISLATION RELATING TO SUBDIVISIONS 



LAND REGISTRY ACT: See Part VI., Sections 71 to 119. 
In pairtcular: 

Section 86. 

Requirements as to Subdivision Plans, 

All subdivision plans shall comply with the following 
requirements, in addition to all other requirements contained 
in this part: 

(a) Necessary and reasonable access to all new parcels and 
through the land subdivided to lands lying beyond or around 
shall to the extent of the owner's control be provided by a 
sufficient public highway, and all existing highways pro- 
vided for in subdivision plans of adjoining lands or other- 
wise legally established shall be continued without un- 
necessary jogs; 
</') Where the land subdivided borders on the shore of any 
navigable water, access shall be given by sufficient public 
highways to such navigable water at distances not greater 
than ten chains between centre lines, or, in district muni- 
palities or unorganized territory where the parcels into 
which the land is subdivided exceed one acre, at distances 
not greater than twenty chains between centre lines; 
(c) Suitable lanes shall be provided in continuation of existing 
lanes and in every case where lanes are considered necessary 
by the approving officer. 
Section 88. 
Requirements as to Approval of Subdivision Plan. 

No subdivision plan shall be received on deposit in any Land 
Registry Office unless it has first been approved by the approving 
officer or is ordered to be deposited by an Order-in-Council as 
provided in this Part. 
Section 89. 

Where a subdivision plan deals with lands in a municipality, 
it shall be tendered to the clerk of the municipality, and where 
it deals with lands in unorganized territory, to the Public Works 
Engineer or District Engineer of the Department of Public 
Works, for examination and approval, and shall be accompanied 
by an examination fee of two dollars and a certificate that all 
taxes which have been assessed on the lands subdivided have 
been paid. 
Section 90. 

Requirements Where Plan Tendered Later Than Three 
Months After Survey. 

Where a subdivision plan is tendered for examination and 
approval after the expiration of three months from the date of 
the completion of the survey, the approving officer may require 
that the surveyor inspect the survey and satisfy himself that all 
posts and monuments are in place and that the survey has not 
been affected by any intervening survey or railway or right-of- 
way location, and certify the same on the plan by the word 
•'Inspected," with the date and his signature. The surveyor 
may so inspect and certify before the plan is tendered for 
approval. 
Section 91. 
Time-Limit for Approval. 

(1) Every subdivision plan shall be approved by or 
rejected by the approving officer within thirty days from the 
date it is tendered for examination and approval, or from the 
furnishing of any profile or sketch when demanded under 
section 92. 

Approving Officer. 

(2) The approving officer shall be, in the case of: 

(rf) A municipality, the Municipal Engineer if there is one, or 
else an officer duly authorized by the Council of the 
municipality; 

(/') Unorganized territory, the Public Works Engineer or 
Assistant Public Works Engineer. 



Section 92. 

Requirements of Approving Officer. 

The person tendering a subdivision plan for examination 
and approval shall also comply with the following requirements, 
if the approving officer so demands: 

(a) Furnish profiles of every new highway shown on the plan 
and such topographical details as may indicate the engineer- 
ing problems to be dealt with in opening up the highways 
shown upon the plan; 

(b) Furnish a sketch showing that the parcels into which the 
land is subdivided by the plan can conveniently be further 
subdivided into further smaller parcels, but this shall only 
be demanded if in the opinion of the approving officer the 
situation of the land is such that there is reason to anticipate 
its re-subdivision. 

Section 93. 
Extra-Municipal Lands. 

In case the lands subdivided are without a municipality, 
the approving officer may, at the cost of the owner of the lands, 
personally examine or have an examination and report made on 
the subdivision, and may refuse to approve the plan if he con- 
siders the deposit of the plan against the public interest, or 
if the plan does not comply in all respects with the provisions 
of this Act and with all regulations of the Lieutenant-Governor 
in Council in regard to subdivision plans or highways. 

Section 94. 

Lands Within Municipality. 

Where the lands subdivided are within a municipality, the 
approving officer may refuse to approve the plan where it does 
not conform to the by-laws of the municipality regulating the 
size of lots or parcels for building or other purposes. 

Section 95. 

Basis of Consideration of Highway Allowances. 

In considering the sufficiency of the highway allowances 
shown upon the plan, the approving officer shall take into 
consideration whether the land subdivided is: 

(a) Business property within cities or towns; 

(b) Residential property within cities or towns or the suburbs 
thereof; or 

(V) Country lands; 

and he shall also consider the configuration of the land, 
the relation of the highway allowances to any existing 
main highway or approach, whether by land or water, 
and any local circumstances, and on the question of width, 
whether the respective highways shown are likely to be 
required or used as main roads or as secondary roads, or 
merely as roads of access to a few parcels, or as lanes. 
Section 97. 
Appeal to Lieutenant-Governor in Council. 

If the plan has been rejected by the approving officer or 
has not been approved by him within the time limited by 
section 91, or if the Lieutenant-Governor in Council has in- 
structed the Registrar not to receive the plan on deposit, the 
person who tendered the plan for approval or deposit may appeal 
to the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, of which appeal written 
notice shall be given to the approving officer. The Lieutenant- 
Governor in Council may act upon the facts as presented or may 
1 ive evidence by statutory declaration or by oral testimony, 
and may appoint an independent person to examine and report, 
at the cost of the owner of the lands, on the proposed sub- 
division and plan, and may dismiss the appeal, or if it is considered 
that the subdivision and plan are in accordance with law, and 
that the deposit of the plan is not against the public interest, 
may order the plan to be deposited. A certified copy of the 
Order-in-Council ordering the deposit shall be transmitted to 
the Registrar. 






LEGISLATION RELATING TO SUBDIVISIONS 



n -73 



VANCOUVER INCORPORATION ACT, 1921. 

Section 163. 

The Council may from time to time make, alter and repeal 
by-laws tor the following purposes: 

Width or New Streets. 

(66) For regulating the width of new streets and roads, 
and for prohibiting the laying out or contruction ot streets and 
lanes, except in conformity with existing streets, roads or lanes, 
and unless the consent of the Council has first been obtained. 

Survey of Lots and Blocks. 

(212) For regulating and compelling the owners of unsub- 
divided lands to survey their property in the city with the 
object of accurately locating the streets and lanes of the said 
city and in default of the owners surveying the said property 
in accordance with the provisions of the by-law to enforce the 
survey thereof and to provide for the city surveying the said 
property and locating the said streets and charging the owners 
of the land so surveyed with the cost and expense thereof; and 
for enforcing the recovery thereof from the owner or owners by 
action in any court of competent jurisdiction, and making the 
same a charge on the said lands; and with power to sell the said 
lands for the recovery of the expense and cost of such surveys, 
in the same manner and under the same regulations as in trie 
case ot overdue taxes. 



Subdivision of City Lots. 

t2i \) For regulating or controlling the subdivision ot city 
lots and blocks and for prohibiting the subdivision thereof in 
contravention of the by-law. 

MUNICIPAL ACT. 

Section 54. 

Subjects Respecting Which Council May Make By-laws. 

In every municipality the Council may from time to time 
make, alter and repeal by-laws not inconsistent with any law 
in force in the province for any of the following purposes, that 
is to say: 

Plan of Streets. 

(213) For regulating the plans, level, width, surface, 
inclination, and the material of the pavement, roadway and 
sidewalk of streets, roads, and other public thoroughfares. 

Grades. 

(214) For establishing a general grade for the streets and 
roads in the municipality 

Section 55. 

Subdivision Roads to be Rough- Graded if Required. 

The Council of every district municipality may by by-law 
provide that before any plan of subdivision of land is approved 
the owner of said subdivision shall rough-grade the roads shown 
on the plan of subdivision ot said lands. 



274 



A PLAN" FOR VANCOUVER 



APPENDIX II. 

RULES TO BE ADOPTED REGULATING THE SUBDIVISION OF LAND 



Note. — These rules are suggestive only. The Town Planning 
Commissions in British Columbia do not possess authority to 
require approval, nor does any city itself possess such authority 
outside of its own boundaries. It is recommended that legislation 
be sought empowering Town Planning Commissions to regulate 
subdivisions within three miles of their boundaries, as is the general 
practice in numerous cities on this continent. 

i. PRIMARY PLAN. 

Any person desiring to subdivide land or to dedicate any 
streets, lanes or other lands to the public, shall submit to the 
Town Planning Commission a preliminary plan, which shall 
be in duplicate, on a scale of not more than one hundred feet 
to one inch and shall show: 
{a) The official designation of the property. 
ib) The proposed location and dimensions of all streets, lanes 

and parcels, and similar information regarding property 

immediately adjacent. 

(c) The consent of the owner of the land to the proposed 
subdivision. 

(d) If requested by the Commission, all topographical features 
including contours of intervals of three or more feet and 
profiles ot all new highways. 

(e) Such information as will show that in case of further 
subdivision the requirements of the town plan can be 
complied with. 

if) Any private restrictions which the owner wishes to place 
on the property should be indicated. 

Note. — The purpose of requiring submission of a preliminary 
plan is to give the subdivider of land an opportunity to secure the 
judgment of the Commission regarding his scheme of streets and 
lots before he has carried the matter too far. The observance of this 
requirement may mean a considerable saving to the promoter. 

Two copies are required, so that one may be corrected or 
altered by the Planning Commission and returned to the subdivider, 
and the other retained in the files of the Commission. 

These preliminary plans should not be unchangeable. They 
should be rough sketches, giving all the information which will be 
required for a proper estimate of the merits of the subdivision. 
The necessary data is specifically requested under ia), I/O, (<-), 
(d), [e) and (/), above. If the subdivider has followed the general 
rules of the Commission with respect to lot sizes, street widths, lanes 
and the like, and has observed the requirements of the major street 
plan as it affects his property, his preliminary plan in all likeli- 
hood will be approved by the Commission and he will be able then 
to go ahead with his final plans. If the final plan is merely a refine- 
ment of the preliminary and does not differ from it in essentials, 
its acceptance will be a matter of course. 

2. FINAL PLAN. 

The final plan and two copies thereof shall be submitted 
to the Town Planning Commission. 

Note.- — sifter a subdivision in preliminary form has been 
checked over and approved by the Town Planning Commission, the 
owner may have his survey made and final plan prepared. When 
this is finished it must be brought to the Commission, together with 
two copies for the Commission's files. The final approval of the 
Commission must be placed upon the plan before it can be registered. 

The final plan will show: 

(a) The plan shall bear a title showing the official designation 
of the district lot, section, or parcel, the whole or a portion 
of which is thereby subdivided and the number of the last 
registered plan thereof (if any). 

(b) The land intended to 1" dealt with by the plan shall be 
shown thereon surrounded by a line in red ink, and where 



the whole district lot, section or parcel is subdivided the 
plan shall show the boundaries thereof and where only a 
portion of the district lot, section or parcel is dealt with 
the plan shall show the boundaries of such portion and a 
sufficient number of angular and linear measurements to 
indicate its inclusion within the boundaries of the district 
lot, section or parcel and its connection with one or more 
of said boundaries as may be necessary to determine its 
location, and also by similar measurements show its 
connection with any other parcel forming a portion of the 
same district lot, section or parcel as may be necessary 
in order to determine the relative location of the several 
parcels and of the highways serving the same. Every plan 
shall indicate the district lots, sections or parcels adjacent 
to the lands dealt with, 
(rj Where the plan is of a re-subdivision ot a parcel shown on a 
previously registered plan or of a parcel described on the 
register by metes and bounds as a portion of a larger 
parcel, there shall be shown in a distinct manner on the 
plan the numbers or distinguishing letter (if any) of the 
parcel subdivided and the boundary lines of that parcel. 

(d) There shall be marked on the plan the dimensions and 
course of the boundaries ot each parcel into which the land 
is divided, or a sufficient number of angular and linear 
measurements and bearings shall be shown from which 
such dimensions can be deduced. In the case of curved 
lines, the plan shall indicate the radius, point of curvature 
and point of tangency. 

(e) All bearings shall be referred to the astronomical meridian, 
and the point of observation for such meridian shall be 
indicated on the plan. When an observation cannot be 
conveniently obtained, information as to the derivation 
of the meridian used shall be given on the plan. 

if) Each angle of each parcel shall be defined on the ground by 
the surveyor by a post or monument of a durable character, 
and the manner in which each angle is defined on the 
ground and the exact position of all posts and monuments 
as placed on the ground shall be shown on the plan, and 
if any offset is made it shall be shown on the plan. 

(g) Each parcel into which the land is divided shall be marked 
with a distinct number or letter on the plan, and shall 
continue an existing series or commence with "i" or "A" 
and shall number consecutively; in no case shall the 
parcel be designated as sections or ranges. 

(h) Every highway, park, square or reserve appropriated or set 
apart for public use shall be shown as such and distinctly 
delineated on the plan and the measurements thereof shall 
be marked on the plan. 

(;) Upon the request of the owner before the subdivision survey 
is made, the Surveyor-General may, subject to such con- 
ditions as he may think proper to impose, allow a sub- 
division to be made and evidenced in the following manner: 
Instead of requiring a post or monument at each angle ot 
each parcel, there shall be erected at proper intervals 
monuments of a specified permanent character. These 
monuments, with the information on the plan showing 
their location, shall be evidence of the block outlines of the 
survey and the registered plan of the subdivision shall 
be the evidence ot the manner in which each block ot land 
is subdivided. 

(J) Each plan shall be prepared in duplicate on tracing linen 
and shall not exceed thirty inches in width, and, together 
with all certificates, approvals and other matters written 
thereon, shall be in black India ink, and where the use ot 
any other colour is necessary that colour shall be ol a 
permanent nature. 



RULES REGULATING THE SUBDIVISION OF LAND 



*75 



(k) Each plan shall be accompanied by at least one blueprint 

on good blueprint cloth. 
(/) The scale of every plan shall be governed by the following 

provisions and shall be marked on the plan: 

1. If no parcel shown thereon is less than one acre, the 
scale shall be in chains and links unless the land sub- 
divided thereby is shown upon a registered plan scaled 
in feet. 

2. If any parcel shown thereon is less than one acre, the 
plan shall be on a scale not smaller than loo feet to 
one inch. 

3. If any parcel shown thereon is less than five acres, but 
no parcel is less than one acre, the plan shall be on a 
scale not smaller than three chains or two hundred 
feet to one inch. 

4. If any parcel shown thereon is less than twenty acres, 
but no parcel is less than five acres, the plan shall be on 
a scale not smaller than six chains to one inch. 

f. It no parcel shown thereon is less than twenty acres the 
plan shall be on a scale not smaller than ten chains to 
one inch. 
6. A plan shall be deemed to comply with the foregoing 
provisions as to scale, although a parcel or parcels 
shown thereon are smaller than justified by the scale 
used if there is on the plan a detailed drawing oi such 
parcel or parcels. 
(;«) The Registrar shall, at his discretion, be at liberty to receive 
for deposit any plan prepared on a smaller scale than that 
above mentioned. 
(») No part of any plan or of any certificate, approval or other 
matter required to be written thereon, shall be stamped, 
printed, typewritten, stencilled, lithographed or engraved. 
(0) All abbreviations or symbols used and all necessary par- 
ticulars not otherwise expressed shall be explained by a 
legend on the face of the plan. 
(p) The correctness of the survey and plan shall be verified by 
the surveyor on oath in Form L in the First Schedule, 
1921, c. 26, s. 80. 

RELATION TO ADJOINING STREET SYSTEM. 

The arrangement of streets in new subdivisions shall make 
provision for the continuation of the principal existing streets 
in adjoining additions (or their proper projection where adjoining 
property is not subdivided) in so far as they may be necessary 
for public requirements. In general, such streets shall be of a 
width at least as great as the existing streets. The street and lane 
arrangement must also be such as to cause no hardship to owners 
of adjoining property when they subdivide their own land and 
seek to provide for convenient access to it. 

STREET AND ALLEY WIDTHS. 

(a) The widths for major streets shall conform to the 
widths designated on the major street plan. 

(b) The minimum width for minor streets shall be fifty 
(50) feet, except that in cases where the topography or special 
conditions make a street of less width more suitable the city 
Planning Commission may waive the above requirements. 

Note. — The most satisfactory width for minor streets is 60 
feet, ft 'hen the requirements of the major street plan seem to absorb 
an unreasonable amount of an owner's land in the view of the Town 
Planning Commission, they may advise the planning of 50-foot 
streets as a compensation. The Commission likewise should reserve 
the right to permit streets less than 50 feet wide on hillsides, along 
streams or bordering parkways, where the requirements of traffic 
are never likely to make '.vide streets necessary. In general, however, 
it should be the aim of the Commission to establish a 60-foot standard 
for residence streets 

Ir) The minimum width of a lane in a residential block 
shall be sixteen (16) feet. A five-foot cut-off shall be made at 



all acute and right angle lane intersections. Lanes in rear of 
business lots shall be at least 20 feet wide. 

(d) Where lanes are not provided, easements of not less 
than four feet in width shall be provided on each side of all rear 
lot lines and side lines where necesssary for poles, wires, conduits, 
storm and sanitary sewers, gas, water and heat mains. Ease- 
ments of greater width may be required along lines or across 
lots where necessary for the extension ot main sewers and 
similar utilities. 

Note. — Modern subdivision practice requires the placing of 
all poles and wires along rear lot lines instead of in the street. It 
is often more economical to place sewers, especially trunk sewers, 
along these lines. For such purposes easements must be indicated 
upon subdivision plans. The easement widths required above are 
generally accepted as standard. 

BLOCKS. 

(a) No blocks shall be longer than one thousand feet 
between street lines. Blocks over 750 feet in length shall have a 
cross walk near the centre of the block. The right-of-way for 
such walks shall be not less than ten (10) feet. 

Note. — In the days of the horse-drawn vehicles it was customary 
to make blocks rather short. The automobile has made longer blocks 
unobjectionable and generally safer. Wider streets, however, are 
necessary, so there may be a sort of compensation in each sub- 
division. The minor streets can be made narrow in order that the 
major thoroughfares may be wide, and the number of cross streets 
through a given area may be reduced and the space thus gained also 
added to the width of the principal arteries. To overcome the dis- 
advantage of long blocks to pedestrians, cross walks are needed. 

(b) In new subdivisions at a distance from property already 
subdivided, block widths shall be established, except tor special 
reasons, at from two hundred and torty (240) to three hundred 
(300) feet. 

Note.— When land is being subdivided at a considerable 
distance from other subdivisions, there is often a temptation to make 
lots extra deep and of unusually generous width. The plan of streets 
adopted under such circumstances will, in all probability, not be 
of the sort that subdividers of adjacent land can follow. The rules 
require that the street system of a new subdivision conform to those 
existing in adjacent subdivisions. 

Under certain circumstances this might be a hardship. If a 
man subdividing a piece of property two miles beyond the city 
limits lays out lots 175 feet deep, his streets become 350 feet apart. 
It may be a number of years before any others plat near him, but 
when they eventually do so, they may reasonably object to conforming 
to the street system already established. If all blocks are made 
between 200 and 300 feet wide, regardless of where they are sub- 
divided, it will not be difficult to require conformity. 

(c) Where it is desired to subdivide a parcel of land which, 
because of size or location, does not permit an allotment directly 
related to a normal street arrangement, there may be established 
a "place." Such a place may be in the form of a court, a non- 
connecting street or other arrangement, provided, however, that 
proper access shall be given to all of the lots from a dedicated 
place (street or court) and the minimum size of each allotment 
of this sort shall be permanently established so as to assure a 
building arrangement commensurate with the foregoing require- 
ments tor normal additions. 

Note. — This provision makes it possible for an owner oj tin 
odd-shaped parcel surrounded on all sides by built-up property to 
lay out a self-contained "court" or "place." The rule is amplified 
so as to make it impossible, after such a court or place is laid out 
and all other regulations complied with, for someone else to enter 
and further subdivide the lots or change the scheme so as to do harm 
to the community. These courts or places, especially where dead-end 
streets are involved, are to be avoided if possible. In all cases pro- 
vision should be made for the free movement of vehicles to pass, 
even if two are standing abreast at the curb, and there should be a 
turnaround at the end of a diameter sufficient to permit the complete 
turning of large vehicles. 



276 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



LOTS. 

(a) In all rectangular lots, and so tar as possible all other 
lots, the side lines shall be at right angles to the street on which 
the lot faces. Lots with double frontage shall be avoided, except 
under special conditions. 

Note. — This is a requirement which should be especially 
emphasized. If 'hen lot lines are not at right angles to the street, there 
is confusion in the mind of the builder who wishes to use the lot. 
If he places his building parallel to the street ', if stands askew across 
his lot, cutting down his space for a drive and making hedges and 
walks run at peculiar angles to the street. If he places his house 
square upon the lot, with its sides parallel to the side lines of the lot y 
his neighbour may do differently. If his neighbour follows his 
example the houses stand in saw-tooth fashion along the street, the 
rear of each one exposed to the front of the next one to it. All this 
annoyance can be avoided if land subdividers will but give reasonable 
consideration to the interests of those who will make use of the prop- 
erty they expect to sell. 

Through lots or lots with double frontage are ordinarily ob- 
jectionable, but are advised for special conditions, such as steep 
hillsides. 

(b) The minimum dimensions for lots shall be forty (4°) 
feet for width and one hundred and twenty (120) feet for depth, 
and in no case shall a rectangular or irregular shaped lot contain 
less than forty-eight hundred (4800) square feet. 

Note. — // is not desirable to establish a standard size for all 
lots. The requirements of lot purchasers differ, the precedent already 
established in a certain district is hard to break, the effect of topo- 
graphy upon subdivision cannot always be foreseen. 

The Commission should direct attention to the importance of 
proper lot planning and enforce requirements which seem to be 
necessary to protect the public interest. The custom of laying out 
25-foot lots is productive of building conditions which are not a 
credit to the city. The Town Planning Commission should support 
a 50-foot standard for the average lot, but has written into its rules 
a forty-foot minimum to cover instances where a 50-foot requirement 
would be a hardship upon the subdivider. 

The tendency to lav out extremely deep lots should also be 
corrected. In the day of the horse and carriage, when stables were 
common, a deep lot was required in order to keep these nuisances 
as far from the dwellings as possible. In the present age, however, 
an excessively deep lot is not particularly advantageous. This is 
especially true in districts where alleys have been left out. A lot 
1 30 feet deep is adequate for all ordinary residential requirements , 
yet not so deep as to invite rear dwellings. 

An over-intensive use of land generally brings about con- 
ditions that are detrimental, and the protection of the city from such 
conditions is a purpose of these rules. The Zoning By-law provides 
in the case of new lots, for an area at least 4S00 square feet for each 
single family dwelling, provided only that such site area may be 
reduced to 5600 square feet in certain cases in conformity with 
subdivision of the surrounding property. 

(c) Corner lots shall have extra width, sufficient to permit 
the maintenance of building lines on both front and side. In 
normal cases the width required will be not less than the amount 
of the establishing building line on the side street plus the 
irreducible buildable width and such side yard requirements as 
may be provided for by a zoning by-law. 

(d) Lots on major street intersections and all other points 
likely to be dangerous shall have the corner cut off to an amount 
at least equal to what would be cut off by a curve having a 
radius of fifteen (15) feet. 

Note. — The reason for this provision is obvious. There is no 
more urgent need today than the adoption of roadway and street 



planning practice to the requirements of modern traffic. Sharp 
projecting curb corners at thoroughfare crossings are decidedly 
dangerous to pedestrian and driver alike, due to the sweeping turn 
that quickly takes an automobile to the wrong side of the intersecting 
street. A round of the corner of each lot at a street intersection will 
not lessen the value of the lots, but will make the roadway much safer, 
(e) In the case of a proposed redivision of lots involving 
a change in frontage from existing front street or streets to a 
flankage street, the procedure as outlined in these rules for new 
subdivisions is to be followed and considerations given to: 
1. The location ot existing utilities to supply such redivided lots. 
1. The effect on the neighbourhood and whether or not the 

redivision is to be to the public advantage. 

3. That no redivision should be permitted which, in a district 

zoned for business of but one original lot depth and adjoining 

a residential district, would result in lots fronting on other 

than the street intended to be devoted to such business uses. 

Note. — // is advisable to avoid flankage lots in a business 

district, and in the zoning of any area this point might be kept in 

mind and might in itself be a reason for a redivision of lots. 

PARKS, SCHOOL SITES, ETC. 

In subdividing property, due consideration shall be given 
to the dedication ot suitable sites tor schools, parks and play- 
grounds, so as to conform as nearly as possible to the recom- 
mendations for the Plan of Greater Vancouver. Such provision 
should be indicated on the preliminary plan in order that it may 
be determined when and in what manner such areas will be 
dedicated to the city. 

Note, — The opportunities for co-operation of the sort implted 
in the rule above have scarcely yet been touched. Any subdivision 
of reasonable size is almost certain to have a church or a school in 
it at some time. A neighbourhood park of at least twenty acres should 
be made available for development in each square mile of residential 
property. These incidental features of every residence district should 
be planned at the time the land is platted. A distribution of a portion 
of the selling value of these areas among the remaining lots will 
generally make it possible for the promoter of the subdivision to 
offer such areas at prices that will permit immediate acceptance. 
Small areas for parks, if of usable size, may, with profit to the 
subdivider, be dedicated free to the citv, under agreement by the 
latter, to improve the park when the resident population warrants 
the expense. The advantages of the park may be capitalized in the 
sale of lots and generally enough additional realized to more than 
pay the original cost of the land given to the city. 

STREET NAMES. 

Streets that are obviously in alignment with others already 
existing and named, shall bear the names of the existing streets. 

CHANGE TO MORE RESTRICTED USE DISTRICT. 

Wherever property is subdivided with the intention that 
it shall have a use more restricted than that designated on the 
District (Zoning) Map, such intention shall be declared to the 
Commission at the time the preliminary plan is presented. 

Such declaration shall also constitute a petition to the city 
to change the use designated tor such property on the District 
Zoning Map. 

Note. — // is practically impossible in zoning undeveloped 
areas to determine precisely the uses of property which will be most 
suitable to the district. The subdivider of the plan must be allowed 
some latitude. The purpose of the rule above is to permit him to 
request a change in the zoning regulations if he thinks a more 
restricted classification of this property desirable. 



VANCOUVER ZONING BY-LAW 



'■11 



APPENDIX III. 

CITY OF VANCOUVER ZONING BY-LAW 

BRING BY-LAW 1951 



A by-law to regulate and restrict the location and use of 
buildings and the use of land within the City of Vancouver; to 
limit the height and bulk of buildings; to prescribe the size of 
yards and other open spaces and the maximum density of 
population and, for these purposes, to divide the city into 
districts. 

The Mayor and Council of the City of Vancouver, in open 
meeting assembled, hereby enact as follows: 

TITLE. 

1. This by-law may be cited as the "Zoning By-law." 

2. The provisions of this by-law shall apply to the area 
situate within the present limits of the city. 

DEFINITIONS. 

3. In this by-law, unless the context otherwise requires, 
the following words, terms and expressions shall have the 
respective meanings hereinafter assigned to them, that is to say: 

(1) "Accessory building" shall mean a building subordinated 
to the main building, the use of which is incidental to that 
of the main building, or a building the use of which is 
incidental and subordinate to the use of the land; 

(2) "Apartment house" shall mean any building, or portion 
thereof, which is designed, built, rented, leased, let or hired 
out to be occupied, or which is occupied, as the home or 
residence ot three or more families living independently 
ot each other and doing their own cooking in the said 
building and shall include flats and apartments; 

{3) "Basement" shall mean a storey the floor of which is more 
than one toot, but less than five feet, below the average 
level of the adjoining ground. A basement shall not be 
counted as a storey in calculating the height of any building 
unless it is designed or used for purposes permitted in a 
business district or as living quarters tor someone other 
than a janitor; 

(4) "Cellar" shall mean a storey the floor of which is more than 
five feet below the average level of the adjoining ground. 
A cellar shall not be counted as a storey for the purpose of 
height measurement; 

(5) "Board of Appeal" shall mean the Board of Appeal con- 
stituted pursuant to section 16 of the "Town Planning Act"; 

(6) "Boarding-house" shall mean a building other than a hotel 
containing not more than fifteen sleeping rooms, where 
lodging and meals for five or more persons are provided for 
compensation pursuant to previous arrangements or 
agreement; 

(7) "Lodging-house" shall mean a building other than a hotel 
containing not more than fifteen sleeping rooms, where 
lodging for five or more persons is provided for com- 
pensation; 

(8) "Hotel" shall mean a building occupied as the more or less 
temporary abiding place ot individuals who are lodged 
with or without means and in which there are more than 
fifteen sleeping rooms usually occupied singly and with no 
provision for cooking in any individual room or apartment; 

(9) "Business districts" shall mean and include the General 
Business District and all commercial, light, industrial and 
heavy industrial districts as herein defined; 

(10) "Curb level" shall mean the level of the established curb in 
front of the building measured at the centre ot such front. 
Where no curb has been established, the City Engineer 
shall establish such curb level or its equivalent for the 
purpose of this by-law; 



(11) "Dwelling": 

(a) "One-family dwelling" shall mean a separate building 
designed for or occupied exclusively as a dwelling for 
one family or housekeeping unit; 

(b) "Two-family dwelling" shall mean a building designed 
for use exclusively as a dwelling for two families or 
housekeeping units; 

'< 1 "Multiple dwelling" shall mean a building or portion 
thereof, designed tor use as a dwelling for more than 
two familes or housekeeping units; or designed to 
afford board or lodging, or both, to guests for remunera- 
tion, including an apartment, boarding, or lodging- 
house; 

{12) "Garage" shall mean a building or land used for housing 

or care of self-propelled vehicles; 
f.ij) "Public garage" shall mean a garage where self-propelled 

vehicles are equipped for operation, repaired, kept for hire, 

or dismantled; 

(14) "Private garage" shall mean a garage with capacity for 
housing not more than two self-propelled vehicles, and in 
which no space is rented tor trucks; provided, however, that 
a private garage may exceed a two-vehicle capacity if the 
area of the site contains not less than twenty-five hundred 
square feet tor each vehicle; 

(15) "Storage garage" shall mean a garage, except a private or 
public garage as herein defined, used exclusively for the 
storage of self-propelled vehicles, and where no repair 
facilities are maintained; 

(16) "Group houses" shall mean a group of detached or attached 
dwellings not more than two rooms in depth, facing upon 
a place as herein defined; 

<i - ) "Row houses, or terraces," shall mean attached dwellings 
not more than two rooms in depth; 

(18) "Height of buildings" shall mean the vertical distance from 
the curb level to the highest point ot the roof surface if a 
flat roof; the deck line of a mansard root; and to the mean 
height level between the eaves and ridge of a gable, hip, 
or gambrel roof. When a building is situated on ground 
above the curb level, such height shall be measured from 
the average elevation of the finished grade of the site along 
the front of the building. On through sites, one hundred and 
thirty-two feet or less in depth, the height of a building 
may be measured from the curb level on either street. 
On through sites more than one hundred and thirty-two 
feet in depth, the height regulations and basis of height 
measurements for the street permitting ot the greater 
height shall apply tor a depth of not more than one hundred 
and thirty-two feet from that street; 

(19) "Lane" shall mean a public way which affords only a 
secondary means of access to a site at the side or rear; 

{20) "Non-conforming use" shall mean a use of a building or 
land that does not conform with the regulations of the 
district in which it is situated as prescribed by this by-law; 
21 1 "Person" shall, when necessary, mean and include natural 
persons of either sex, associations, corporations, bodies 
politic, co-partnerships, whether acting by themselves or 
by a servant, agent or employee, and the heirs, executors, 
administrators, successors and assigns, or other legal 
representative of such person to whom the context can 
applv according to law. The singular shall, when necessary, 
be held to mean and include the plural; the masculine the 
feminine, and the converse thereof; 

(22) "Place" shall mean an open, unoccupied space common to 
two or more sites permanently reserved as the principal 
means of access to such sites, and not being a street; 



a 7 8 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



(23) Stable: 

(a) "Private stable" shall mean a stable with capacity for 
not more than two horses, two cows, or two goats; 
but in any case for not more than one animal tor each 
one thousand square feet of area of the site; 

(b) "Public stable" shall mean a stable other than a 
private stable; 

(24) "Service or gas station" shall mean a building or land used 
for serving self-propelled vehicles with gasoline, oil, tires 
or other supplies; 

(25) "Site" shall mean an area of land having its principal 
frontage upon a public street or place as herein defined, 
occupied, or to be occupied, by one building and its accessory 
buildings and including such open spaces as are required 
under this by-law; 

1 16) "Corner site" shall mean a site having a width not greater 
than sixty-six feet, situated at the intersection or junction 
of two or more streets, or of a street and a lane not less 
than twenty feet in width; 

(27) "Through site" shall mean a site having a frontage on two 
parallel, or approximately parallel, streets; 

(28) "Site lines" shall mean the lines bounding a site; 

:2(>i "Storey" shall mean that portion of a building included 
between the surface of any floor and the surface ot the 
floor next above it, or if there be no floor above it, then the 
space between such floor and the ceiling next above it; 

(30) "Half storey" shall mean a storey under a gable, hip, or 
gambrel roof, the wall places of which, on at least two 
opposite exterior walls, are not more than two feet above 
the floor of such storey; 

(31) "Yard" shall mean a part of the site which is unoccupied 
and unobstructed by buildings from the ground upward, 
excepting thereout and therefrom the following: 

(a) The ordinary projection of sills, belt courses, cornices 
and eaves; provided, however, that none of those shall 
project into a minimum side yard more than twenty- 
four inches; 

(b) Fire-escapes; 

(r) The ordinary projections of chimneys in side and rear 
yards only; provided, however, that no chimney shall 
project into a minimum side yard more than twenty- 
one inches; 

(d) Accessory buildings not exceeding twelve feet nor one 
storey in height, occupying not more than thirty per 
centum of the area of a rear yard; 

(32) "Front yard" shall mean a yard extending across the full 
width of the site from the front line of the site to the front 
wall of the building, or any projecting portion of the 
building, excepting thereout and therefrom steps, sills, 
belt courses, cornices, eaves and fire-escapes; 

(33) "Rear yard" shall mean a yard extending across the full 
width of the site from the rear wall of the building to the 
rear line of the site; provided, however, that in computing 
the required depth of a rear yard which is bounded at the 
rear by a lane, one-half of the width of the lane may be 
assumed to be a part of the yard; 

(34) "Side yard" shall mean a yard extending from the front 
wall of the building to the rear wall of the building between 
the side line of the site and the side wall of the building. 

DISTRICTS. 

4. For the purpose of this by-law, the territorial area of 
the City of Vancouver is hereby classified or divided into 
districts, and such districts are hereby designated and described 
by the following classifications, that is to say: 

(a) One-family Dwelling District; 

{b) Two-family Dwelling District; 

(r) Three-storey Multiple Dwelling District; 



id) Six-storey Multiple Dwelling District; 

(f) Local Commercial District; 

{/) Three-storey Commercial District; 

(g) Six-storey Commercial District; 

{h) Six-storey Light Industrial District; 

(i) General Business District; 

(j) Heavy Industrial District; 

Map or Plan; Schedule "A". 

5. The boundaries ot such districts referred to in the next 
preceding section of this by-law, together with explanatory 
legend, notations and references in respect thereof, are designated, 
described, delimited and specified in particularity as shown 
upon the map or plan annexed hereto, and which said map or 
plan is hereby made and declared to be an integral part of this 
bv-law, such map or plan being designated as "zoning map," 
and is marked as schedule "A" to this by-law; and said districts 
so described, designated, delimited and specified, as shown upon 
such zoning map, are hereby declared to be the exact districts 
referred to in the various provisions of this by-law applicable 
thereto; and the various boundaries of such respective districts, 
as shown upon such zoning map or plan so disclosed and designat- 
ed thereon, respectively, are the respective districts correspond- 
ing to the respective references to said respective districts 
referred to and set torth in the provisions of this by-law and 
the said map or plan and the provisions ot this by-law shall be 
interpreted accordingly. 

Description of Districts. 

6. The said districts referred to in the next two preceding 
sections of this by-law, and as designated, described, delimited, 
and shown on the said map or plan marked as schedule "A" 
hereto are hereinafter designated, delimited and described in 
particularity as follows, that is to say: 

Legal Description of Each District Given in Detail. 

All blocks, lots or other parcels mentioned herein being 
taken to also mean and include any and all differently 
designated parcels into which the said blocks, lots or 
parcels have heretofore been or may hereatter be subdivided. 

GENERAL RULES. 

7. (1) No person shall erect, construct, locate, alter, 
reconstruct or maintain any building, or locate or carry on any 
industry, business, trade, or calling, or use any land or building 
within any district (save as is hereinafter stated to be permitted 
within such district) without complying with the provisions of 
this by-law applicable thereto. 

(2) (a) No site area shall be so reduced or diminished that 
the yards or other open spaces shall be smaller than prescribed 
by this by-law, nor shall the density ot population be increased 
in any manner except in conformity with the site area regulations 
established by this by-law. 

(b) Every building hereinafter erected shall be located on 
a site as herein defined; and in no case shall there be more than 
one building on one site except as otherwise provided in this 
by-law. 

(3) Where land is used for the erection or placing of a 
fence over six feet in height, or of any other structure not being 
a building, the structure shall comply with the height, yard, 
and building line requirements hereinafter provided, the same 
as if such structure were a building. 

(A) ONE-FAMILY DWELLING DISTRICT. 

8. (1) The provisions of this section and sub-sections hereof 
shall apply to buildings and uses of buildings and land situate 
within One-family Dwelling Districts as defined, designated, 
delimited and described in this by-law and as shown on the map 
or plan annexed hereto and marked as schedule "A" hereto. 

(a) It shall be unlawful for any person hereafter to erect, 
construct, alter or reconstruct, or cause to be erected, constructed, 
altered, or reconstructed, any building, or to occupy or use any 



VANCOUVER ZONING BY-LAW 



^79 



building, premises or land, within the boundaries of any district 
referred to, defined, designated or described in this by-law as 
a One-family Dwelling District, save and except for any of the 
following uses, namely: 

(a) One-family dwellings; 

(b) Churches; 

(c) Public schools; 

{d) Public museums, libraries, golf courses, parks and play- 
grounds; 

(e) Farming and truck gardening; 

(/) Nurseries and greenhouses, only for the propagating and 
cultivating of plants; 

ig) Accessory buildings, accessory to any of the aforesaid uses, 
provided that: 

{aa) A private garage not constructed as a part of the 
main building shall be situated not less than sixty 
feet from the street in front nor less than five feet 
from any other street; 
{bb) A private stable or other building used to shelter 
domestic animals or birds, when permitted under the 
provisions of section 18 (i) of this by-law, shall be 
located not less than sixty feet from the street in 
front nor less than twenty feet from any other street, 
nor less than thirty feet from any dwelling; 
ih) Uses customarily incident to any of the above uses, in- 
cluding home occupations, offices of protessional persons 
when situated in the same dwelling, and the keeping of 
not more than four boarders or lodgers; provided that no 
window display shall be made nor any sign shown, other 
than one affixed to the building and not exceeding two 
square feet in area. Any such sign so permitted shall bear 
only the name and occupation of the owner. 

(3) It shall be unlawful for any person to erect or construct 
on any site within said district any billboard or other sign except 
a bulletin board not exceeding twelve square feet in area erected 
in connection with a church, school, public museum or library, 
or one sign-board not exceeding six square feet in area appertain- 
ing to the sale or rent of the real property on which it is situated. 
Such sign-board shall comply with the yard and building line 
requirements in this by-law set forth, the same as applicable 
to buildings. 

(4) The height ot a building shall not exceed thirty-five 
feet nor two and one-half storeys. 

(5) A front yard shall be provided of not less than twenty 
feet in depth; provided, however, that where the lots fronting 
on one side of any street between two intersecting streets are 
occupied by buildings at the time of the passage of this by-law 
to the extent of forty per centum or more of the total frontage 
(not including lots flanking on the street), no buildings shall 
hereafter be erected or structurally altered so as to project 
beyond the average depth of the existing yards; and provided, 
further, that no front yard shall be required to be greater than 
the said average depth nor greater than thirty feet, nor greater 
than the deeper front yard on adjoining sites where both such 
sites are occupied by buildings. 

(6) A rear yard shall be provided of not less than twenty- 
five feet in depth. 

(7) {a) A side yard shall be provided on each side of the 
building of not less than ten per centum of the width of the 
site; provided that the maximum width of any side yard need 
not exceed five feet; and when any side wall contains any 
window which exclusively lights or ventilates a room used for 
human habitation, the adjoining side yard shall not be less than 
four feet. 

(b) On a corner site the provisions of the next preceding 
subsection hereof shall apply to both sides of the building; 
provided, however, that in the case of a corner site at the rear 
of which (whether a lane intervenes or not) is a site fronting 



on a street which flanks such corner site, the width of the side 
yard on the corner site along the flanking street shall be not 
less than one-half of the depth of the front yard on the site in 
the rear of such corner site; and no accessory building on such 
corner site shall project beyond the front yard line of the site 
in the rear; provided, further, that this regulation shall not 
be so interpreted as to reduce the buildable width of a corner 
site to less than twenty-six feet. 

(8) (a) A site area shall be at least four thousand eight 
hundred square feet per family, except in the case of a lot of 
lesser area which is subdivided, according to registered plan of 
subdivision of record in the Land Registry Office for the Van- 
couver Land Registration District, at the time of the passing 
of this by-law. 

(b) A site area may be reduced to three thousand six hundred 
square feet per family in the case of a subdivision or a resub- 
division into lots which, in the opinion of the approving officer, 
having regard to the nature of the subdivisions of the surrounding 
property, would so warrant. 

(B) TWO-FAMILY DWELLING DISTRICT. 

9. (l) The provisions of this section and subsections hereof 
shall apply to buildings and uses of buildings and land situate 
within Two-family Dwelling Districts as defined, designated, 
delimited and described in this by-law, and as shown on the 
map or plan annexed hereto and marked as schedule "A" hereto. 

(2) It shall be unlawful for any person hereafter to erect, 
construct, alter or reconstruct, or cause to be erected, constructed, 
altered or reconstructed, any building, or to occupy or use any 
building, premises or land within the boundaries of any district 
referred to, designated or described in this by-law as a Two- 
Family Dwelling District, save and except for any of the follow- 
ing uses, namely: 

(a) Building and uses permitted in One-family Dwelling 
Districts; 

(b) Two-family Dwellings; 

(<r) Group houses comprising detached or semi-detached 
dwellings; 

{d) Private clubs, fraternities, lodges, excepting those the 

chief activity of which is a service customarily carried on 

as a business; 
(*f) Sanitariums and hospitals other than for isolation cases, 

or for the treatment of animals; 
(/) Accessory buildings accessory to any of the aforesaid uses, 

provided that; 

{aa) A private garage not constructed as a part of the main 
building shall be situated not less than sixty feet 
from the street in front, nor less than five feet from 
any other street; 

{bb) A private stable or other building used to shelter 
domestic animals or birds, when permitted under the 
provisions of section 18 (1) of this by-law, shall be 
located not less than sixty feet from the street in 
front nor less than twenty feet from any other street 
nor less than thirty feet from any dwelling. 

(3) The provisions of subsections (4), (5), (6) and (7) of 
section 8 of this by-law relating to the height of buildings, front 
yard, rear yard and side yard requirements in or for One-family 
Dwelling Districts shall apply, also, to Two-family Dwelling 
Districts. 

(4) (a) A site area shall be at least twenty-four hundred 
square feet per family. 

{b) In the case of a one-family dwelling, the provisions of 
subsection (8) of section 8 of this by-law relating to site area 
requirements in or for One-family Dwelling Districts shall apply. 

(C) THREE-STOREY MULTIPLE DWELLING DISTRICT. 

10. (1) The provisions of this section and subsections hereof 
shall apply to buildings and uses of buildings and land situate 
within Three-storey Multiple Dwelling Districts as referred to 



28o 



A PLAN" FOR VANCOUVER 



and defined, designated, delimited and described in this by-law, 
and as shown on the map or plan annexed hereto and marked 
as schedule "A" hereto. 

U) It shall be unlawful for any person hereafter to erect, 
construct, alter or reconstruct, or cause to be erected, constructed, 
altered or reconstructed, any building, or to occupy or cause 
any building, premises or land situate within the boundaries 
of any district referred to, defined, designated or described in 
this by-law as a Three-storey Multiple Dwelling District, save 
and except for any of the following uses, namely: 
(rt) Buildings and uses permitted in the Two-family Dwelling 

District; 
(b) Multiple dwellings; provided that group houses, row 
houses or terraces shall not comprise more than four 
attached dwellings; 
({) Hotels or apartment hotels, boarding or lodging houses, 
excepting those containing business for other than the 
sole convenience of the guests in the building; 
{d) Institutions of an educational or philanthropic nature. 
(e) Accessory buildings and uses customarily incident to any 
of the above uses when located on the same site and not 
involving the conduct ot a business, which said accessory 
buildings may include a storage garage; but if such storage 
garage is not constructed as a part of the main building, 
it shall be situated not less than sixty feet from the street 
in front thereof, nor less than five feet from any other 
street. 

(j) The height of a building shall not exceed forty-five 
feet nor, in any event, more than three storeys. 

(4) The provisions ot subsection (5) of section 8 of this 
by-law relating to the requirements respecting front yards shall 
apply; also, to Three-storey Multiple Dwelling Districts. 

(5) A rear yard shall be provided of not less than twenty- 
five feet in depth for interior sites, nor less than fifteen feet for 
corner sites. 

(6) (a) A side yard shall be provided for as follows: 

For a building two and one-half storeys or less in height, 
there shall be a side yard on each side of the building of not 
less than ten per centum of the width of the site, provided 
that the maximum width of a side yard need not exceed five feet. 
For buildings more than two and one-half storeys in height, 
each side yard shall be increased in width by one foot for each 
additional storey above the second, and shall, further, be not 
less than one and one-quarter inches in width for each foot 
ot building length from front to rear; provided that this regula- 
tion shall not apply to the side yard on a corner site along the 
Hanking street or lane. When any side wall contains a window 
which exclusively lights or ventilates a room used for human 
habitation, the adjoining side yard shall not be less than four 
feet. 

{b) The provisions of subsection 17) of section 8 of this 
by-law respecting side yards for corner sites in and for One-family 
Dwelling Districts shall also apply in respect ot corner sites in 
Three-storey Multiple Dwelling Districts. 

(7) (rt) Save and except in respect of an hotel, a site area 
shall be at least seven hundred and fifty square feet per family 
or housekeeping unit. 

(b) In the case ot a one-family or two-family dwelling, the 
provisions of subsection (4) ot section 9 of this by-law relating 
to site area requirements for Two-family Dwelling Districts 
shall apply. 

(D) SIX-STOREY MULTIPLE DWELLING DISTRICT. 

II. (l) The provisions of this section and subsections 
hen of shall app!\ to buildings arid uses ot buildings and land 
situate within Six-storey Multiple Dwelling Districts referred 
to and designated, described and delimited in this by-law and 
as shown on the map or plan annexed hereto and marked as 
schedule "A" hereto. 



12) It shall be unlawful for any person hereafter to erect, 
construct, alter or reconstruct, or cause to be erected, constructed, 
altered or reconstructed, any building, or to occupy or use any 
building, premises or land within the boundaries of any district 
referred to and designated, defined or described in this by-law 
as a Six-storey Multiple Dwelling District, save and except 
tor any of the following uses, namely: 

(a) Buildings and uses of buildings and land permitted in and 

for Three-storey Multiple Dwelling Districts. 

Height. 

(3) The height of a building shall not exceed seventy-five 
feet nor six storeys. 

Front Yard. 

(4) A front yard shall be provided of not less than twelve 
feet in depth. 

Rear and Side Yards. 

(5) The provisions of subsections (5) and (6) of section 
10 of this by-law respecting the requirements for rear yards and 
side yards in and tor Three-storey Multiple Dwelling Districts 
shall also apply to Six-storey Multiple Dwelling Districts. 

(6) (a) Save and except in respect of an hotel, a site area 
shall be provided per family or housekeeping unit of not less 
than the number ot square teet obtained by dividing seventeen 
hundred and twenty square feet by the number of storeys 
used for dwelling purposes; provided that the maximum area 
need not exceed seven hundred and fifty square feet per family 
or housekeeping unit. 

(b) In the case of a one-family or two-family dwelling, the 
provisions ot subsection (4) ot section 9 ot this by-law relating 
to site area requirements tor Two- family Dwelling Districts 
shall apply. 

(E) LOCAL COMMERCIAL DISTRICT. 

12. (1) The provisions ot this section and subsections 
hereof shall apply to buildings and uses of buildings and land 
situate within Local Commercial Districts as referred to and 
defined, designated, delimited and described in this by-law and 
as shown on the map or plan annexed hereto and marked as 
schedule "A" hereto. 

(2) It shall be unlawful for any person to erect, construct 
or place, or cause to be erected, constructed or placed, on or 
upon any land situate within the area of any Local Commercial 
District any of the following buildings, works or premises 
hereinafter specified, or to establish, undertake, or carry on 
in any such district any of the following businesses, operation, 
or undertakings hereinafter specified, that is to say: 

(rt) Buildings and uses prohibited in and excluded trom Three- 
storey Commercial Districts; 

(b) Funeral undertaking establishment; 

(c) Candy or jam factory, dyeing and cleaning works, laundry 
or printing shop. 

(3) The provisions of subsections (4) and (6) of section 
8 of this by-law relating to the requirements in respect of the 
height of buildings, and in respect of rear yards in and for 
One-family Dwelling Districts shall also apply in and for Local 
Commercial Districts. 

(4) No front yard is required except in cases where on 
one side of a street between two intersecting streets some sites 
are in a dwelling district and other sites are in a commercial 
district, in which event the front yard requirements in and tor 
One-family Dwelling Districts shall apply to all such sites. 

Side Yards. 

(5) (a) Where a Local Commercial District adjoins any 
dwelling district without the intervention of a street or lane, 
there shall be provided a side yard of not less than three feet 
in width; and if a side yard in any such district be provided 
where not required by the provisions ot this by-law, the same 
shall be not less than three i'cet in width. 



VANCOUVER ZONING BY-LAW 



281 



(b) In the case of a dwelling, the provisions of subsection 
(7) ot section 8 relating to the requirements of side yards in 
One-tamily Dwelling Districts shall also applv thereto. 

(<-) In the case ot a corner site (whether a lane shall 
intervene or not) at the rear of which is a site fronting on a 
street which flanks such corner site, the provisions of subsection 
(7) of section 8 of this by-law respecting side yard requirements 
in or for One-family Dwelling Districts shall apply, also, as 
regards such corner site along the flanking street. 
Site Area. 

(6) A site area shall consist of at least twenty-four hundred 
square feet per family. 

<F) THREE-STOREY COMMERCIAL DISTRICT. 

13. (1) The provisions of this section and subsections 
hereof shall apply to buildings and uses of buildings and land 
situate within Three-storey Commercial Districts as referred 
to and defined, designated, delimited and described in this 
by-law and as shown on the map or plan annexed hereto and 
marked as schedule "A" hereto. 

(2) It shall be unlawful for any person to erect, construct, 
or place, or to cause to be erected, constructed, or placed, on 
or upon any land situate within the area of any Three-storev 
Commercial District any of the following buildings, works, 
or premises hereinafter specified, or to establish, undertake, 
or carry on in any such Three-storey Commercial District any 
of the following businesses, industries, operations or under- 
takings hereinafter specified, that is to say: 

{a) Buildings and uses prohibited in or excluded from Light 
Industrial Districts by the provision ot section 1; ot this 
by-law; 

{b) Any kind of manufacture or treatment other than the 
manufacture or treatment of products clearly incidental 
to the conduct of a retail business conducted on the 
premises; provided, however, that a bakery, candy or 
jam factory, dyeing and cleaning works, laundry or printing 
shop may be undertaken or carried on in said district if 
not more than five thousand square teet of floor area 
are used in any such business; 

(c) Blacksmith or horseshoeing shop; 

(d) Bottling works; 

(f) Building material storage yard; 

(/) Carting, express, hauling or storage yard; 

(g) Contractor's plant or storage yard; 
(h) Coal, coke or wood yard; 

(1) Cooperage works; 

(j) Ice plant or storage house ot more than five tons capacity; 

(k) Livery stable; 

(/) Lumber yard; 

{m) Mamine shop; 

(«) Veterinary hospital or boarding kennel; 

(0) Wholesale milk distributing station; 

(p) Storage warehouse, except one the use ot which is incidental 
to a building or use permitted; 

(q) Public garage, service or gas station, unless it shall have 
no entrance or exit for motor-vehicles within two hundred 
feet of an entrance or exit of a fire-hall, public or private 
school, playground, public library, church, hospital, 
children's or old people's home, or other similar public 
or semi-public institution, in which event such business 
may be carried on. 

Height. 

(3) The height of any building shall not exceed forty-five 
feet nor three storeys. 

Frost Yards. 

(4) The provisions of subsection (4) of section 1 1 relating 
to front yard requirements in and for Local Commercial Districts 
shall apply in and to Three-storey Commercial Districts. 



Rear Yard. 

(5) (a) A rear yard shall be provided of a minimum depth 
of fourteen feet, provided that where a site is bounded at the 
rear by a lane, the depth of rear yard within the site need not 
exceed four feet; but if there be no lane, the depth of rear yard 
need not exceed ten teet. 

(b) In the case ot a building or portion thereof, used as a 
dwelling erected on a lot ot greater depth than sixty-six feet, 
the rear yard requirements tor Multiple Dwelling Districts 
shall apply as provided in subsection (5) of section 10 of this 
by-law. 

Side Yard. 

(6) (a) Where a Three-storey Commercial District adjoins 
any dwelling district without the intervention of a street or 
lane, there shall be provided a side yard of not less than three 
feet in width; and if a side yard in any such district is provided 
where not required by the provisions of this by-law, the same 
shall be not less than three feet in width. 

(b) In the case of a dwelling, the provisions of subsection 

(6) of section 10 relating to the requirements of side yards in 
Three-storey Multiple Dwelling Districts shall also applv thereto. 

U) In the case of a corner site (whether a lane shall 
intervene or not), at the rear of which is a site fronting on a 
street which flanks such corner site, the provisions ot subsection 

(7) of section 8 of this by-law respecting side yard requirements 
in or for One-family Dwelling Districts shall apply, also, as 
regard such corner site along the flanking street. 

Site Area. 

(7) The provisions of subsection (7) of section 10 relating 
to site area requirements in and for Three-storey Multiple 
Dwelling Districts shall also apply in and to Three-Storey 
Commercial Districts. 

(G) SIX-STOREY COMMERCIAL DISTRICTS. 

14. 11) The provisions of this section and subsections 
hereof shall apply to buildings and uses of buildings and land 
situate within Six-storey Commercial Districts as referred to 
and defined, designated, delimited and described in this by-law 
and as shown on the map or plan annexed hereto and marked 
as schedule "A" hereto. 

(2) It shall be unlawful tor any person hereafter to erect, 
construct, alter or reconstruct, or cause to be erected, con- 
structed, altered, or reconstructed, any building, or to occupy 
or use any building, premises, or land within the boundaries 
of any district referred to, designated, defined or described in 
this by-law as a Six-storey Commercial District, save and 
except for any of the following uses, namely: 

(a) Buildings and uses permitted in and for Three-storey 
Commercial Districts as provided by section 13 of this 
by-law. 

(3) The height of a building shall not exceed seventy-five 
feet nor six storeys. 

Side Yard 

(4) (a) Where a Six-storey Commercial District adjoins 
any dwelling district without the intervention of a street or 
lane there shall be provided a side yard of not less than three 
teet in width; and if a side yard in any such district be provided 
where not required by the provisions ot this by-law, the same 
shall be not less than three feet in width. 

(b) In the case of a dwelling, the provisions ot subsection 
(6) of section 10 relating to the requirements of side yards in 
Three-storey Multiple Dwelling Districts shall also apply 
thereto. 

Rear Yards. 

(5) The provisions of subsection (5) of section 13 of this 
by-law respecting rear yard requirements in and for Three- 
storey Commercial Districts shall apply in and to Six-storey 
Commercial Districts. 



282 



A PLAN" FOR VANCOUVER 



Site Area. 

(6) The provisions ot subsection (6) of section n relating 
to site area requirements in and for Six-storey Multiple Dwelling 
Districts shall apply in and to Six-storey Commercial Districts. 

(H) SIX-STOREY LIGHT INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT. 

15. (0 The provisions of this section and subsection 
hereof shall apply to buildings and uses of buildings and land 
situate within Six-storey Light Industrial Districts as referred 
to and defined, designated, delimited and described in this 
by-law and as shown on the map or plan annexed hereto and 
marked as schedule "A" hereto. 

(2) It shall be unlawful for any person to erect, construct, 
or place, or cause to be erected, constructed, or placed, on or 
upon any land situate within the area of a Six-storey Light 
Industrial District any of the following buildings, works or 
premises hereinafter specified, or to establish, undertake or 
carry on in any such district any of the following businesses, 
industries, undertakings or operations hereinafter specified, 
namely: 
1 1 ) Abbatoir; 

(2) Acetylene gas manufacture or storage; 

(3) Acid manufacture; 

(4) Ammonia, bleaching powder or chlorine manufacture; 
I c) Arsenal; 

(o) Asphalt manufacture or refining; 

(7) Bag cleaning; 

(8) Blast furnace; 

(9) Boiler works; 

(10) Brewery; 

(11) Brick, tile or terra-cotta manufacture; 

(12) Candle manufacture; 

(13) Celluloid manufacture; 

(14) Coke ovens; 

(15) Compressed gas works; 

(16) Crematory; 

(17) Creosote treatment or manufacture; 

(18) Disinfectants manufacture; 

(19) Distillation of bones, coal or wood; 

(20) Distillery; 

(21) Dyestuff manufacture; 

(22) Exterminator and insect poison manufacture; 

(23) Emery cloth and sandpaper manufacture; 

(24) Fat rendering; 

(25) Fertilizer manufacture or storage; 

(26) Fireworks or explosive manufacture or storage; 
1 27 ) Fish-smoking, curing, canning or cleaning; 

(28) Forge plant; 

(29) Gas (illuminating or heating) manufacture; 

(30) Glue, size or gelatine manufacture; 

(31) Gunpowder manufacture or storage; 

(32) Incineration or reduction of garbage, dead animals, offal 
or refuse; 

(/n) Iron, steel, brass or copper foundry ; 

(34) Lampblack manufacture; 

(35) Mills; planing, saw or shingle; 

(36) Oilcloth or linoleum manufacture; 

l ;-i Oiled or rubber goods manufacture; 

(38) Ore reduction; 

l jq) Paint, oil, shellac, turpentine or varnish manufacture; 

(40) Paper and pulp manufacture; 

(41) Petroleum products; refining or wholesale storage of 
explosive derivatives thereof; 

(42) Potash works; 

(43) Pyroxyline manufacture; 

(44) Rock crusher; 

(45) Rolling mill; 

(46) Rubber or guttapercha manufacture or treatment; 
I 4-) Salt works; 

(4SI Sausage manufacture; 

(49) Sauerkraut manufacture; 

(50) Shoe or stove polish manufacture; 



(si) Smelters; 

(52) Soap (bar) manufacture; 

(53) Soda and compound manufacture; 
I C4) Stockyards; 

(55) Stone mill or quarry; 

(c6) Storage or baling of scrap paper, bottles, iron, rags, bones 

or junk; 
(57) Sulphuric, nitric or hydrochloric acid manufacture; 
(c8) Tallow, grease or lard manufacture, or refining from animal 

fat; 

(59) Tanning, curing or storage of raw hides or skins; 

(60) Tar distillation or manufactures; 

(60 Tar roofing or waterproofing manufacture; 

(62) Tobacco (chewing) manufacture or treatment; 

(63) Vinegar manufacture; 

(64) Wool pulling or scouring; 

(65) Yeast plant; 

(66) And, in general, those uses which may be obnoxious or 
offensive by reason of emission of odour, dust, smoke, gas 
noise, or vibration. 

Height. 

(3) The height of a building shall not exceed seventy-five 
feet nor six storeys. 

Rear Yard. 

14) The provisions of subsection (5) of section 13 relating 
to rear yard requirements in and for Three-storey Commercial 
Districts shall apply in and to Six-storey Industrial Districts. 

Side Yards. 

(5) Where a Light Industrial District adjoins a Dwelling 
District without the intervention of a street or lane, a side yard 
shall be provided of not less than three feet in width. In the case 
of a dwelling, the provisions of subsection (6) of section 10 
respecting side yard requirements for Multiple Dwelling Districts 
shall apply. 

(6) The provisions of subsection (6) ot section 1 1 respecting 
site area requirements of and for Six-storey Multiple Dwelling 
Districts shall apply in and to Six-storey Light Industrial 
Districts. 

11) GENERAL BUSINESS DISTRICT. 

16. ( 1 ) The provisions of this section and subsection 
hereof shall apply to buildings and uses of buildings and land 
situate within the General Business District as referred to and 
defined, designated, delimited and described in this by-law 
and as shown on the plan annexed hereto and marked as schedule 
"A" hereto. 

(2) It shall be unlawful for any person hereafter to erect, 
construct, alter, or cause to be erected, constructed, or altered, 
any building, or to occupy or use any building, premises, or 
land within the boundaries of any district referred to, defined, 
designated, or described in this by-law as a General Business 
District, save and except for any ot the following uses, namely: 
(tf) Buildings and uses of buildings and land permitted and 

authorized by the provisions of section I 5 of this by-law 
tor Six-storey Light Industrial Districts. 

Height. 

(3) [a) Subject to the provisions ot subsection lb) hereof, 
the height ot a building shall not in any case exceed one hundred 
and twenty feet nor ten storeys; provided, however, that in the 
case of a building containing a base area of seven thousand square 
teet or more, the main portion of such building may be sur- 
mounted by a superstructure, the area of the base of which 
shall not exceed thirty-three per centum of the area of the base 
of the main portion; provided, further, that the height of a 
building with such superstructure shall not exceed two hundred 
feet, and such superstructure shall not contain more than 
eight storeys. 

(b) The height of a building shall not exceed a height at 
the street line of one and one-half times the width of the street; 



VANCOUVER ZONING BY-LAW 



283 



but above the height permitted at the street line, three feet 
may be added to the height of the building for each foot that 
the building, or portion thereof, is set back from the street line; 
provided that the total height of a building shall not exceed 
two and one-half times the width of the street on which it faces. 
Yards. 

(4) The provisions of subsection (5) of section 15 of this 
by-law respecting side yard requirements of and for Six-storey 
Industrial Districts shall apply in and to General Business 
Districts. 

i]) HEAVY INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS. 

17. (1) The provisions of this section and subsections 
hereof shall apply to buildings and uses of buildings and land 
within Heavy Industrial Districts as referred to, designated, 
delimited and described in this by-law and as shown on the 
plan annexed hereto and marked as schedule "A" hereto. 

(2) Subject to the provisions of this by-law and all other 
by-laws of the city where applicable thereto, all buildings and 
uses of buildings and land, not otherwise contrary to law, shall 
be, and are hereby permitted and authorized in Heavy Industrial 
Districts; provided, however, that no dwelling or other building 
for human habitation shall be erected or used in any such 
district, except such as shall be necessary for the exclusive 
accommodation of caretakers or watchmen or persons similarly 
employed, unless sanctioned and approved by the Councl of 
the city under the provisions of subsection (2) of section 18 
of this by-law. 

Height. 

(3) The height of a building shall not exceed one hundred 
feet nor eight storeys. 

Side Yards. 

(4) Side yards, if provided, shall be not less than three 
feet in width. 

(5) The provisions of subsections (c) and (6) of section 
11 of this by-law respecting rear yard, side yard and site area 
requirements of and for Six-storey Multiple Dwelling Districts 
shall apply to dwellings authorized, permitted or approved 
in Heavy Industrial Districts under the provisions of subsection 
(1) of section 18 of this by-law. 

SPECIAL CONDITIONS. 
Special Uses. 

18. (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this by-law, 
it shall be unlawful for any person to undertake or carry on 
within the City of Vancouver, without the consent of the 
Council therefor, any of the following businesses, undertakings, 
trades or industries, or to use or enjoy or employ any site within 
the said city in or for any of the following uses unless and until 
the said site for such uses shall have been approved by the 
said Council: 

(a) Keeping of horses, cows, goats, pigs, sheep, poultry, or 
the keeping of dogs for breeding purposes; 

(b) Keeping of houseboats; 

(c) Keeping of livery stables, sale or boarding stables, or 
stables in which horses are to be kept for hire or delivery 
or express purposes; 

(d) Keeping of dog hospital; 

(c) Keeping of live poultry for retail or wholesale trade; 

(/) Manufacture or making of cement, lime, gypsum or plaster 

of paris; 

(g) Keeping of abattoir, or slaughter-house; 

{h) Manufacture of acids; 

{/) Compressed gas works; 

(j) Distillation of bones; 

{k) Fat rendering; 

(/) Manufacture or storage of explosives; 

(m) Manufacture or storage of fertilizer; 

(«) Manufacture of gas (illuminating or heating); 

(0) Reduction or dumping of garbage, refuse, offal, or dead 

animal remains; 



(p) Manufacture of glue, size or gelatine; 

(q) Refining or wholesale storage of petroleum products and 

explosive derivatives therefrom; 
(r) Smelting of tin, copper, zinc, iron or other ores; 
(j) Manufacture of soap, or soap-boiling works; 
(/) Keeping or operating of stockyards; 
(h) Storage or bailing of scrap paper, bottles, iron, rags, 

bones or junk; 
(») Tanning, curing or storage of raw hides or skins. 

(2) It shall be unlawful for any person, without'the 
approval of the Council of the City, to erect, construct, alter, 
or reconstruct any dwelling or other building for human habita- 
tion in any Heavy Industrial District which is not used, or 
intended or necessary to be used, for the accommodation of 
caretakers or watchmen or persons similarly employed. 
Height of Buildings. 

(3) (a) Private dwellings in the two-and-one-half-storey 
districts may be increased in height by not more than ten feet 
when side yards each of not less than fifteen feet in width shall 
be provided. Such dwellings shall not exceed three storeys in 
height. 

{&) In districts where the limitation on the height of 
buildings is less than seventy-five feet, according to the provisions 
of this by-law, it shall be lawful where such use is permitted 
to erect a public or semi-public building, public utility building, 
sanitarium, hospital, or school to a height not exceeding seventy- 
five feet if side yards shall be provided having a width for each 
such side yard of one foot for every toot such building exceeds 
the height limit of the district in which the same is situate. 
Such side yards shall be in addition to any other yards otherwise 
required or ordered by any of the provisions of this by-law 
applicable thereto. 

(c) The limitation in respect of the height of buildings 
specified in this by-law shall not apply to grain elevators, sugar 
refineries or scenery lofts in theatres; nor shall such limitation 
apply to chimneys, towers, penthouses, monuments, cupolas, 
domes, spires and necessary mechanical appurtenances incident 
thereto, provided the same do not exceed ten per cent, of the 
area of the main building. 

(d) In Central Business Districts, for a building located 
on a site at the intersection of streets of different widths, the 
height permitted on the wider street shall be allowed along the 
narrower street to a depth not exceeding one hundred and 
twenty feet from the wider street. 

(e) No person shall use a basement for any purpose which 
use would bring such basement under the interpretation of a 
storey if the effect would be to cause the building in which 
such basement is situated to exceed the number of storeys 
allowed in the district in which the building is situate. 

Area 

{4) (a) For the purpose of yard regulations, a two-family 
semi-detached (side by side) or duplex (one above the other) 
dwelling or a four-family double duplex dwelling, a row house, 
or a terrace of not more than four attached dwellings, shall be 
considered as one building occupying one site. 
Through Site. 

{b) A building on a through site shall have a front yard 
on each street in accordance with the front yard requirements 
of the district in which the site is located. 
Dwellings Above Stores. 

(r) The side yard requirements for dwellings shall be 
waived where dwellings are erected above stores. 
Cornice. 

(d) No cornice shall project over the street line more than 
five per cent, of the width of such street, and shall in no case 
project more than four feet. 

Group Houses. 

(e) In the case of group houses or apartments fronting 
upon a place, buildings may back upon the required side yard, 
provided that: 



l8 4 



A PLAN* FOR VANCOUVER 



(aa) For group houses, the required side yard shall be increased 
by one foot for each dwelling abutting thereon. 

(bb) For apartment houses, the required side yard shall be 
increased one toot for each stairway opening onto or 
served by such side yard. 

{fc) The width of the place shall be not less than thirty feet 
nor less than three times the width of the side yard as 
specified in this section; provided, further, that open, 
unoccupied porches may proejct into a required place not 
more than twenty per cent, of the width of such place. 
In a Two-family Dwelling District, the total width of 
the place shall not be less than fifty feet; 

(dd) Where a roadway is provided in the place or side yard, 
its width shall not be less than eighteen feet, and such 
width shall be in addition to that hereinbefore specified; 

(«) All other requirements, including requirements in respect 
ot rear yards, shall be complied with in accordance with 
the district in which such group houses or apartment are 
located. 

Obstruction on Corner Lots in Front Yards. 

(/) On any corner lot on which a front yard is required 
by this by-law, no wall, fence or other structure shall be erected 
to a greater height than three feet; and no hedge, shrub or other 
growth shall be maintained in such location within such required 
front yard space as to cause danger to traffic by obstructing 
the view. 

Rear Yards of Lots Less Than 120 Feet in Depth. 

(g) On lots of less than one hundred and twenty feet in 
depth, and duly subdivided according to registered plan of 
subdivision of record in the Land Registry Office for the Land 
Registration District of Vancouver at the time of the passing 
ot the by-law, the rear yard need in no case exceed twenty 
per cent, of the depth of such lot. 

EXISTING BUILDINGS: USES AND REPAIRS. 

19. (1) Any building lawfully under construction at the 
time of the passing of this by-law and lawfully completed 
according to and in compliance with the provisions of the 
Building By-law and all other by-laws of the city applicable 
thereto shall be deemed to be a building existing as at said date. 

(2) The lawful use of land existing at the time of the passing 
of this by-law, although such use may not conform to the 
provisions of this by-law, may be continued; but if such non- 
conforming uses shall be discontinued at any time after the 
passing of this by-law, then, and in such event, any further 
use of such land shall be in conformity, and shall comply, with 
the provisions of this by-law. 

(3) The lawful use of a building existing at the time of 
the passing of this by-law may be continued, although such use 
does not conform to the provisions of the by-law, and such 
use may be extended through such building; provided, however, 
no structural alterations except those required by any statute 
or by any by-law shall be made therein. 

(4) Where no structural alterations are made in a building 
of a non-conforming use, such use may be changed to a use of 
a similar or higher classification, according to the provisions 
ot this by-law. 

(5) A change of tenants or occupants of any premises or 
building shall not be deemed to affect the use of the premises 
or building within the meaning ot this section. 

(6) A building lawfully constructed and existing at the 
time of the passage of this by-law, but which does not conform 
to the provisions of this by-law in respect to any or all of the 
provisions relating to the yard, height, site area or building 
line requirements of the district in which such building is located, 
may be repaired, but may not be altered or reconstructed in 
any respect that would further contravene any ot the provisions 
ot this by-law. 



ENFORCEMENT. 

20. (1) (a) Application for a building permit shall state 
the proposed use of the building, and be accompanied by a 
ground plan in duplicate showing the site lines, the actual 
dimension of the lot or lots and building or buildings, together 
with such other information in detail as may be necessary to 
comply with the provisions of this by-law applicable thereto. 
When requested by the City Architect, an applicant for a 
building permit shall deposit with the City Architect a plan of 
survey certified by a British Columbia Land Surveyor showing 
any or all of the above information deemed necessary by the 
City Architect. 

(b) If a side site line does not coincide with the lot line, 
the City Architect shall procure from the owner the execution 
and registration of a covenant with the city to maintain the 
required side yard as an appurtenance to the proposed building 
unless sufficient evidence is filed that the title to the land covered 
by such yard cannot be conveyed to a bona fide purchaser for 
value without notice. 

(f) It shall be the duty of the City Architect to keep and 
maintain a complete record of all such applications, particulars 
and plans. Before any permit shall be issued for the construction 
of any building tor the use of any premises, the City Architect 
shall satisfy himself that the proposed construction or use shall 
not be in violation ot any of the provisions of this bv-law, and 
if the City Architect shall ascertain that such building or use 
in respect of which such application for permit has been made 
is in violation of any of the provisions of this by-law, the City 
Architect shall refuse such application for a building permit. 

(3) The City Architect, License Inspector, and their 
respective assistants, and any other civic officials appointed to 
administer or enforce the provisions of this by-law, are hereby 
authorized to enter at all reasonable times upon any property 
or premises to ascertain whether the regulations and provisions 
herein contained are being, or have been, complied with. It 
shall be unlawful for any person to prevent or obstruct, or seek 
to prevent or obstruct, any of such officials in or from the 
carrying out of any of their official duties under this by-law. 

(4) W here any building, or part of a building or erection, 
has been constructed or placed in contravention of this by-law, 
the City Architect, after giving reasonable notice to the owner 
requiring him to pull down or remove the same, and specifying 
therein the provision or provisions ot the by-law so contravened, 
and after giving the owner an opportunity ot being heard by 
the Council in regard thereto, may, with the approval ot the 
Council, pull down or remove the building, or part of the building 
or erection, so constructed or placed in contravention of this 
by-law at the expense of the owner, and payment of such expense 
may be enforced against the owner by the Corporation in an 
action in any court of competent jurisdiction. 

APPEALS. 

21. {\) An appeal shall lie to the Board of Appeal provided 
in section 16 of the "Town Planning Act." Such board ot Appeal 
shall decide all appeals under this by-law. 

(2) Such Board of Appeal shall consist ot three persons, 
one to be appointed by the Council ot the City of Vancouver, 
one to be appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council of 
the Province of British Columbia, and the third member of 
such Board shall be appointed by the other two appointees 
above named, and shall act as Chairman of such Board of Appeal. 

(3) (a) In considering appeals, such Board of Appeal shall 
adhere to the provisions of this by-law, but may make such 
relaxations as may be required to meet special cases, and in 
such cases may impose necessary or reasonable conditions or 
make reasonable structural requirements, and shall endeavor 
to see that substantial justice is done, and that the interests 
ot any individuals are not unduly or unnecessarily sacrificed 
for the benefit of the community. The Board of Appeal may not, 
however, permit a use in a district in which such use is prohibited 



VANCOUVER ZONING BY-LAW 



*8 5 



by this by-law, but may recommend to the Council of the 
city that the boundaries of any district be altered. 

(b) The Board of Appeal may, however, in the case of a 
non-conforming use where special circumstances favorable to 
the extension of the use exist and where the amenity of sur- 
rounding property can be preserved bv an exercise of the Board's 
power to impose conditions and make structural requirements, 
allow the use to be extended, and fix the limits of such extension. 
In exercising this power, the Board shall see that the widest 
publicity is given to the application, and shall pay due attention 
to the reasonable expression ot opinion of surrounding owners. 

(4) The decision in writing of two members of the Board 
of Appeal shall constitute the decision of the Board. No further 
appeal shall lie from the decision ot such Board of Appeal. 

(5) An appeal shall lie to the Board of Appeal in the 
following cases: 

{(i) By any person who is dissatisfied with the decision of the 
City Architect or of any official charged with the enforce- 
ment of this by-law; 

(b) By any person desiring to obtain the benefit of any exception 
contained in this by-law; 

(c) By any person claiming that, owing to special conditions, 
the literal enforcement of this by-law would result in 
unnecessary hardship; 

(//) By any person who is prejudiced or aggrieved by any 
decision, order, or act of any official done in pursuance 
of or to enforce the provisions of this by-law; 

(?) By any person desiring to erect, construct, locate, alter, 
reconstruct, maintain or carry on a sanitarium, hospital, 
isolation hospital, cemetery, aeroplane landing field, gravel 
bunkers for limited periods, community centre, riding or 
driving school, an institution of an educational, philan- 
thropic or charitable nature, or a public utility in a district 
from which it is prohibited by this by-law; 

(/) By any person desiring to reconstruct within twelve 
months a building located in a district restricted against 
the use which has been destroyed by fire or other calamity 
to the extent of not more than seventy-five per cent, of the 
assessed value of such buildings. 

(6) Any person exercising the right of appeal to such 
Board of Appeal hereby constituted shall deposit with the 
Secretary of the Board of Appeal within ten days of the decision, 
judgment or order complained of a Notice of Appeal therefrom, 
which shall, in a simple manner, state the description of the 
property of such person affected thereby, and the grounds of 
complaint. The appellant shall therein give an address to which 
all notices may be mailed. 

(7) The mailing by registered mail, posted to the address 
of such applicant described in such notice referred to in the 
subsection hereof, shall be deemed to be good and sufficient 
notice of any decision, order, matter or thing in respect of which 
notice may be necessary under the provisions of this by-law 
or of the "Town Planning Act." 

(8) The Secretary of the Board of Appeal shall notify 
the Chairman of such Board of Appeal of such Notice of Appeal; 
and the Chairman of the Board of Appeal shall fix a convenient 
date for the hearing of such appeal. Five days' notice of such 
hearing shall be mailed by said Secretary to the appellant. 

(9) Notice of such hearing shall be given by the Secretary 
ot the Board of Appeal to the City Architect, to the Secretary 
ot the Town Planning Commission, and, also, to owners of 
neighbouring property situate within one block or within such 
further distance or distances from the property affected in 
respect of which appeal has been made, as the Chairman of the 
Board shall direct; and a notice, on a form supplied by the 
Board, shall be posted by the appellant prominently upon the 
property affected or at the nearest street corner. 



(10) The proceedings before such Board of Appeal shall 
be informal, and evidence need not be given under oath. Such 
Board ot Appeal may, in all cases, take a view of the premises 
in respect of which appeal has been made. Any person whose 
property is affected by such appeal shall have a right to be heard 
and give evidence on the hearing ot such appeal. 

(11) The Board of Appeal shall give its decisions in writing, 
and the same shall be filed with the Secretary of the Board of 
Appeal, and such Secretary shall communicate the same to the 
appellants and to such city officials as may be concerned thereby, 
who shall carry out the purport of such decision, and shall issue 
a permit, or otherwise give effect to such decision upon the ful- 
filment by the appellant of any condition which may be imposed 
by the Board as set out in such decision. 

VIOLATION OF PROVISIONS OF BY-LAW DEEMED 
AN INFRACTION. 

22. Every person who violates any of the provisions ot 
this by-law, or who causes, suffers or permits any act or thing 
to be done in contravention or in violation of any of the pro- 
visions of this by-law, or who neglects to do or refrains from 
doing anything required to be done by any of the provisions of 
this by-law, or who constructs, erects, reconstructs or alters, 
or causes to be reconstructed, erected, reconstructed, or altered, 
any building or other structure, or who uses or occupies any 
land or premises in manner prohibited by or contrary to any of 
the provisions of this by-law, or who otherwise does any act 
or thing which violates any of the provisions of this by-law, shall 
be deemed to be guilty of an infraction ot this by-law, and shall 
be liable to the penalties hereby imposed. 

PENALTY. 

23. Any person guilty of an infraction of this by-law shall, 
upon conviction thereof before the Mayor, Police Magistrate, 
or any two Justices of the Peace, or other Magistrates having 
jurisdiction in the City of Vancouver, on the oath or affirmation 
ot any credible witness, forfeit and pay, at the discretion ot the 
said Mayor, Police Magistrate, Justices, or Magistrate or 
Magistrates convicting, a fine or penalty not exceeding the sum 
of one hundred dollars and costs for each offence; and in default 
of payment thereof forthwith, it shall be lawful for such Mayor, 
Police Magistrate, Justices, or other Magistrate or Magistrates 
convicting as aforesaid to issue a warrant under his or their 
hand and seal to levy the said fine or penalty and costs, or 
costs only, by distress and sale ot the offender's goods and 
chattels; and in case of no distress, or insufficient distress, found 
to satisfy the said fine or penalty, it shall and may be lawful 
for the Mayor, Police Magistrate, Justices, or the Magistrate 
or Magistrates convicting as aforesaid to commit the offender 
to the common gaol, or any lock-up house in the City of Van- 
couver, for any period not exceeding two months (with or 
without hard labour) unless the said fine or penalty be sooner 
paid. For each day that a violation is permitted to exist, it shall 
constitute a separate offence. 

24. By-laws in respect of certain residential areas, as 
therein provided, being bv-laws respectively numbered as 
follows, that is to say, 1623, 1625, 1626, 1630, 1631, 1632, 
1633, 1640, 1641, 1642, 1643, 1644, 1663, 1664, 1672, 1673, 
1684, 1728, 1748, 1753, 1754, 1766, 1768, 1776, 1795, and 1816, 
and also Zoning By-law, being by-laws respectively numbered as 
follows, that is to say, 1830, 1841, 1862 and 1863 are hereby 
repealed. 

2C. This by-law shall come into force and take effect on 
and after the date of the passing hereof. 

Done and Passed in open Council, this 17th day of 
December, A.D. 1928. 



LOUIS D. TAYLOR, 
Mavor. 



WM. McQUEEN, 

City Clerk. 



286 



A PLAN" FOR VANCOUVER 



APPENDIX IV. 
CORPORATION" OF POINT GREY ZONING BY-LAW 



Being By-law No. 727, 1 927, and By-law No. 
Consolidated tor Convenience Onlv. 



1928 



A by-law to regulate the location and use of buildings and 
the use of land within the Municipality of Point Grey; to limit 
the height of buildings; to prescribe building lines and the 
area of yards and other open spaces; and for these purposes to 
divide the Municipality into districts. 

Whereas after considering the recommendation ot the Point 
Grey Town Planning Commission, it appears advisable and 
expedient to make regulations and divide the Municipality 
into districts as hereinafter provided, pursuant to the Town 
Planning Act, having due regard to: 
(a) The promotion of public health, safety, convenience and 

welfare; 
(6) The prevention of the overcrowding of land and the 

preservation of the amenity of residential districts; 
{c) The securing of adequate provisions for light, air and 

reasonable access; 
(</) The value of the land and the nature of its use and occu- 
pancy; 
(e) The character of each district, the character of the buildings 

already erected, and the peculiar suitability ot the district 

tor particular uses; 
(/) The conservation of property values and the direction ot 

building development. 

And whereas opportunity of being heard on the matters 
covered herein has been duly afforded to all persons who might 
be affected thereby; 

Now therefore the Reeve and Council of the Corporation 
of Point Grey, in open meeting assembled, hereby enact as 
follows: 

TITLE. 

1. This by-law may be cited for all purposes as "Zoning 
By-law No. -2-, 1927" (with amendments). 

DEFINITIONS. 

;. In this by-law, unless the context otherwise requires, 
the following terms and expressions shall have the following 
respective meanings: 

Accessory Building: A subordinate building or a portion 
of the main building the use ot which is incidental to that of the 
main building or a building the use ot which is incidental to the 
use of the land. 

Basement: A storey the floor of which is more than 12 
inches but less than one-half ot the height from floor to ceiling 
nt the store) below the average level of the adjoining street, 
sidewalk, or ground, and shall include the lowest store\ ot a 
building when the height from the floor to ceiling is less than 
8 feet. 

Board or Appeal: \ Board constituted pursuant to 
Section 16 of the "Town Planning Act." 

Corner Site: A site situated at the intersection or 
junction of two or more streets. 

Clrr Level: The level of the established curb in front 
of the building measured at the centre of such front. Where no 
curb has been established the Municipal Engineer shall establish 
such curb level or its equivalent tor the purpose of this by-law. 

District: A district constituted by Section 30! this by-law. 

Front Line or the Building: The extended line of the 
wall ot rht building [or of an) projecting portion of the building, 
except steps, sills, belt courses, cornices, eaves and tire escapes) 
which faces the front line of the site. 

Front Line of the Site or Front Site Line: The 
boundary line of the site and the street in front. 



Front Yard: A yard extending across the full width of 
the site from the front line ot the site to the front line of the 
building. 

Garage: A building or land used for housing or care of 
self-propelled vehicles. 

Half-Storev: A storey under a gable hip or gambrel 
roof, the wall plates of which on at least two opposite exterior 
walls are not more than two feet above the floor of such storey. 

Height of Building: The vertical distance measured in 
a straight line from the curb level to the highest point of the 
roof surface if a flat roof; to the deck line of a mansard roof, and, 
to the mean height level between the eaves and ridge of a gable, 
hip or gambrel roof. When a building is situated on ground above 
the curb level such height shall be measured from the average 
elevation of the finished grade of the site along the front of the 
building. On through sites one hundred and twenty feet or less 
in depth the height of a building may be measured from the 
curb level on either street. On through sites more than one 
hundred and twenty feet in depth the height regulations and 
basis ot height measurements for the street permitting the 
greater height shall apply to a depth of not more than one 
hundred and twenty feet from that street. 

Interior Site: A site other than a corner site. 

Lane or Alley: A public way which affords only a 
secondary means of access to a site at the side or rear. 

Multiple Dwellings: A building or portion thereof 
designed for use as a dwelling for more than two families or 
housekeeping units or for two families or housekeeping units 
living one above the other or designed to afford board or lodging 
or both to guests tor remuneration, including an apartment, 
boarding or lodging house, an Hotel or an apartment hotel. 

Xon-Conforming L'se: A use of a building or land that 
does not conform with the regulations of the district in which 
it is situated. 

One-Family Dwei i ihC: A separate building designed for 
use exclusively as a dwelling for one-family or housekeeping 
unit. 

Open Space: The portions of a site (including yards and 
courts or portions thereof) which are unoccupied and unobstruct- 
ed b) buildings from the ground upward. 

Private Garage: A garage with capacity for housing 
not more than three self-propelled vehicles; provided, however, 
that a private garage may exceed a three-vehicle capacity it 
the area of a site contains not less than sixteen hundred square 
feet tor each vehicle. 

Private Stable: A stable with capacity for not more 
than two horses, two cows or tour goats, provided, however, that 
on sites having an area of more than five thousand square feet 
the capacitv ot a private stahle may be increased by one horse, 
or cow, for each additional twenty-five hundred square feet of 
site area. 

Public Garage: A garage where self-propelled vehicles 
are equipped tor operation, repaired, kept for hire or dismantled. 

Public Stable: A stable other than a private stable. 

Rear Line of the Building: The extended line of the 
wall of the building which faces the rear line of the site. 

Rear Line of the Site or Rear Site Line: The boundary 
line ot the site opposite the front line ot the site. 

Rear Yard: A yard extending across the full width ot the 
site from the rear line of the site to the rear line of the building; 
provided, however, that in computing the required depth of a 
rear vard which is bounded at the rear bv a lane or alley one-half 



POINT GREY ZONING BYLAW 



287 



the width ot the lane or alley may be assumed to be a part of 
the yard. 

Service Station: A building or land used for serving 
self-propelled vehicles with gasoline, oil, tires, and other supplies. 

Side Yard: A yard extending from the front yard to the 
rear yard and measured between the side line ot the site and the 
side line ot the building, or any projection thereof. 

Site: An area of land used or intended to be used as a 
unit for any purpose. 

Site Lines: The lines bounding a site. 

Storage Garage: A garage for the housing only ot self- 
propelled vehicles, other than a private garage. 

Storey: That portion ot a building included between the 
surface of any floor and the surtace of the floor next above it, 
or if there be no floor above it then the space between such floor 
and the ceiling next above it, provided that a basement shall 
not be counted as a storey in applying the height of building 
limitations unless it is designed for or used for commercial or 
industrial purposes or as living quarters for someone other than 
a servant or janitor. 

Through Site: A site having frontage on two parallel 
or approximately parallel streets. 

Two-Family Dwelling: A building designed for use 
exclusively as a dwelling tor two families or housekeeping units 
not living the one above the other. 

Yard: A part of the site which is unoccupied and un- 
obstructed by buildings from the ground upward, except the 
following: 

(a) The ordinary proiections of sills, belt courses, cornices and 
eaves; provided, however, that none of these shall project 
into a minimum side yard more than twenty-four inches. 

(b) Fire-proof tire escapes. 

(r) The ordinary projections ot chimneys, in side and rear 
yards only, provided, however, that no chimney shall 
project into a minimum side yard more than eighteen inches. 

{d) Accessory buildings not exceeding twelve feet in height 
occupying not more than thirty per cent, of the area of 
a rear yard. 

DISTRICTS. 

3. For the purpose ot this by-law the Municipality of 
Point Grey is hereby divided into "districts" of the following 
seven kinds, viz: 

One-family District; 

Two-family District; 

Multiple Dwelling Districts; 

Local Business Districts; 

Con nercial Districts; 

Light Industrial Districts; 

Heavy Industrial Districts. 

And districts are hereby established and defined as follows: 

(Legal description of each district given in detail.) 

GENERAL RULES. 

4. (1) No person shall erect, construct, locate, alter, re- 
construct, repair or maintain any building or locate or carry 
on any industry, business, trade or calling or use any land or 
building within any district, save as is herein stated to be 
permitted within the district, nor without complying with the 
regulations, limitations, restrictions and requirements applicable 
thereto herein prescribed. 

( : 1 [a) No yard or other open space provided about any 
building shall be reduced in si/e or area below the requirements 
herein contained. 

(b) No portion of a minimum yard or other open space 
required about any building shall provide any portion of a 
yard or open space for any other building. 



(3) Where land is used for the erection or placing of a 
structure other than a building or a fence (e.g. a billboard) the 
structure shall comply with the height, yard, open space and 
building line requirements herein as it it were a building. 

ONE-FAMILY DISTRICT. 

5. In the One-family District — 

(1) The following buildings and uses of buildings and 
land are permitted: 

(a) One-family dwellings. 

(b) Churches. 

(c) Schools, elementary and high. 

{d) Golf courses and public museums, libraries, parks and 

playgrounds. 
(e) Farming and truck gardening. 
(0 Nurseries and greenhouses only for the propagating and 

cultivating of plants. 
{g) Accessory buildings, provided that — 

(a) A private garage not constructed as a part of or 
attached to the main building must be situated not 
less than sixty feet from the street in front, fourteen 
feet from any other street and four feet from any lane 
towards which any door of such garage opens, pro- 
vided that where by reason of the physical character- 
istics of the ground vehicular access can not be ob- 
tained on to a site, a private garage may be erected 
in an excavation in a front yard if no part of the 
garage extends more than four feet above the surface 
of the adjoining ground at any point; 

(b) A private stable or other building used to shelter 
domestic animals or birds must be located not less 
than sixty feet from the street in front nor less than 
twenty feet from any other street, nor less than four 
feet from any lane towards which any door of such 
stable or building opens. 

(h) L'ses customarily incident to any of the above uses, home 
occupations, offices of professional persons when situated 
in the same dwelling and the keeping of not exceeding four 
boarders, provided that no window display is made nor 
any sign shown other than one not exceeding two square 
feet in area and bearing only the name and occupation 
of the occupant. 

(;) A sign board not exceeding twelve square feet in area 
appertaining to the sale or rent of the real property on 
which it is situate, provided it complies with the yard, 
open space and building line requirements herein as if it 
were a building. 

(2) The height of a building must not exceed thirty-five 
feet nor two and one-half storeys. 

(3) A front yard is required of not less than twenty-four 
feet in depth. 

(4) A rear yard is required of not less than twenty-five 
feet in depth. 

(5) A side yard is required of not less than five feet in 
width on each side ot the building, but three feet on each side 
is sufficient on a site having a width of less than forty feet. 
On a corner site the side yard requirement shall apply to the 
street side of the site as well as the other side, provided, however, 
that in the case of a corner site at the rear of which (whether a 
lane intervenes or not) is a site fronting on a street intersecting 
the street on which the corner site fronts, the width of the side 
yard on the street side of the corner site shall be not less than 
one-half of the depth of the front yard required on the site in 
the rear of such corner site, and no accessory building on such 
corner site shall project beyond the front yard line on the site 
in the rear. 

(6) An open space is required of not less than sixtv per 
cent, of the area of the site. 



288 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



TWO-FAMILY DISTRICT. 

6. In the Two-family District — 

(l) The following buildings and uses of buildings and land 
are permitted: 

(a) Buildings and uses permitted in the One-family District. 

(b) Two-family dwellings. 

(r) Private clubs, fraternities, lodges, excepting those the chief 
activity of which is a service customarily carried on as a 
business. 

(d) Hospitals other than for isolation cases and clinics. 

(<t) Accessory buildings, provided that — 

(a) A private or storage garage not constructed as a part 
of or attached to the main building must be situated 
not less than sixty feet from the street in front, 
fourteen feet from any other street and four feet 
from any lane towards which any door of such garage 
opens, provided that where by reason of the physical 
characteristics of the ground vehicular access can not 
be obtained onto a site, a private garage may be 
erected in an excavation in a front yard if no part 
of the garage extends more than four feet above the 
surface of the adjoining ground at any point; 

(b) A private stable or other building used to shelter 
domestic animals or birds must be located not less 
than sixty feet from the street in front nor less than 
twenty feet from any other street, nor less than four 
feet from any lane towards which any door of such 
stable or building opens. 

(1) The height of building, rear yard, side yard, front yard 
and open space requirements for One-family District, shall apply. 

MULTIPLE DWELLING DISTRICTS. 

7. In Multiple Dwelling Districts — 

(i) The following buildings and uses of buildings and 
land are permitted: 

{a) Buildings and uses permitted in the Two-family District. 
(b) Multiple dwellings. 

(f) Institutions of an educational or philanthropic nature. 
(d) Accessory buildings and uses customarily incident to any 
of the above uses when located on the same site and not involving 
the conduct of a business. 

(2) The height of a building must not exceed forty-five 
feet nor three storeys. 

(3) A front yard is required of the same depth as in 
One-family District. 

(4) A rear yard is required of not less than twenty-rive 
feet in depth for interior sites nor less than fifteen feet for corner 
sites, provided, however, that if any part of a building on a 
corner site is more than sixty-six feet from the side street that 
part of the building shall have a rear yard of not less than 
twenty-five feet in depth. 

(5) A side yard is required as follows: For a building 
two and one-half storeys or less in height, there shall be a side 
yard of not less than five feet in width on each side of the building, 
or three feet in width on each side on a site having a width of 
less than forty feet. Each side yard shall be increased in width 
by one foot for each additional storey above the second, and 
shall in no case be less than one and one-halt inches in width for 
each foot of building length. The corner site proviso in the side 
yard requirements for One-family District shall apply. 

(6) An open space is required of not less than fifty per 
cent, of the area of an interior site nor forty per cent, of the 
area of a corner site. 

LOCAL BUSINESS DISTRICTS. 

8. In Local Business Districts — 

(1) All buildings and uses of buildings and land are 
permitted except the following: 

(a) Buildings and uses excluded from Commercial Districts. 

(b) Funeral undertaking establishment. 



(f) Laundry. 

(d) Public garage. 

(2) The height of building and rear yard requirements 
tor One-family District shall apply. 

(3) A front yard is required as follows: Where the front- 
age on one side of the street between two intersecting streets 
is located partly in a one-family, two-family or multiple dwelling 
district and partly in a local business district, the front yard 
requirement for one-family district shall apply to ail of such 
frontage. Where all the frontage on one side of the street between 
two intersecting streets is located in a local business district or 
partly in a local business district and partly in a commercial 
or light industrial district, no front yard shall be required; 
provided, however, that no building shall be erected or structural- 
ly altered so that any portion thereof is between the street and 
the building line hereinafter prescribed. 

(4) No side yard is required except where a local business 
district adjoins a one-family, two-family or multiple dwelling 
district without the intervention of a street or lane, in which 
case and also if provided where not required, it shall be not 
less than three feet in width, provided always that in the case 
of a dwelling the side yard requirements for one-family district 
shall apply. The corner site proviso in the side yard require- 
ments for one-family district shall applv. 

(5) An open space is required of not less than fifty per 
cent, of the area of an interior site, nor forty per cent, of the 
area of a corner site; provided that in the case of a dwelling 
the open space requirement for one-family district shall apply. 

COMMERCIAL DISTRICTS. 

9. In Commercial Districts — 

(0 All buildings and uses of buildings and land are 
permitted except the following: 

(a) Buildings and uses excluded from Light Industrial Districts. 

{b) Bakery employing more than five persons. 

(c) Blacksmith or horseshoeing shop. 

(d) Bottling works. 

(e) Building material storage yard. 

(/) Carting, express, hauling or storage yard. 

(g) Contractor's plant or storage yard. 
(/;) Coal, coke or wood vard. 

(;') Cooperage works. 

(_/') Dyeing and cleaning works employing more than five 
persons. 

(k) Ice plant or storage house of more than five tons capacity. 

(7) Laundry. 

(m) Livery stable. 

(«) Lumber yard. 

(0) Machine shop. 

(p) Printing shop employing more than five persons. 

{q) Veterinary hospital or boarding kennel. 

(r) Wholesale milk distributing station. 

(j) Storage warehouse, except one the use ot which is incidental 
to a building or use permitted. 

(/) Any kind of manufacture or treatment other than the 
manufacture or treatment of products clearly incidental 
to the conduct of a retail business conducted on the 
premises. 

(«) Public garage or service station; unless it has no entrance 
or exit for motor vehicles within two hundred feet of an 
entrance or exit of a fire hall, public or private school, 
playground, public library, church, hospital, children's or 
old people's home, or other similar public or semi-public 
institution. 

(2) The height of a building must not exceed forty-five 
feet nor three storeys. 

(3) No front yard is required, but no building shall be 
erected or structurally altered so that any portion thereof is 
between the street and the building line hereinafter prescribed. 



POINT GREY ZONING BY-LAW 



289 



(4) A rear yard is required of a minimum depth ot ten 
feet, save in the case of a dwelling when the rear yard require- 
ment for multiple dwelling districts shall apply. 

(5) No side yard is required except where a commercial 
district adjoins a one-family, two-family or multiple dwelling 
district without the intervention of a street or tanc, in which 
case and also if provided where not required, it shall be not 
less than three feet in width; provided always that in the case 
of a dwelling the side yard requirement for one-family district 
shall apply. 

(6) No open space is required other than yards as aforesaid 
except in the case of a dwelling, in which case the open space 
requirement for multiple dwelling districts shall apply. 

LIGHT INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS. 

10. In Light Industrial Districts — 

(a) All buildings and uses of buildings and land are 
permitted except the following: 
1 1 I Abbatoir. 

(2) Acetylene gas manufacture or storage. 

(3) Acid manufacture. 

(4) Ammonia, bleaching powder, or chlorine manufacture. 
c) Arsenal. 

(6) Asphalt manufacture or refining. 
- | Bag cleaning. 

18) Blast furnace. 

(9) Boiler works. 
Brewery. 
111) Brick, tile or terra cotta manufacture. 
(12) Candle manufacture. 

1 j) Celluloid manufacture. 
\ 1 4) Coke ovens. 
1 is) Crematory. 

(16) Creosote treatment or manufacture. 

(17) Disinfectants manufacture. 

I 18) Distillation of bones, coal or wood. 
1 19) Distillery. 

(20) Dyestuff manufacture. 

(21) Exterminator and insect poison manufacture. 
ta) Emery cloth and sand paper manufacture. 

(23) Fat rendering. 

24. 1 Fertilizer manufacture. 
125) Fireworks or explosive manufacture or storage. 
(26) Fish smoking, curing or canning. 
I 2- 1 Forge plant. 

( 28) Gas (illuminating or heating) manufacture. 
(29) Glue, size or gelatine manufacture. 

(mnpowder manufacture or storage. 
(31) Incineration or reduction of garbage, dead animals, offal 
or refuse. 

■;: I Iron, steel, brass or copper foundry. 

,;> Lamp black manufacture. 

U' Mills (planing, saw or shingle). 
I tilcloth or linoleum manufacture. 
1 >iled or rubber goods manufacture. 

\1 1 < )re reduction. 

|8) Paint, oil, shellac, turpentine or varnish manufacture, 

ig Paper and pulp manufacture. 

.4... 1 Petroleum products, refining or wholesale storage of and 

explosive derivatives thereof. 
- 41 ) Potash works. 
(42) Pvroxlin manufacture. 
I 4 ; ) Rock crusher. 

(4 ' Rolling mill. 
[45) Rubbei "i gutta percha manufacture or treatment. 
■ (.6) Salt works. 

1 / 1 Sauerkraut manufac hue. 

t - Sausage manufacture. 
q) Shoe or stove polish manufacture. 
150) Smelters. 

,- 1 1 Soap (bar 1 manufacture. 

;:) Soda and compound manufacture. 



1 v;> Stock yards. 

(54) Stone mill or quarry. 

C55) Storage or baling of scrap paper, bottles, iron, rags or junk. 

(56) Sulphuric, nitric or hydrochloric acid manufacture. 

(57) Tallow, grease or lard manufacture or refining from animal 
fat. 

(58) Tanning, curing or storage of raw hides or skins. 

(59) Tar distillation or manufacture. 

(60) Tar roofing or waterproofing manufacture. 

(61) Tobacco (chewing) manufacture or treatment. 

(62) Vinegar manufacture. 
(6"}) Wool pulling or scouring. 

(64) Yeast plant. 

(65) And in general those uses which may be obnoxious or 
offensive by reason of emission of odour, dust, smoke, gas, 
noise or vibration. 

I/O The height of building and rear yard requirements 
tor Commercial Districts shall applv. 

(c) No front yard is required, but no building shall be 
erected or structurally altered so that any portion thereof is 
between the street and the building line hereafter prescribed. 

{d) No side yard is required except where a light industrial 
district adjoins a one-family, two-family or multiple dwelling 
district without the intervention of a street or lane, in which 
case and also if provided where not required, it shall be not less 
than three feet in width, provided always that in the case of a 
dwelling the side yard requirement for one-family district shall 
apply. 

[e) The opem space requirement for Commercial Districts 
shall apply. 

HEAVY INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS. 

11. In the Heavy Industrial Districts — 

Uz) All buildings and uses of buildings and land are 
permitted except those in conflict with law or with any by-law 
of the Corporation of Point Grey; provided always that no 
dwelling, or other building tor human habitation shall be erected 
or used except such as is necessary for the accommodation of 
caretakers or watchmen or similarly employed persons. 

(b) The height of a building must not exceed seventy-five 
feet nor six storeys. 

(<-) No front yard is required, but no building shall be 
erected or structurally altered so that any portion thereof is 
between the street and the building line hereinafter prescribed. 

(d) No side yard is required, but if provided it shall be 
not less than three feet in width. 

SPECIAL CONDITIONS. 

12. The foregoing regulations shall be subject to the 
following: 

(1) Height of building. 

id) Private dwellings in the One-family, Two-family and Local 
Business Districts may be increased in height by not more 
than ten feet when side yards each of not less than fifteen 
feet in width are provided. Such dwellings, however, shall 
not exceed three storeys in height. 

i/>) A public or semi-public building, hospital, sanitarium or 
school may be erected in any district where permitted to 
a height not exceeding seventy-five feet if yards are pro- 
vided on all sides of the building, each yard having a width 
of one foot for every foot such building exceeds the height 
limit of the district in which it is situate, such yards to be 
in addition to any yards hereinbefore required. 

ir) The height of building limitations herein shall not apply 
to chimneys, towers, penthouses, scenery lofts, sugar 
refineries, monuments, cupolas, domes, spires and necessary 
mechanical appurtenances. 
12) Front Yard: A building on a through site shall have 

a front yard on each street in accordance with the front yard 

requirements of the district in which the site is situated. 



2<;0 



A PLAN FOR YANCOUYF.R 



(3) Side Yard: The side yard requirement for dwellings 
shall be waived where dwellings are erected above stores. 

BITLDING LINES. 

13. (1) Notwithstanding any regulation in this or any other 
by-law, no building shall be erected, or structurally altered 
upon a corner site in any district so that any portion of the 
building is in front of a straight line joining points on the strret 
lines eight feet from their intersection at any level between three 
feet and ten feet above the plane through the centre lines of the 
adjoining streets. 

(2) Notwithstanding any regulation in this or any other 
by-law, no building shall be erected or structurally altered in any 
district upon a site abutting upon any of the following streets 
so that any portion ot such building is at a lesser distance from 
the street than indicated by the following prescribed building 
lines: 

[a) Along Cambie Street, Granville Street, Arbutus Street 
from 16th Avenue to 37th Avenue, 10th Avenue, 41st 
Avenue, Marine Drive and 70th Avenue, the building 
line shall be fifty feet from the centre line of the street 
measured at right angles thereto; provided however, that 
a building or a portion of a building other than a dwelling 
and not exceeding one storey nor 16 feet in height may be 
erected along any portion of said streets which is in a 
Commercial, Light Industrial or Heavy Industrial District 
at a lesser distance from the street than said building line, 
but not, however, at less than 40 feet from the centre of 
the street, save along the north side of 41st Avenue between 
West Boulevard and Hobson Street; and the south side of 
41st Avenue between West Boulevard and Yew Street, 
where such a building or portion of a building may be 
erected to the property line; and 

{/>) Along Imperial Street south of 8th Avenue, Alma Street 
north of 1 2th Avenue, Crown Street south of 10th Avenue, 
Dunbar Street from King Edward Avenue to Marine Drive, 
Blenheim Street, Trafalgar Street north of King Edward 
Avenue, Larch Street south of 33rd Avenue, Elm Street 
from 49th Avenue to Marine Drive, Hudson Street south 
of Park Drive, 5th Avenue from Alma to Highbury Street, 
8th Avenue, 9th Avenue, from Alma to Highbury, Wolfe 
Avenue north of Douglas Avenue east of Wolfe Avenue, 
19th Avenue east of Oak Street, Cedar Crescent and 
Cedar Street north of 19th Avenue, 19th Avenue from 
Cypress Street to East Boulevard, 20th Avenue from 
Arbutus Street to Yew Street, 29th Avenue West of 
Trafalgar Street, 49th Avenue East of Marine Drive, 
57th Avenue, 63rd Avenue from Fremlin Street to Heather 
Street and Park Drive, the building line shall be forty 
feet from the centre line of the street measured at right 
.ingles thereto; and 

ir) Along East Boulevard the building line shall be sixty-six 
tcct easterly from the west limit of said street measured 
at right angles thereto; 

{ti) Said building lines shall apply along the entire length 
ot said streets, save as above stated. 

EXISTING BUILDINGS AND USES. 

14. <i) The provision of this by-law shall not apply to 
any building lawfully under construction at the time of the 
passing hereof. 

1 21 The lawful use of premises existing at the time of the 
passing ot this by-law, although such use does not conform to 
the provisions of the by-law, may be continued; but if such 
nonconforming use is discontinued, any future use of those 
premises shall be in conformity with the provisions of this by-law. 

(3) The lawful use of a building existing at the time of 
the passing of this by-law, although such use does not conform 
to the provisions of the by-law, may be extended throughout 
the building, but no structural alterations, except those required 
by statute or by-law, shall be made therein. 



f4l Where no structural alterations are made in a building 
of a non-conforming use, such use may be changed to a use 
of a similar or higher classification, according to the provisions 
of this by-law. 

(5) A change of tenants or occupants of any premises or 
building shall not be deemed to affect the use of the premises 
or building within the meaning of this section. 

ENFORCEMENT. 

15. fi) It shall be the duty of the Building Inspector to 
see that this by-law is enforced. 

(2) The Building Inspector and his assistants are hereby 
authorized to enter at all reasonable times upon any property 
subject to the regulations herein, in order to ascertain whether 
such regulations are obeyed. No person shall prevent or obstruct 
or seek to prevent or obstruct the entrance by the Building 
Inspector or any of his assistants as aforesaid. 

(3) Where any building or part of a building or erection 
has been constructed or placed in contravention of this by-law, 
the Building Inspector after giving reasonable notice to the 
owner requiring him to pull down or remove the same and 
mentioning the provisions of the by-law contravened, and after 
giving the owner an opportunity ot being heard by the Council 
in regard thereto, may with the approval of the Council pull down 
or remove the building or part ot the building or erection at 
the expense ot the owner, and payment of such expense may be 
enforced against the said owner by the Corporation in an action 
in any Court of competent jurisdiction; and the said expense 
shall form a lien and charge upon the real property whereon or 
wherefrom the said building or part, or erection, has been pulled 
down or removed; and it payment thereof is not enforced as 
aforesaid the said expense shall be collected with interest at 
the like rate and in the same manner and with the like remedies 
as ordinary taxes upon lands or improvements are collected 
under the Municipal Act. 

(4) This by-law may be enforced and the contravention 
of any regulation herein restrained by the Supreme Court upon 
action brought by the Corporation whether or not any penalty 
has been imposed for such contravention, and it shall be un- 
necessary for the Crown or the Attorney-General or any other 
officer of the Crown to be a party to such action. 

APPEALS. 

16. (1) An appeal to the Board of Appeal shall lie in the 
following cases: 

{a) By any person who is dissatisfied with the decision of the 
Building Inspector; 

(//) By any person desiring to ohtain the benefit of any ex- 
ception contained herein; 

', 1 By any person claiming that, owing to special conditions, 
the literal enforcement of this by-law would result in 
unnecessary hardship; 

U) By any person or by any officer or department of the 
Municipality desiring to erect, construct, locate, alter, 
reconstruct, repair, maintain, or carry on a hospital, 
isolation hospital, cemetery, aeroplane landing field, 
community centre, riding or driving school, an institution 
ol an educational, philanthropic or charitable nature, or 
a public utility in a district from which it is prohibited 
by this by-law; 

By any person desiring to erect, construct, locate, alter, 
reconstruct, repair, maintain, or carry on a church without 
the hereinbefore required rear yard. 
By the Building Inspector when, owing to the irregular 
shape of a site, he is unable, or it would be unreasonable, 
to enforce the yard requirements herein. 

(2) Any person making an appeal shall file with the 
Municipal Clerk a notice of appeal describing the property 
affected and stating the grounds of the appeal and giving the 
appellant's address. Any notice to be given under this by-law 



POINT GREY ZONING BY-LAW 



291 



or in respect of the appeal shall be deemed to be well and 
sufficiently given to the appellant it posted by registered post 
addressed to him at said address. 

(3) The Municipal Clerk shall call a meeting of the Hoard 
to hear the appeal within thirty days, but not less than five 
days after the filing of the notice of appeal, and shall give notice 
to the Building Inspector, the appellant and the Secretary of 
the Town Planning Commission of the time and place of such 
meeting; provided, however, that with the consent of the 
Building Inspector and the appellant the Board may hear the 
appeal within said five days. 

(4) The hearing by the Board shall be open to the public, 
save when the Board deems it in the public interest that the 
public be excluded. The Board shall cause a record of its pro- 
ceedings to be kept. 

U) The Board may receive any evidence which it thinks 
proper to admit whether on oath or not and whether written 
or oral, and may take a view of the land or premises in question. 
Any person whose property is affected by any such appeal shall 
have a right to be heard and to adduce evidence. 

(6) In considering appeals the Board shall adhere to the 
spirit ot this by-law, but may make such relaxations as special 
cases call for, and endeavour to see that substantial justice 
is done and that the interests of any individual are not unduly 
01 unnecessarily sacrified for the benefit of the community. 

(7) 1 he Board or members or member present, or in their 
absence the Municipal Clerk, may adjourn the hearing from 
time to time. 

(8) The decision in writing of all or ot two members of 
the Board shall constitute the decision of the Board. Such 
decision shall be filed with the Municipal Clerk, who shall give 
notice thereof to the appellant and the Building Inspector. 



PENALTY. 

17. (1) Every person who violates any provision herein, 
or who suffers or permits any act or thing to be done in contra- 
vention or violation of any provision hereof, or who neglects 
or fails to do any act or thing herein required to be done shall be 
guilty ot an infraction hereof and liable to the penalties hereby 
imposed. 

(2) Any Justice of the Peace, Police Magistrate or other 
Court before whom a prosecution is had for an offence against 
this by-law may convict the offender on the oath or affirmation 
of any credible witness and shall impose on the offender a penalty 
of an amount not exceeding one hundred dollars, and also the 
costs of the prosecution and shall by his conviction after adjudg- 
ing payment of such penalty and costs, order and adjudge that 
in default of such payment forthwith, the same be levied by 
distress and sale of the goods and chattels of the offender, and 
if sufficient distress cannot be found, that the offender be im- 
prisoned in the common gaol tor any period not exceeding one 
month and with or without hard labout, unless such penalty 
and costs and also costs of the committal and conveyance to 
gaol are sooner paid. 

REPEAL. 

18. Town Planning By-law No. 1032 of 1926 is hereby 
repealed. 

By-law No. 727, 1927, was finally passed on October 24, 

1927, and By-law No. 5, 1928, was finally passed on January 3, 

1928, on which dates they were signed by 

J. A. PATON, HENRY FLOYD, 

Reeve. Clerk. 

and sealed with the Corporate Seal. 



292 



A PLAN" FOR VANCOUVER 



APPENDIX V. 

TRANSIT REPORT ON BIRRARD STREET BRIDGE 



jrd December, 1928. 
His Worship the Mayor and Council, 
City of Vancouver, 
British Columbia. 

Dear Sirs: 

On behalf of the Commission I wish to advise you of the 

following resolution which was passed by the Commission in 

connection with the proposed Burrard Street Bridge: 

"Inasmuch as a study of the data compiled by the 
Commission's Consultants in connection with their in- 
vestigations of the transit problems of the districts that 
will be served by the Burrard Bridge and interviews with 
the Transportation Companies with reference to the 
accommodation necessary for mass transportation— details 
of which are set out in the accompanying memorandum — 
indicate the necessity of other provision tor street car 
traffic than that proposed. 

"And inasmuch as the future development to be 
anticipated on both sides of False Creek west ot Burrard 
Street produced, make it desirable to have a pleasing 
structure that will be in keeping with this development, 
which desideratum is best provided by a single-deck bridge. 
"Therefore be it resolved that the Commission respect- 
fully requests the City Council to instruct its delegates to 
Ottawa to so negotiate with the Government that the 
way may be left open for a further consideration of any 
desirable alternative which may result from such studies 
and which will be satisfactory to the local Port Authorities 
from the standpoint of navigation, with the hope that .1 
way may be found tor the construction ot a single-deck 
bridge in approximately the location now proposed tor the 
double-deck structure." 
The Memorandum referred to in the Resolution is attached 

hereto 

I remain, 

Yours faith full) , 

(Signed) J. ALEXANDER WALKER, 
Secretary, 



MEMORANDUM TO CITY COUNCIL REFERRED TO IN 
A RESOLUTION OF THE VANCOUVER TOWN PLAN- 
NING COMMISSION IN REGARD TO THE 
PROPOSED BURRARD STREET BRIDGE. 

30th November, 192S. 

The Town Planning Commission has had the opportunit) 
of inspecting the alternative plans which have been prepared 
and begs to submit thereon the following Memorandum. 

The Commission has in its possess t ion the following data 
and advice from its Consultants upon the subject under con- 
sideration: 

1. A population of 250,000 is anticipated in the territory 
which will be served by this bridge at a period well within 
the life of the bridge. 

2. In order to serve the population SOUth ot False Creek tour 
double-track lines of street cars will he required west ot 
Cambie Street. 

3 Our Consultants state that Burrard Bridge must be designed 
to carry street cars, .is no other scheme appears feasible 
tor accommodating the necessarj tucks. 

4. The Kitsilano Railway Bridge accommodates the Kitsilano 
street cars and also provides a connection tor freight 
between the railway yards on the north side ot the Creek 
and the yards and I.ulu Island K.ulwav on the south side. 



Our Consultants recommend a scheme for substituting 
tor this connection a connection further up the Creek, 
but the Commission recognizes that for present purposes, 
railway accommodation across the Creek must be provided. 
;. The Commission believes and has the confirmation ot the 
Port Authorities that there will be no objection to the 
erection of a single-deck bridge on the location proposed 
for the double-deck bridge, without the removal of the 
railway bridge, provided that it be ot sufficient height 
and completely spans the navigable channel. 

6. The Commission understands from officials of the British 
Columbia Electric Railway that their studies ot the pre- 
liminary plans have not been sufficient to enable them to 
arrive at a mature opinion as to the sufficiency of the 
facilities provided them tor crossing False Creek. 

7. The Commission is advised that it will be extremelv 
difficult to prepare plans for a double-deck structure 
which woidd pass any reasonable aesthetic test unless at 
a greatly disproportionate cost. An examination of the 
plan before them shows that although ingenuity has been 
exercised in order to disguise objectionable features scarcely 
moderate success has been attained. Little therefore is 
gained aesthetically. 

S. The Commission has not all the full cost data or an op- 
portunity to analyse the same, but understands that there 
is a net difference in cost of over $700,000 between the two 
structures. This, therefore, is the price of providing railwav 
accommodation. 
c). A suggestion has been made that it might be possible to 
reconstruct the present Kitsilano Bridge in a location 
approximately in continuation ot Hornby Street, with 
proper connections on both the north and south sides, 
which would permit of the construction ot the single-deck 
bridge with a span clearing the full width of the navigable 
channel. 
10. A further suggestion has been made that the Kitsilano 
Bridge might be continued with possible slight modifications 
for a certain period, until it becomes necessary to recon- 
struct the Granville Street Bridge, and that in connection 
such reconstruction railway accommodation might be 
provided. 

The Commission believes that it is correct in assuming that 
a double-deck structure was adopted tor the reason that it 
was assumed that the present Kitsilano Bridge had to be 
abolished, and that it was impossible to otherwise provide the 
necessarv accommodation tor transportation companies. 

The Commission recognizes the desirability on aesthetic 
grounds ot removing the present bridge, but strongly urges that 
it is better, if necessary, to retain a temporary structure which 
offends the eye than to erect a permanent structure which gives 
similar offence. 

The conclusion to which the Commission has arrived, and 
for which justification is to be found in the foregoing data, is 
that all available possibilities of securing a single-deck structure 
should be exhausted betore a final decision is made. The Com- 
mission is firmly of the opinion that single-deck structure is 
more desirable both tor financial and acsthetical reasons and 
believes that further investigation of all possible alternatives 
will reveal a plan which may enable a single deck structure to 
be built which will comply with aesthetic requirements and 
cost less than that involved in the present proposal for a double- 
deck bridge. The question of cost is important and cannot be 
dealt with until after a thorough investigation and until the 
cost ot alternative structures has been calculated, but the 
margin between the cost of a single-deck and a double -deck 
bridge promises an appreciable saving. And finally, adequate 
provision must be made tor street cars. 



TRANSPORTATION COMMITTEE'S REPORT 



293 



APPENDIX VI. 

RAILWAY AND HARBOUR REPORT 



Chairman and Members of the 
Town Planning Commission, 
Vancouver, B.C. 

Gentlemen: 

Your Transportation and Harbour Committee has examined 
the Bartholomew Report submitted by their Mr. Hudson on 
Railway and Transportation, and also on Harbour matters. 
We have held a number of meetings and have made certain 
examinations on the ground and beg to submit herewith for 
your consideration an outline of our recommendations of the 
various matters in question. 

1. RAILWAY AND TRANSPORTATION REPORT: 

(a) General Importance. Your Committee concurs with 
the importance attached to Railway Transportation within 
the Greater Vancouver Terminal in view of the growing 
traffic through this port and the vast organization required 
to handle railway transportation problems adequately 
when the port shall have reached its ultimate development. 
We also concur in the great need for co-operation by the 
railway lines now carrying out railway terminal movements, 
if, to use Mr. Hudson's expression, "a maximum of service 
is to be supplied at a minimum cost." 

(i>) Present Facilities. We concur with Mr. Hudson that 
railway tacilities are generally, at the present time, with 
the exception of interchange tracks, adequate to handle 
the present traffic provided efficient use is made ot the 
existing facilities of rolling stock and motive power. The 
new yard of the Vancouver Harbour Commissioners at 
the head ot False Creek has considerably improved the 
situation. 

(r) Defects. Certain defects in the present railway situation 
are referred to by Mr. Hudson. These defects are, briefly, 
as follows: 

1. Too heavy an amount of switching operation is 
carried on on the north shore of False Creek. 

2. The Carrall Street line of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway is a severe handicap to the city. 

3. Largely increased interchange facilities are required 
at the east end of False Creek. 

4. The British Columbia Electric Railway Company is 
too much restricted in its scope of operations. 

5- The passenger and freight facilities of the Great 
Northern and Canadian National Railways at False 
Creek are over expended and should be consolidated. 

6. Industries are at a disadvantage by reason of un- 
sympathetic switching arrangement and excessive 
inter- terminal switching charges. 
Competitive railway business is in an unhealthy state. 

8. Improvement of general interchange methods for 
freight is desirable. 

9. A number of railway grade crossings should receive 
early attention. 

10. False Creek industrial development is more or less 
an eye-sore and a menace to health. If possible, some 
systematic plan of improvement should be devolved. 
A number of minor defects are noted by Mr. Hudson, 
but we believe that the foregoing constitute the principal 
items deserving of attention and demanding improvement. 
^ our Committee concur with Mr. Hudson's view, that 
terminal switching could be greatly improved both as to 
service and cost to the industry, and also in cost to the 
railways through an arrangement whereby practically all 
switching within the terminal he carried on by one terminal 
switching agency. We strongly urge that unless an agree- 
ment can be reached between the interested parties to 



make use of one of the existing switching operations, 
immediate steps should be taken towards the formation 
of a terminal company to handle all terminal switching 
of Greater Vancouver. 

Mr. Hudson urges the construction of the Glen Drive 
Transfer and Interchange Yard. This improvement has 
been put into effect in part by the construction this year 
of the Vancouver Harbour Commissioners' False Creek 
Yard, having a capacity of 425 cars. 

{d) Canadian Pacific Railway Passenger Station. Mr. 
Hudson makes an ideal recommendation, that the Canadian 
Pacific Railway passenger terminal be combined with those 
of the other railways now operating into the head of False 
Creek. We are of the opinion, generally concurred in by 
Mr. Hudson, that this is a somewhat radical suggestion, 
uneconomical in view ot expenditures already made, and, 
lastly, that the Canadian Pacific Railway Company enjoys 
a very great advantage because of the proximity of its 
passenger terminal to its deep-sea and coastwise piers. 

(/) North Shore Railway Yards. Mr. Hudson recommends 
that railway yard space shall be provided on the North 
Shore, having a total capacity ot approximately 2,000 cars. 
Your Committee believes, in view of the great possibilities 
of the North Shore of the central harbour, that space 
should be reserved for future railway accommodation to 
at least twice the amount stipulated. We are of the opinion 
that in future at least a very considerable portion of the 
business to be transacted in the central harbour will be 
handled on the North Shore. 

(g) British Columbia Electric Railway. Your Committee 
concurs with Mr. Hudson that the scope of switching 
operations now carried on by the British Columbia Electric 
Railway might be greatly increased in the interests of 
both the "industries and the railway companies. The need 
for action along this line would, of course, largely dis- 
appear in the event of a common terminal railway switching 
agency being selected. 

(A) Grade Crossing Eliminations. The Carrall Street line 
of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company has already 
been referred to. This is undoubtedly the most urgent case. 
A general plan of improvement for access to the 
waterfront from the city streets is more and more apparent 
as time goes on, in view of the heavy movements of railway 
traffic along the Canadian Pacific Railway Company's 
main line and the Harbour Commissioners' terminal 
switching railway. 

As set out by Mr. Hudson, the answer to a large part 
of this problem is to be found in the treatment accorded 
Burrard and Granville Street ends by the Canadian Pacific 
Railway Company. We believe that an elevated water- 
front roadway, being a continuation of that now in effect 
by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, should eventu- 
ally extend eastward as far as the Sugar Refinery, connecting 
up with grade separation bridge, which will ultimately be 
constructed at the Powell Street Crossing of the Great 
Northern Railway, Burrard Inlet spur. This elevated 
waterfront roadway should be connected with the city 
streets at a number of points, such as Main, Dunlevy and 
Heatlev. Easterly from the Sugar Refinery, we believe that 
a low level waterfront roadway should be constructed 
north of Canadian Pacific Railway Company and Harbour 
Commissioners' tracks, extending easterly to connect with 
the waterfront roadway reserve now set aside by the 
Harbour Commissioners from the foot of Trinity Street 
to the Second Narrows and beyond. Connection to the 
waterfront east of the Sugar Refinery would have to be 
made by a series of subways below the existing and future 
railway tracks. 



294 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



The Great Northern crossing at Powell Street is 
objectionable and expensive because of delays. This defect 
can be remedied by grade separation with Powell Street, 
already referred to. 

2. VANCOUVER HARBOUR REPORT: 

(a) General. The industrial and business life of Vancouver 
is so intimately tied up with her harbour that it is very 
difficult to view the harbour activities as being in any way 
divorced from the development of the city areas proper. 
Accordingly, while the control and government of harbour 
operations lie in the Dominion Government as represented 
bv the Vancouver Harbour Commissioners, there should 
be the closest co-operation between civic and harbour 
authorities in order that the greatest benefit may result 
therefrom. 

Furthermore, in considering Vancouver Harbour, it 
should be coupled in its thought for development with the 
North Arm of the Eraser River, and the main Fraser River, 
to the head of deep-sea navigation. This means that a 
much greater area and more waterfrontage is available lor 
industrial development, which permits a better classifica- 
tion of a ground to be occupied by various types of water- 
front industry. As, for instance, as set out in Mr. Hudson's 
report, we are all agreed that the lumber and sawmill 
industry should, at as early a date as economy will permit, 
remove itself from Burrard Inlet and False Creek and be 
established at Port Moody and the Fraser River. 

{b) Panama Canal. Your Committee concurs with Mr. 
Hudson in the importance he attaches to the Panama Canal 
and the traffic which has resulted to Vancouver since the 
beginning of its operation. It has been voiced from time to 
time that the Panama Canal is nearing its limit of operating 
capacity. The facts of the case are that in 1927 the Canal 
operated to 42% of its capacity. However, inasmuch as 
this waterway is of vital interest to the United States, 
we believe there is no occasion for worry, since, undoubtedly, 
these facilities will be increased or added to in future in 
time to care for the increased trade. 

(c) Port Government and Control. On page 22 of the 
Bartholomew Report, Mr. Hudson writes as follows: 

"The essential first step is to secure absolute 
control of the waterfrontage through the Harbour 
Commission, and sufficient of the background to 
accommodate the railroad tracks and accessory 
facilities that are necessary. The land should, it 
possible, be purchased outright and then developed 
industrially with limited leaseholds, until it is gradually 
needed for docks and piers." 

Experience of other ports both in America and Europe 
has shown that the ideal port operation is one where the 
control of the waterfront lands rests entirely with the 
port authority, and inasmuch as larger ports are of national 
importance, we believe in this case it is desirable that the 
Vancouver Harbour Commissioners own or acquire a 
sufficient proportion of waterfront lands within the Harbour, 
that the public interest may be adequately safeguarded. 
True in the case of the North Shore, this is more or 
less virgin territory so far as Vancouver Harbour Com- 
missioners are concerned, and your Committee agrees with 
Mr. Hudson that the acquisition of a large section of 
waterfrontage recently by the Vancouver Harbour Com- 
missioners has been a step in the right direction. The 
most substantial step which the Harbour Commissioners 
have taken to date in connection with the North Shore 
lies in the control of the railway situation, all frontage to 
be served by the Harbour Commissioners' Terminal 
Railway. 

(d) South Shore Development. With reference to the 
South Shore of the Central Harbour of Burrard Inlet, Mr. 
Hudson states: 



"In general, then, it is recommended that the 
South Shore be reserved for active marine commercial 
wharfage, including fish docks and general coastwise 
and high-class deep-sea trade, and the North Shore for 
lower grade, less active bulk cargo, shipyards, grain 
elevators, and the like, including industries that may 
or may not require wharfage." 

Your Committee concurs in general with the senti- 
ments expressed in this reference, but would point out that 
these conditions will alter with the building up of the 
North Shore. 

In reference to the present facilities, Mr. Hudson 
suggests that they are only used to part capacity. It 
must be borne in mind, however, that these facilities must 
be sufficient to carry peak loads, and that, furthermore, 
if the port is to succeed, these waterfront facilities must 
always be somewhat in advance of their requirement. 
Your Committee believes this policy has been well appreci- 
ated by the port interests of recent years and that a great 
deal of benefit has thereby devolved on the port. 
(<?) Second Narrows Situation. Mr. Hudson points out 
the importance of a Second Narrows link to the North 
Shore. He suggests that in a very short time a new bridge 
of much greater capacity will have to be built. Your 
Committee has given this matter considerable study and 
is of the opinion that at an early date the present structure 
should give way to a dam and locks as being a final solution 
for the joint accommodation of marine and land traffic 
in this locality. 
(/") North Shore Development. The progress made in 
waterfront development within the past twelve months, 
since the completion of the Vancouver Harbour Com- 
missioners' Terminal Railway, is most gratifying. The 
North Shore has, from actual survey, considerably greater 
possibilities for waterfront and industrial development 
than has the South Shore of Central Harbour. This is 
mainly due to the large tidal flat areas which have been 
formed at the mouths of the various streams discharging 
into the Inlet on the north side. These tidal flat areas 
provide not only industrial areas which can be cheaply 
and readily reclaimed, but also ample trackage for further 
purposes. In the latter respect, the North Shore has a 
decided advantage over the more confined South Shore 
waterfront. Your Committee is of the opinion that con- 
siderable care should be given to the type of industry 
which will be located on the North Shore of the Central 
Harbour inasmuch as the total available waterfrontage 
of the Central Harbour is distinctly limited and plans for 
the future should provide that deep-sea terminal sites ( 
are avilable for an ultimate development which will take 
care of all the general merchandising for the areas of 
Greater Vancouver which lie tributary to the Central 
Harbour. Extension in the control of North Shore water- 
frontage bv the Vancouver Harbour Commissioners is 
desirable inasmuch as this permits the planning of a 
comprehensive scheme of development. 
(g) False Creek Problem. We agree with Mr. Hudson that 
False Creek is badly in need of a general housecleaning. 
The sewage conditions, as pointed out by Mr. Hudson, 
are both objectionable and serious and demand attention 
at the earliest possible moment. There is reason to believe 
that the sawmill industry will, in the near future, give 
way to a better type of industry, requiring smaller areas 
for development and operation. It will not be possible to 
accelerate this change to any great extent by any action 
on the part of the port authorities or the city, but we 
believe that the economies of this situation will force out 
the sawmills and provision for the future in the way of 
dredging, establishment of headlines, railway trackage, 
etc., should be studied accordingly. We believe that, except 
for the bridge opening, a channel having a minimum width 
of 600 feet should be provided. 



TRANSPORTATION COMMITTEE'S REPORT 



295 



(A) English Bay Situation. Your Committee fully concurs 
in the recommendation that no industry of any kind 
should be permitted to extend west of the site ot the 
proposed Burrard Street Bridge, either towards Stanley 
Park or along the south shore of English Bay. We believe 
that the waterfront should be held for recreation purposes, 
tree from all industrial development from Point Atkinson 
on the North Shore to the First Narrows and from that 
point via Stanley Park, Second and First Beaches, Kit- 
silano Beach and Spanish Banks around to the mouth of 
the North Arm ot the Fraser River. 
The Coal Harbour Problem. Your Committee re- 
cognizes the difficulty of any arbitrary enactment which 
would prevent the industrial use ot the south shore of 
Coal Harbour up to the proximity of Stanley Park. 
However, we believe that with the growth of the city and 
the extended use of Stanley Park, boathouses and boat- 
landings will probably occupy the area between the cause- 
way and Denman Street. East of this point it is probable 
that the small boat building concerns will carry on for a 
great many years, due to the convenience of location. 
Any idea of dredging and making available this area for 
deep-sea piers should be discouraged for the reason that 
it would not be possible to provide adequate trackage to 
serve such terminals, nor is there room for manoeuvering 
deep-sea ships. 

(j) First Narrows Dredging. Your Committee believes 
that the programme of dredging at the First Narrows 
should be continued until there is a minimum of at least 
1,200 feet clear width at Prospect Point. This might 
reasonably be increased to 1,400 feet, but in addition, 
Calamity Point and the spit at the mouth of the Capilano 
River, lying outside the narrows, should both be removed, 
since they now force outgoing traffic well toward the 
middle of the stream. 



(k) Fishing Terminal. Mr. Hudson states as follows: 

"Considering the importance of the fishing 
industry and its volume, the present waterfront 
facilities tor handling the business are pitifully in- 
adequate." 

lour Committee concurs with the opinions expressed 
and recommended that the necessity so apparent of pro- 
viding accommodation for one of the British Columbia 
basic industries should be strongly urged before the 
authorities. Tug-boat needs should be fully considered at 
the same time. 

(./) Burrard Street Bridge. Reference is made to the 
Burrard Street Bridge because of the fact that, coupled 
with the existing Kitsilano Bridge, the question of naviga- 
tion is an important one. No one who has studied the 
question will gainsay the immediate need for the con- 
struction ot the Burrard Street Bridge. Other bridges will 
follow in the future, but the logical step of improvement 
in this direction undoubtedly lies in first constructing a 
bridge connecting the foot of Burrard Street and roadways 
leading into the Kitsilano Indian Reserve. The Kitsilano 
railway bridge, with the draw span as it now exists, is a 
menace to navigation, and in constructing the new Burrard 
Street Bridge, no stone should be left unturned, in the 
opinion ot your Committee, to obtain a remedy to the 
present unsatisfactory situation. 

{Signed) W. G. SWAN, 

B. G. HANSULD, 

W. A. CLARK, 

Committee. 



296 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



APPENDIX VII. 
REPORT ON THE 

PROPOSED SPANISH BANKS HARBOUR PROJECT 

TO THE 

POINT GREY TOWN PLANNING COMMISSION 



I2th June, 1928. 
DESCRIPTION. 

The Proposed Spanish Banks Harbour Development has 
for its purpose the reclamation of some seven hundred (700) 
acres of land along Spanish Banks of English Bay from a point 
about even with Alma Road to and somewhat beyond Point 
Grey, the entire distance being about five (5) miles. (See Plan 
No. 82, date, 28th February, 1912, scale, one inch equals 12 
chains, Vancouver Terminals Company). 

The project has for its purpose the creation of dockage 
for general shipping and land for industries. The harbour would 
be artificially created by dredging a deep inner channel and 
basin, the material from which would then be thrown seaward 
and shoreward to form a breakwater and land for industries 
and docks. According to the sketch plan submitted, there would 
be created about one hundred and fifty (150) acres of dockage 
and wharfage and five hundred and sixty (560) acres of land 
available for industrial purposes. 

An essential part of the project is the construction of 
terminal railroad tracks, apparently some twenty (20) or thirty 
(30) miles in length and involving about four (4) miles of tunnel 
construction. According to the plan the railroad tracks thus 
provided terminate at the Government Bridge at New West- 
minster. One loop of the terminal track extends northerly across 
the Point Grey district from a point about one mile west of 
Marpole and then north-westerly to the easterly end of the 
harbour development along English Bay. The other loop of the 
track follows the North Arm of the Eraser River around Point 
Grey, thus completely encircling this territory with railroad 
tracks. 

COST OF PROJECT. 

No definite figures have been made av'ilable as to the 
cost of such a project in its entirety, but it has been indicated 
that the total cost will approximate $75,000,000.00. 

ADVANTAGES CLAIMED FOR PROPOSED PROJECT. 

The project apparently was conceived through a desire to 
create additional harbour and industrial facilities for the Van- 
couver district. Some of the advantages claimed for the Spanish 
Banks Harbour are as follows: 

1. Its Easy Accessibility by Land and Water. 

There is no question but that the proposed harbour site can 
be made accessible by land through the construction of adequate 
highways and railroads. It is, of course, about as far from the 
present land routes of travel as it could well be. 

It is conceivable that a harbour, constructed in this location, 
could be made easily accessible by water, but in its present 
form as proposed, it is hardly as easy of entrance as the present 
Burrard Inlet. It will be noted from the drawing accompanying 
the promoters' description of the project that vessels entering 
and leaving the inner harbour would be compelled to make a 
complete turn before standing clear for entrance to the harbour 
or to the straits. The entrance channel as drawn is only about 
six hundred (600) feet wide, which is considerably less than 
one-half of the width that can be obtained at the First Narrows. 
There will doubtless be less current to contend with in entering 
the inner harbour, but even this advantage would not be obtained 
unless there were adequate opening at the westerly end of the 
harbour to equalize the tidal flow. 

2. It is of Large Area. 

In the Harbour Report prepared for the Town Planning 
Commission of Vancouver attention is called to the large 



amount of area still available for industries and harbour purposes, 
both on the North and South Shores of Burrard Inlet (See 
Harbour Report, Page 19). On the North Shore alone there 
is approximately one thousand (1000) acres yet to be utilized, 
and on the South Shore approximately two hundred (200) 
acres of land. 

The rehabilitation of the False Creek district will provide 
an addition of about two hundred (200) acres of industrial land. 
In this connection it is only a question of time when the present 
lumber industries, both in the False Creek district and the 
Burrard Inlet will be compelled to move to a new location 
on account of increasing land values and difficulty of main- 
taining continuous operations. This will release a further large 
area for the more compact form ot industrial development that 
may be expected. It is entirely probable that sufficient industrial 
area and waterfrontage is available on Burrard Inlet and tribu- 
tary waters and along False Creek to provide for the needs of 
Vancouver proper during the next fifty (50) years. So far as 
Greater Vancouver is concerned, there are tremendous areas of 
flat land along the Eraser River which can, at comparatively 
small expense, be made suitable for both industrial and harbour 
development. Lulu Island alone contains some twenty-five 
thousand (25,000) acres, most of which can be used for industries 
of a certain description, requiring large tracts and not too 
heavy foundations. There is no indication at the present time 
that even this area will require intensive development for 
either industries or dockage in the immediate future. From this 
it appears illogical to create an additional comparatively small 
acreage at so tremendous a cost. 

3. Shipping Can Get to and From it at Any Stage of Tide 

or in any Class of Weather, Foggy or Clear. 
Attention has been previously directed to the turn-around 
movement required for all ships entering and leaving the harbour, 
if arranged according to the proposed plan. 

4. It Will be Closer to and More Intimately Connected 

with the Main Centre of Future Population than 
is Possible at any Other Waterfront. 

Any advantage that may be claimed for closer association 
with population centres and waterfront and industrial areas 
clearly lies with those lands in the vicinity of Burrard Inlet 
and the False Creek district and around New Westminster. 
This is obvious from a study of the trend of population and 
the topography of the city. 

5. The Cost of Construction Will be Small. 

As there are no estimates available at the present time, it 
is difficult to comment upon this statement. Tlowever, it should 
be apparent that any project costing $75,000,000.00 is of major 
importance. A casual observation of the district and the plans 
submitted indicates that the construction cost will be extremely 
large, involving, as it does, a very great quantity of fill, several 
miles of bulkheading and extensive railroad and highway 
construction, together with all the appurtenances such as are 
now in use in Burrard Inlet, only on a much greater scale. 

6. Administration Costs Will be Light. 

No figures are available to show what the administration 
cost would be, but it seems apparent that the cost of main- 
taining the channel alone would be comparatively high, as it 
is reasonable to suppose that the deposition of materials which 
formed Spanish Bank will continue, necessitating more or less 
constant dredging to keep the artificial channels open. 



SPANISH BANKS 



-97 



7. The Efficiency of the Complete Undertaking Will be 
High Because it Will be the Most Modern Work 
of its Kind in Existence. 
This is a very broad statement of a claim impossible to 
verify or substantiate by detailed figures and estimates. It 
may be said, however, that the operation of a harbour and 
industrial district in such a locality will be greatly handicapped 
by the great distance, ten {10) to twenty (20) miles, from the 
main classification yards ot the railroads. This necessitates an 
unusually long terminal haul, which is necessarily costly. The 
proposed plan compares most unfavourably with the present 
method of handling shipping by rail to and from the industrial 
and harbour districts about Burrard Inlet, the False Creek area 
and New Westminster district. The terminal operations here 
are compact, flexible and with some improvements can be 
made almost ideal. 

8. Effect Upon Point Grey Residential District. 

It is argued that the terminal improvements will be at the 
water level, therefore will not unfavourably affect the residential 
section in this locality, which is situated at a considerable height 
and at some distance away from the waterfront. It is apparent 
that the operation of industries on an extensive scale would be 
highly injurious to any district, business, residential or educa- 
tional, when in such close proximity. Winds off the straits would 
carry the smoke, noise and odours from such a district directly 
over the inland and most likely create a pall of smoke over the 
entire Bay, thereby increasing the formation of fog. Railroad 
operations alone would be sufficient to affect adversely the prop- 
erty in the vicinity. The pollution of all bathing beaches border- 
ing English Bay and the absolute destruction of some of them 
would be inevitable. Greater Vancouver would lose some of 
its most attractive features, notably Marine Drive and the 
recreational facilities in and around English Bay. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

In order to make such a scheme effective an enormous 
initial expenditure would be necessary for the construction of 
breakwaters and provision of railroad and highway connections, 
without which even the most primitive sort of harbour work 
would be futile and wasted. The total investment in such a 
project would be stupendous indeed, probably as much as 
$75,000,000.00. For this sum, if the plan submitted is correct, 
six hundred and eighty (680) acres of land would be created 
(one hundred and fifty (150) acres of dockage and wharf and 
some five hundred and thirty (530) acres for presumably in- 
dustrial development) at a cost per acre of about $1 11,000.00. 
This is many times more than the cost of equivalent or better 
placed land on Burrard Inlet. Obviously, as long as land is 
available elsewhere at less cost there would be little demand 
for that which would be reclaimed through this proposed Spanish 
Banks \ '-oject. 

While no one can forecast the ultimate requirements of 
Vancouver district or the province, it would be most unwise 



to spend money in anticipation of needs much beyond that 
which one can possibly foresee. For example, it has been 
demonstrated that much of the total available waterfrontage 
of Burrard Inlet remains to be developed, and that it may 
require fifty (50) years to utilize fully this area alone. In addition, 
there are other locations at hand only slightly less favoured than 
the Burrard Inlet lands, which can be made available at a 
comparatively small cost. 

Until Burrard Inlet is fully utilized and other frontage 
now possessing good accessibility has been developed, it does 
not seem businesslike to go to the extraordinary expense of 
literally creating new land, particularly in a location possessing 
so few natural advantages. An equivalent sum spent on Burrard 
Inlet, Fraser River and other waters now in actual use for 
navigation and industrial purposes, would reflect much greater 
benefit than if dissipated upon a project of even doubtful 
ultimate necessity. 

A most important consideration is the practical certainty 
of badly handicapping, if not altogether preventing, further 
improvement of our present harbour facilities by the diversion 
of so huge a sum of money to a project altogether beyond the 
times. 

Attention is called to the industrial housing problem that 
would be created should such a project as this actuallv material- 
ize. It is an invariable rule that dwellings, tenements, lodging 
houses of an appropriate type will group themselves in close 
proximity to major industries, for it is necessary that the mass 
of workers be within easy walking or riding distance of the place 
of employment. This applies especially to those trades having 
to do with shipping and waterfront activities generally. 

There is at present no available residence district within 
five (5) miles of Spanish Banks which could be economically 
devoted to the type ot housing required. The natural tendency 
would be a sporadic development of small groups of houses, 
necessarily out of harmony with the prevailing class of homes 
for which the Point Grey district is justly famous. Ordinarily, 
for enterprises of such magnitude, the housing problem receives 
first consideration. 

It may be anticipated that much additional heavy vehicular 
traffic would be imposed upon the thoroughfares of Point Grey 
and contiguous areas. Such traffic is ot a class tor which the 
streets are not designed, nor to which the residents are ac- 
customed. The increase of vehicular movement in residential 
districts cannot improve it, and its effects will assuredly be 
destructive of property values. 

The Spanish Banks Harbour Development project is ap- 
parently not founded upon a sound economic basis, and, as any 
attempt to carry it out would destroy about the last remaining 
beach accessible to the people, besides depreciating in value 
one of the finest residential and university sites on the coast, 
it is unhesitatingly recommended that this project be not 
encouraged as opposed to public interest. 

(Signed) WM. D. HUDSON. 



298 



A PLAN" FOR VANCOUVER 



APPENDIX VIII. 

CIVIC ART 
THE APPEARANCE OF THE CITY 

Commission's Interim Report on Recreation and English Bay Foreshore. 



His Worship the Mayor and Council, 
City of Vancouver, 
British Columbia. 

Interim Report on Recreation and Parks. 

In the preparation of a comprehensive Town Plan this 
Commission has been following the programme set out in the 
contract between yourselves and our consultants, Messrs. 
Harland Bartholomew and Associates, executed in August, 
1026, and the subject of Recreation and Parks appears at a 
late date in this programme. The special Committee of the 
Commission, however, has been engaged for some time now in 
making studies of the subject, and while no final report is yet 
ready the studies have reached the stage when certain con- 
clusions have been arrived at and this Committee has reported 
to the Commission upon one matter which is of sufficient 
importance to receive immediate attention and which will be 
dealt with in this Interim Report. 

At an early stage of our studies it was urged by Mr. Bartho- 
lomew that the foreshore on the north shore of English Bay 
from Stanley Park to False Creek and on the south shore of 
English Bay from False Creek to Point Grey should be acquired 
by the city for recreational purposes. You will find annexed a 
sketch plan showing the area in question and its present occu- 
pation. The studies of the proper Committee have now reached 
the stage when they are in a position to report upon the ap- 
propriate use of the area in question and you will also find 
appended hereto a sketch which indicates what is considered 
an appropriate development for the whole area. The Committee 
has unanimously adopted their report, the substance of which 
will be embodied in this Interim Report. 

An examination of the sketches appended hereto shows that 
the city is in occupation and has title to most of the upland 
and to the foreshore south of Beach Avenue between Stanley 
Park and Bidwell Street. The only exception to the ownership 
of the lands is formed by the private occupation which exists 
between the park and the centre of the block between Chilco 
and Gilford Streets, as shown on the attached sketch. 

From Bidwell Street to Burrard Street all the upland is 
privately owned and is zoned in the by-law which has been 
submitted to you to correspond with the district in which it is 
situated, so that from Bidwell Street to Thurlow Street the 
lands are zoned as six-storey multiple dwelling, and from 
Thurlow Street to Burrard Street are zoned in accordance with 
occupation as light industrial. 

The foreshore in front of these lands still remains in the 

Crown, with the following exceptions: 

{a) The south-east corner ot Nicola and Beach Avenue, known 
as the Beach Club property. 

(/?) The south-west corner of Beach Avenue and Bute Street, 
occupied by Armstrong, Morrison & Company Limited. 

(c) The south-east corner of Beach Avjnue and Bute Street, 
known as the Aivazoff property. 

((/) The south-west corner of Beach Avenue and Thurlow 
Street, the statis of which is not certain, but it is supposed 
to be privately owned. 

(e) Considerable industrial occupation on the foreshore be- 
tween Burrard Street and Thurlow Street. 

On the south shore of English Bay the Kitsilano Indian 
Reserve occupies the whole of the south bank ot the entrance to 
False Creek from Granville Street to a point opposite Broughton 
Street produced, and that the foreshore of the easterly part of 
the reserve is in private occupation under lease from the Indian 
Department up almost to the point where it is intersected by 



the Kitsilano Bridge on the English Bay branch of the C.P.R. 
From that point to the north-westerly corner of the Reserve 
the foreshore is occupied by squatters and scow houses. 

From the north-westerly corner of the Kitsilano Indian 
Reserve the uplands for two blocks have recently, through the 
generous action ot Mr. Harvey Hadden, been donated to the 
city for park purposes. The remainder of the uplands from 
this point to Kitsilano Beach comprise what is known as the 
C.P.R. hotel site, being the area which is leased from the C.P.R. 
with an option to purchase, and which is now occupied as part 
of the Kitsilano Park. The foreshore from the Indian Reserve 
to Kitsilano Beach is still unencumbered in the provincial 
government. 

Turning now to the plan, Plate 56, Page 236, showing what 
we consider an appropriate development, you will observe that 
there is contemplated the ultimate acquisition of all the uplands 
south ot Beach Avenue which are now in private hands between 
Stanley Park and Burrard Street. No programme has, of course, 
yet been prepared for the acquisition of these lands, but it is 
strongly urged that the ultimate acquisition be kept constantly 
in view, and that if not acquired as one parcel, at any rate 
portions be acquired from time to time as they fall upon the 
market and as funds allow. The position in regard to the fore- 
shore is, however, different, and we now approach the subject 
which prompted this Interim Report. 

The suggestion which we now make is that the city authori- 
ties should renew in a formal manner their application to the 
provincial government for immediate title to all foreshore, in 
area shown upon the sketches which are annexed, over which 
the government still retains control. This application should, 
for the moment, cover all the beach on the north shore of 
English Bay from Stanley Park to Burrard Street, and all the 
foreshore on the south shore of False Creek or English Bay from 
the westerly boundary of the lands under lease from the Indian 
Department, which boundary is a short distance easterly of the 
Kitsilano Beach and thence to Kitsilano Beach. The Com- 
mission would point out that the provincial government might 
also be asked to reserve all foreshore from Kitsilano Beach to 
a junction with the University Endowment Lands, in order that 
there might be applied to that stretch of foreshore the same 
principles which the public have been assured will be adopted 
from the city limits around Point Grey to the Fraser River. 

The Commission feels itself unable to find language suf- 
ficiently strong to adequately express its view of the importance 
of this matter to the City of Vancouver and to the public of 
British Columbia. The technical advisors of the Commission 
have pointed out to them very many cases on the continent 
where cities are spending millions to acquire from private 
parties lands which, not so very long ago, were in the public 
hands in the same manner as the foreshore now being dealt 
with, and the Commission will regard it as a tragedy if private 
interests are created which would interfere with the enjoyment 
of this heritage of the public of Vancouver and by the public 
of British Columbia who will have occasion to visit this city. 

Appended hereto is a memorandum in which the respective 
rights of the Crown and of the public and of owners of land 
abutting upon the foreshore are fully discussed, and the Com- 
mission suggests that this memorandum should be submitted 
to the City Legal Department for verification and expansion. 
It is believed that it will be found to be a correct statement of 
the law and will serve to impress the government with the 
fact that it is possible to accede to the application of the city 
without in any way interfering with vested rights. If any re- 
striction upon the city's occupation is desired it might possibly 



ENGLISH BAY FORESHORE 



299 



be that no permanent erections are to be made on land below 
high water mark until the city becomes the owner ot the abutting 
uplands. The Commission would in conclusion call attention to 
the public statement of the Hon. The Minister ot Lands in the 
late government, that the question of foreshore rights was 
being investigated and that special consideration would be 
given to the case ot the toreshore adjacent to large centres of 
population. This memorandum has gone only cursorily into 
the foundations upon which the conclusions have been reached, 
for it is considered to be a matter of public notoriety that a 
city ot the large population which will inhabit Vancouver, 
even in a few years, have urgent needs for the recreational and 
health accommodation which will be afforded by the beaches 
of English Bay. 



MEMORANDUM OF THE LAW RELATING TO FORE- 
SHORE RIGHTS TO ACCOMPANY INTERIM REPORT 
ON RECREATION AND PARKS OF THE TOWN 
PLANNING COMMISSION. 

In view of the urgent necessity of preserving the bathing 
beaches adjacent to the City of Vancouver for the use and en- 
joyment of the public, which matter is dealt with in the Interim 
Report ot the Town Planning Commission, it is deemed advisable 
to submit the following memorandum, which will serve to show 
that in the laying down of a public policy as to dealing with the 
foreshore, there is nothing in the existing law, or in the equitable 
principles upon which the foreshore should be administered 
which would in any way prevent the dedication of these lands 
to the public of Vancouver. In this connection it is convenient 
in the public interest to shortly examine what the respective 
rights of the several parties interested in the foreshore amount to. 
The Crown, in the 6rst instance, is recognized as the owner of 
the foreshore, and the old offence ot purpresture is committed 
by anybody who invades the Crown's rights. These rights of 
the Crown, however valuable, are subsidiary to the general 
rights of the public which have been recognized from time 
immemorial. The public has the right to use the foreshore in 
pursuit of its lawtul occupations and no erection can be made 
on the foreshore, unless under statute, which might interfere 
with navigation without becoming a legal nuisance and liable 
to be abated, nor can an adjoining owner appropriate tor him- 
self any of the toreshore and bar the public trom landing upon 
or using the same. 

Subsidiary, finally, to the rights ot the Crown and the public 
in general, are the rights of an owner abutting on the toreshore. 
His only practical right, apart from statute and governmental 
policy, is to use the foreshore as means of communication between 



his land holdings and the ocean and for any purpose ancillary 
to the occupation of the land, which, as a member of the 
public, he is entitled to carry on upon the foreshore. It is true 
that in accordance with the well-recognized principles of justice, 
governments have framed and parliament has sanctioned a 
policy to meet the situation. Navigation rights are protected 
by requiring a licence from the Crown before any erections 
are made upon the foreshore, and all governments have re- 
cognized the prior claim of the abutting owner to obtain a 
licence for the use of the foreshore. This licence may be in the 
shape of a lease or as convenient practice may determine. 

Owing to this practice, an erroneous impression has been 
received by abutting owners and the public in general, that, 
under the term of toreshore rights, an abutting owner has a 
claim which is superior to that of the public and is entitled, as 
a matter of right, to obtain a licence if he desires to erect a 
wharf or other improvements upon the foreshore. It is the 
one great object ot this memorandum to draw attention to the 
fact that the rights of the public are supreme and paramount 
to any such claims of an abutting owner, and it is trusted that 
this state of the law is already known to the government and 
that its principles will be recognized in any policy which may 
be adopted. 

The policy which it is suggested should respectfully be 
urged upon the attention of the government is based on these 
considerations, and it is pointed out that the health and well- 
being of a large urban community greatly depends upon these 
beaches being reserved for public use, and the character of such 
use should be a matter of grave deliberation. It is submitted 
that an examination of the district would readily show that the 
beaches are absolutely necessary as breathing spaces for the 
large apartment house population which will in the next few 
years inevitably occupy the City of Vancouver west of Burrard 
Street. From this point to and around False Creek, until the 
Kitsilano Indian Reserve is reached, is absolutely destined to 
be used for industrial purposes. The proper use of the Kitsilano 
Indian Reserve is as a recreation ground for the public of 
Vancouver. From that point to Point Grey the abutting land 
is set apart for residential and university purposes and will be 
occupied by a very large population. The town plans of both 
Point Grey and the City of Vancouver zone the lands accordingly 
The same considerations, therefore, as applied to the north 
shore of English Bay should apply to this shore, and without 
turther entering into details the above considerations are 
submitted and their adoption is suggested in the policy which 
the government lay down, as no private rights will be invaded 
by a refusal to grant to an abutting owner any licence, such 
rights on due examination being quite reconcilable with the 
devotion of the foreshore to public and park purposes. 



3°° 



A PLAN" FOR VANCOUVER 



APPENDIX IX. 

PLANNING THE MUNICIPALITY OF POINT GREY 

By Prof. F, E. Buck, Chairman, Point Grey Town Planning Commission. 



It is a pleasing task to outline that part which the Munici- 
pality ot Point Grey has taken in the town planning movement 
for the City of Greater Vancouver, although it can be but 
inadequatelv performed in these few pages. 

HISTORY AND EARLY EFFORTS. 

Point Grey as a separate municipality came into being 
through an amicable secession from South Vancouver on the 
ist January, 1908, and it is to the credit of its first Council 
that a by-law was passed that first year which had in it the 
germs of the modern science of town planning. During its 
brief existence of 21 years, the Municipality has undergone great 
transformations, and its Councils have enacted many far- 
sighted and wise by-laws. Among these none were fraught with 
more vital significance tor the wellbeing of its citizens and the 
preservation of its natural advantages and beauty than those 
which were enacted tor the purpose of developing the Munici- 
pality along the paths of efficiency, economy and beauty. 

Visions of the Early Pioneers Fully Realized. 

Among the statements made on the occasion of the birth 
of Point Grey two are worthy of recording here. The morning 
"News Advertiser" of that day said: 

"In many particulars the municipality enters on its 
corporate career with unusual advantages. It includes a 
tract of land on its northern boundary that is likely in the 
course of the next tew years to become the most attractive 
suburb of Vancouver." 

The first Reeve, S. L. Howe, now a member of the Legislative 
Assembly for Richmond-Point Grey, was elected with a majority 
of 40 by a voting population of that day consisting of not more 
than 70 persons. He said in his inaugural address to the first 
Council: 

"The importance of the municipality which we have the 
honor to represent, as the first Council, would be hard to 
overestimate, lying, as it does, alongside the great City 
of Vancouver, which is destined to become the Liverpool 
of Canada and the metropolis of the Canadian Pacific 
coast for all time to come, and whose fast-growing popula- 
tion will soon overflow her boundaries and quickly convert 
this municipality into a thickly-settled and most beautiful 
residential district. 

"Nature has been kind to this municipality and blessed 
it with much natural beauty that it would be hard to 
find its equal on the American Continent, situate, as it is, 
and bounded by the City ot Vancouver and the beautitul 
waters of English Bay; not forgetting the mighty Fraser 
River, which flows along our southern boundary, with its 
untold shipping, manufacturing and industrial possibilities. 
"We have, therefore, many reasons to be proud of the 
Municipality of Point Grey, and I hope that we may so 
lay its foundation that the structure may go on and on 
from year to year carrying to completion a policy that will 
meet its needs and requirements of the present as well 
as the future generations." 

These visions are now, possibly, more than realized. 

During the succeeding years, and until 1922, the various 
Councils insistently held to the idea that they were put into 
office to carry into effect the ideals held by the residents that 
Point Grey was to be developed essentially as "a first-class 
residential district" for the growing and progressive adjoining 
city, and with its coming of age the municipality had most of 
its thirteen square miles of forests and stumps changed into 
what has been often described as "one of the most outstanding 
and desirable residential districts in Canada." 



A Unique Distinction. 

In 1922 these ideas crystahzed into the form of a zoning 
by-law, known as "Town Planning By-law No. 44, 1922." 
This by-law gave Point Grey the unique distinction of being the 
first of the municipalities and towns throughout Canada to 
adopt a zoning ordinance as part of a definite town planning 
policy. 

RECENT PROGRESS. 
The By-law of 1926. 

After the passing of the provincial Act of 192;, the next 
logical step taken by the Council ot that year was to pass a 
by-law in order that complete town planning policies might 
fully prevail throughout the municipality. This by-law, entitled 
"A By-law to Create a Commission to be Known as the Point 
Grey Town Planning Commission," was passed by the Council 
on the 9th of March, 1926. The Point Grey Commission was 
then appointed, with the following personnel: 

K\-Orficio Members: 

J. A. Paton, Reeve of the Municipality; Warner Loat, 
Chairman of the Parks and Plans Committee; and 
W. B. Tullidge, Chairman ot the School Board. 

Appointed Members: 

Mrs. R. P. Steeves; Professor F. E. Buck (Chairman); 
John Elliott; Newton J. Ker; F. J. McCleery; and G. L. 
Thornton Sharp. 

Corresponding Secretary: 
Hector S. Cowper. 

Such by-laws as these served, in no uncertain way, to 
implement the ideals held by the residents that their munici- 
pality was to be one in which the best type of home could not 
only be built, but also adequately safeguarded from the en- 
croachments of undesirable types of development. That the 
quality and type of dwelling within the municipality at the 
present time is of a very high order is indicated by the study 
of the "dwelling permits" over a five-year period. The average 
cost of residences over such a period, these "permits" show, 
was in excess of $4,100. At the present time over ninety per cent, 
of the municipality is zoned for one-family dwelling districts. 
Point Grey has no slum district. 

Immediately after its appointment the Point Grey Commis- 
sion laid out its definite programme of work, which has at all 
times been carried out in close co-operation with the City 
Commission. Numerous joint meetings of the two Commissions 
and their respective committees have bene held. In the summer 
of 1926 the firm of Harland Bartholomew and Associates was 
engaged as consultants by both Commissions, and the same year 
the Commission engaged the services of Mr. John Elliott, as 
local engineer, who has prepared many valuable plans dealing 
with entirely local problems. Many committees have been 
appointed to deal with the various phases of Town Planning. 
These committees are as follows: 

Major Streets, Zoning, Civic Art, Transportation, and 
Recreation. 

Apart from the various meetings held by these committees, 
the Commission has had 71 sessions. The changes in the personnel 
of the Commission are as follows: 

Reeve W. H. Lembke succeeded Reeve J. A. Paton. 
Councillor Thos. Bate succeeded Councillor Warner Loat as 
Chairman of the Parks and Plans Committee, and Stirling 
Ross succeeded W. B. Tullidge as Chairman of the School 
Board. Mr. John Elliott, who resigned to take up his duties 
as local engineer to the Commission, was succeeded by Mr. 



TOWN PLANNING IN POINT GREY 



Howard C. Green; and Mr. F. J. McCleery, who retired, was 
succeeded by Mr. Gordon K. Towers, who also retired, being 
succeeded by Mr. B. A. Cunliffe. 

The definite results of the work of the Commission are 
briefly set out hereunder: 

Zoning By-law. 

The recommendation of the Commission as to the boundaries 
of the various districts and appropriate regulations to be enforced 
in a zoning by-law were finally forwarded to the Council in 
September, 1927. On the basis of these recommendations a 
zoning by-law was introduced into the Council, and a public 
hearing thereon was held by the Council on the 12th October, 
19*27. The by-law was actually passed on the 24th October, 

1927, and, upon its registration the following day, became law, 
and has since been the governing factor in maintaining the 
municipality as "a first-class residential district." 

Major Street Plan. 

The Major Street Plan was first presented in a preliminary 
form to the Council in November, 1927, when they sat in joint 
session with the Commission, by Mr. Earl O. Mills, of the firm of 
Harland Bartholomew and Associates. It was not, however, 
presented in its final form until August, 1928. This plan has 
not as yet received the formal approval of the Council, but it 
is pleasing to note that it is recognized as a governing factor 
when dealing in matters related thereto. 

Recreation. 

The recommendations of the Commission relating to Parks 
and Recreation were presented to the Council in November, 

1928, and while as yet they have not been adopted in their 
entirety, a number of the recommendations have been acted 
upon, the Council having set aside for park purposes several 
acres of land which had been acquired at tax sale or in lieu of 
taxes. 

The Commission have recognized that the transportation 
phase of Town Planning is one that cannot be dealt with except 
in conjunction with the city, and in view of the amalgamation 
of the two municipalities this has been left entirely to the 
city Commission. 

Work, in Contemplation. 

Work that the Commission have had in contemplation, 

but which has not yet been commenced, is as follows: 

(a) Definite plans for suggested park development. It was the 

intention of the Commission to have made comprehensive 

plans for the development of each park, so that work 



thereon could be carried out progressively, so that the 
results would be a system of parks and recreation grounds 
most pleasing to the residents. 
(b) Tree planting and maintenance of boulevards. It was also 
the intention of the Commission to have taken a census 
of the existing trees and made recommendations as to a 
definite policy of tree planting, and submitting a scheme 
for the proper maintenance of the boulevard. 

Conclusion. 

The Chairman of the Vancouver Commission made a state- 
ment to the effect that the fundamental purpose of town planning 
is to assign a use to every acre of ground. A large share of Point 
Grey's many acres have been assigned for "residential uses," 
as already stressed. This has been effected by the zoning by-law. 
In studying that complicated modern problem of transportation 
and street traffic, the Commissioners were impressed with the 
fact that that "law of uses" holds equally true in other Town 
Planning matters. To take a specific case of street widening, the 
strips of land a few feet wide, now required for widening purposes, 
which a few years ago should have been and might have been 
designated for "roadway widening" through the village of 
Kerrisdale are now incorrectly used and occupied by stores. 
This already militates against the proper development of this 
village as a shopping district, and will slow down traffic still 
more than it does now, and will eventually necessitate a greater 
loss to the city when the widening is undertaken than it it had 
been undertaken at the proper time. A proper plan which the 
Commission has endeavoured to formulate prevents such 
mistakes by assigning a use for every square foot of ground under 
these circumstances, which may result in great savings to the 
community. 

The recommendations of the Commission with regard to 
street widenings and street changes are logical and defendable, 
and the statement of an eminent authority on this subject is 
worth quoting: "Certain reasonable standards of street widths 
must be established, and the increased traffic streams of humanity 
must be made to use thoroughfares of these widths in the manner 
most efficient and beneficial to the community." 

Finally, the public will grow to appreciate the recommenda- 
tions of the Commission as it realizes more fully the truth of 
Mr. John Burns* statement, who said: "Investment in a good 
plan, whether it be for the new parts of the city or for the 
correction of older parts, it regarded for the period ot a year, 
may appear expensive; if considered for the period of five years 
it would appear profitable; when considered for a period of 
fifty years it will be an investment which in subsequent days 
will make the community regret that it did not adopt it sooner." 



INDEX 



Abbotsford, 132, 133. 

Aberdeen School, 193. 

Access to Waterfront, 145, 266. 

Accessory Buildings, 277, 284. 

Acquisition of property for Major Streets, 266. 

Acreage, Harbour, 164, 293, 296, 297. 

Adoption of Zoning Plan, 211, 220, 285, 291. 

Aeroplane Landing Field, 281, 290. 

Agriculture, 153, 155. 

Aids to Home Building, 233. 

Alberta, Province of, Influence of, 153. 

Alberni Street 223. 

Alexander Street, 144. 

Aliceville, 20. 

Allan, J. W., 7> 9. 

Alleys, 266, 272, 275, 276, 277, 281, 289. 

Alma Road, 166, 206, 214, 290, 296. 

Almond, Alderman H, E., 7. 

Alpha Avenue, 268. 

Alpine Playground, 210. 

Amalgamation, 10, 24. 

Anchorage, Scow, 166. 

Tug-boat, 165, 265, 295. 
Annexation, 29. 

Apartment Hotels, definition of, 279, 286. 
Apartment House Development, 26, 171, 203, 234, 284, 299. 
Districts, 211, 216. 
— Provisions for, 225. 
— Definition of, 277. 
Appeals from Zoning By-law, 232, 284, 290. 

Land Subdivisions, 272. 
Appendices, Index to, 271. 
Aquatic Park, 203. 
Aquatic Sports, 166. 
Arbutus Street, 67, 68, 206, 266. 
Architectural, Control of Building, 246, 295. 
Area of Business Districts, 219. 

of Playgrounds, 176. 

of Vancouver, 29. 

of Residential and Other Sites, 226, 231, 277. 

ot Watertront, 294. 
Areas — Athletic, 197. 

— Replotting of, 233, 277. 

— Residential, 214, 217. 

— Unbuilt, ^. 

— Zoning of, 223. 
Arena, 206. 
Argyle Street, 268. 
Art Gallery, 173, 220, 244, 278. 

Arterial Highways— Regional, 43, 4C, : - :, 2-4, 297. 
Ash Street, 207. 
Asquith Avenue, 268. 
Assessment, Special, 200. 
Assessment Board, Permanent, 260. 
Associations, Housing of Various, 277. 
Athletic Areas, 197. 
Park, 267. 
Attractiveness of Factories and Stores, 248. 
Auditorium, 135, 1-;, 141, 244, 253. g 

Automobiles, ^t 61, 103, 175, 220, 237, 250, 258, 27?, 290. 

Bakeries, 221, 281, 288. 

Balaclava Street, 267. 

Barnet Road, 41, 61. 

Barnet Road Elk-smere Bus Line, 1 28. 

Bartholomew, Harland, 7, 1 1 , 24, 294, 298, 300. 

Basement, Definition of, 277, 283, 286. 



Bate, T., 7, 300. 

Bathing Beaches, 26, 169, 176, 183, 205, 225, 297, 299. 
Baynes, E. G., 7, 9. 
Beach Areas, 170, 295, 296, 297. 
Beach Avenue, 225, 238, 249, 267, 298. 
Beach Club, 298. 
Beatty Street, 266. 
Belt Lines, 89, 105, 118, 125, 265. 
Benefit Assessments in Town Planning, 260. 
Bennett, Alderman John, 7. 
Bidwell Street, 298. 
Billboards, 220, 251, 279, 287. 
Blackwood, Jas., 7, 9. 
Bland, Wm. Elgie, 7, 9. 
Blenheim Street, 267, 290. 
Block — Playgrounds, 173. 
Sizes, 275. 
Surveys, 273. 
Boards of Appeal, 232, 261, 272, 277, 284, 285, 290. 
Boarding Houses, 255, 277, 279, 286. 
Boards of Education, 187, 246. 
Bond Issues in City Planning, 259. 
Boulevards, 170, 209, 249, 253, 266. 
Boundary Changes, 225. 

Posts, 272, 274. 
Boundary Road, 43, 71, 129. 
Bradford Avenue, 268. 
Brakenridge, Chas., City Engineer, 7. 
Breakwater, 297. 
Brewer's Park, 179, 182. 
Bridges, Beautiful, 245, 295. 

See also Burrard Street, Connaught, Granville Street, 

Kingsway Extension, Kitsilano Trestle, Oak Street. 
British Columbia — Mineral Wealth of, 155. 
— Development of, [53. 

— Importance of Foreshore Reservation to, 298. 
British Columbia, Town Planning Act of, 73, 263, 264. 
British Columbia Electric Railway- — 

Changes in, 126, 268. 

Freight Arrangements of, 143. 

New Routes of, 128, 129. 

Present Car Lines, 9". 

Restricted Scope of, 293. 

Stave Falls Line of, 132. 

Switching Facilities of, 144. 

Summary of Recommendations of, 1 1 8. 

Other References, 86, 161, 16-7, 24;, 24S, 265, 268, 269, 292. 
Broadway Avenue, 65, 67, 91, 101, lOs, 114, 118, 1 29, 134, 214, 

223, 22 s -, 26s, 266. 
Broadway Belt Line, 118, 119, 123, 125, 265. 
Broadway Commercial District, 25, 214, 223. 
Bruughton Street, 298. 
Browne, H. A. E., 7. 
Brunette River, 207, 
Buck, F. E., Chairman, Point Grey Town Planning 

Commission, 7, 300. 
Budget Balance, 264. 
Building Developmental. 

Restriction under Zoning By-law, 220, 226, 277, 289. 
Group at Civic Centre, 243. 
Improvements, 206, 253. 
Lines on Streets, 231, 261. 
Around Coal Harbour, 253. 
Inspection, 290. 
Building Inspector, Point Grey, 290. 
Bungalow Courts, 234. 
Burnaby, District of, 71, 93, 125, 12S, 244, 268. 



INDEX 



303 



Burnaby Lake, 99, 132, 203, 209, 268. 

Burnabv Mountain, 41, 201, 203, 207. 

Burnaby, Robert, 20. 

Burnaby Transit Route, 125, 128, 134. 

Burns, John, 301. 

Burrard Dry Dock, 166. 

Burrard Inlet, Development of, 25. 

History of, 19. 

Industrial Activity on, 141. 

Mill on, 20. 

North Shore of, 27, 163, 294. 

Potential Use of, 294. 

Present Use of, 27, 265, 294. 

Road Connections on, 22. 

South Shore of, 141, 169, 265, 294. 

Other References, 127, 162, 163, 167, 205, 206, 
210, 296, 297. 
Burrard Peninsula, 10, 27, 263. 
Burrard Street, 117, 121, 126, 145, 205, 243, 244, 267, 293, 294, 

298. 
Burrard Street Civic Centre Site, 243, 260, 269. 
Burrard Street Bridge — 

Town Planning Report on, 292. 

Other References, 35, 61 , 101, 109, 117, 118, 119, 126, 135, 
202, 207, 241, 243, 245, 266, 295. 
Bus Lines, 91, 119, 126, 127, 129, 133, 265, 269. 
Business Centre, 24, 223. 

Business District, 35, 107, 122, 217, 218, 223, 243, 277. 
Bute Street, 121, 126, 135, 267, 298. 
By-law tor Subdivision of Lots, 273. 

(See also Zoning and Land By-laws.) 

Calamity Point, 295. 
Calgary, Boulevards of, 253. 
California, 262. 

Cambie Recreation Ground, 178, 267. 

Cambie Street, 23, 129, 1 45, 151, 207, 213,223, 261, 266, 269, 290. 
Cambie Street Bridge (See Connaught Bridge). 
Cambridge Street, 72. 
Camden, N.J., 244. 
Camosun Street, 125. 
Campbell Avenue, 147. 

Canadian Amateur Swimming Association, 209. 
Canadian National Railway, 134, I44, 147, 162, 210, 293, 298. 
Canadian Pacific Railway, 21, 22, 132, 144, I45, 146, 147, 161, 
165, 177, 206, 207, 225, 245, 267, 
268, 293, 298. 
Capilano Rapid Transit Line, 133. 

River, 295. 
Capitol Hill, Replotting of, 41, 93. 

Panorama of, 239. 
Cardero Street, 206, 223. 

Caretakers in Heavy Industrial Districts, 283, 289. 
Cargo, Diversity of^in Port of Vancouver, 153, 294. 
Cariboo Street, 71, 72. 
Carlton Street, 268. 

Carrall Street, 21, 23, 99, 144, 149, 293. 
Cassiar Street, 125, 266, 267. 
Cedar Cottage, 132. 
Cedar Street, 67, 68, 266. 
Cedar Crescent, 290. 
Cemeteries, 285, 290. 
Cenotaph, 247. 

Central Business District, 35, 107, 217, 223, 240. 
Central Park, 99, 127, 132, 201, 269. 
Central Park Interurban Line, 89, 128, 131. 
Central Park Reserve, 19. 
Central Parkway, 207. 

Central School Site for Civic Centre, 243, 244. 
Ceperley Playground, 185. 

Changes in Railway Facilities Recommended, 143, 293. 
Channel of False Creek, I49, 293. 
Channel Improvement, 166, 294, 296. 



Charles Dickens School, 195, 267. 

Charles Street, 134, 266, 267. 

Chicago, 205, 260. 

Chilco Street, 253, 298. 

Chilliwack, 132, 133. 

Chimneys, 228, 278, 283, 289. 

Churches, 220, 226, 276, 278, 281, 289, 290. 

City Architect, 289. 

City Assessor, 216. 

City Council, Vancouver, 7. 

Advisory Bodies to, 253. 

Permission from, re Obnoxious Industries, 282. 
City Plan, Adoption of, 257, 258. 
Execution of, 257, 258. 
City of Vancouver (See Vancouver). 
City of New Westminster (See New Westminster). 
Civic Art, Committee on — 

Personnel of, 9. 

Interim Report of, 298. 

Programme of, 236, 244. 

Other References to, 237, 266, 26S, 269. 
Civic Centre — 

Burrard Street Site, 242, 268, 269. 

Business District Adjacent to, 239, 243. 

Central School Site, 243, 244. 

Comparative Costs of Sites, 244. 

Plan for, 260. 

General References to, 26, 121, 151, 202, 206, 239, 243, 260, 
267, 268. * 
Civic Co-operation, 256. 
Clark Drive, 67. 
Clark Park, 177, 183, 197, 267. 
Clark, W. A., 7, 9, 203, 295. 
Clarkson, Ethel W. H., 7. 
Classification Yards — Railway, 143, 297. 

Storage, Wood, etc., 281, 288. 
Cleveland, E. A., Chief Commissioner, Greater Vancouver Water 

District, 7, 9, 31. 
Clinton Park, 267. 
Clubs, Private, 220, 279, 288. 

Coal Harbour, 21, 162, 166, 167, 178, 206, 253, 295. 
Coastwise Passenger Service, 167. 
Columbia Street, 151. 
Commercial Buildings, 214, 218. 
Commercial Centre, First, 23. 

Location of, 58. 
Local, 123, 125, 221, 237. 
Commercial Districts, Business Centre, 24, 219. 
Broadway, 25, 214. 
Local, 225, 227, 247. 
Commercial Drive, 67, 134, 225. 
Commercial Growth of Vancouver, 25, 219. 
Commercial High School, 193. 
Community Centres, 171, 173, 285, 290. 
Community Co-operation, 256. 
Community Health, 169, 286, 299. 
Comparative Costs of Suggested Civic Centres, 244. 
Connaught Bridge, 35, 37, 61, 101, 109, 121, 129, 151, 242. 
Connaught Park, 178, 183. 
Conservation ot Natural Beauties, 237. 

Consultants, Vancouver Town Planning Commission, 7, 211 
Coquitlam, I44. 
Cordova Street, 23, 123, 127. 
Corner Lots, 267. 

Corner Stores, Architecture of, 248. 
Corner Sites, 279, 280, 281, 286. 
Cornwall Street, 1 17, 206. 
Corporations, 277, 288. 
Court, a Self-contained, 275. 
Court House, 246, 247. 
Cowper, Hector S., 7, 300. 



3°4 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



Cows, 223, 277, 283. 

Crown Street, 290. 

Crown Grants of Land, 20. 

Cross-overs and Wyes, 1 1 s. 

Cross-walks, 275. 

Culture of Vancouver, 247, 

Cunliffe, B. A., 7, 300. 

Curb Level, 71, 277, 286. 

Current Revenue in City Planning, 259. 

Curtis, \V. E., 199. 

Curves at Intersecting Streets, 71, 249. 

Cypress Street, 68, 266, 290. 

Dalzell, A. G., 233. 

Davie Street, 103, 109, 111, 119, 121, 126, 223, 244, 267. 

Dead Ends and Jogs, 23, 43, 63, 6c, 249. 

Deadman's Island, 167, 206. 

Dean, Alderman E. W., 7. 

Debenture Issues, 259. 

Deer Lake, 203, 209, 268. 

Denman Street, 223, 225, 295. 

Density, Map of, 213. 

Required Population, 220. 
Regulations for, 226. 
Analysis of, 231, 263. 
Deptford, Walter, 7, 9, 251. 
Depth of Lots, 216, 217, 218, 220, 22;, 276. 
Development of Industries, 153, 282, 289. 
Distributor Street, 25, 61, 261, 266. 
District of Burnaby (See Burnaby). 
District of West Vancouver (See West Vancouver). 
District of Greater Vancouver (See Greater Vancouver). 
Districts, Apartment, 21 1, 216, 277, 279, 287. 

Industrial, 25, 173, 218, 221, 222, 227, 278, 282,. 

Multiple Family (See also Commercial), 212,221, 
279, 288. 

Restricted and Unrestricted, 211, 218. 

Two-family, 218, 220, 279, 287. 
District Zoning Map, reference to, 276. 
Dock Construction, 164, 294. 
Dog Hospitals, 223, 288, 290. 
Dominion Government, 202, 294. 
Dot Map of Population, 21c. 
Double Frontage Lots, 276. 
Douglas Park, 178. 
Douglas Road, 22, 67, 207, 290. 
Douglas, Sir James, 19. 
Dredging of False Creek, 149, 292. 
Drives, Pleasure, 17c, 176, 183, 207, 208. 
Drug Stores, Local Commercial District, 22;. 
Dry Docks, 166, 269. 
Dunbar Street, 290. 
Dunlevy Street, 145, 293, 
Dunsniuir Street, 127. 

Dwellings, Types of, 216, 217, 218, 220, 225, 277, 288. 
Dyeing Works, 280, 287, 290. 

Easement, 173, 266, 275. 

East Boulevard, 290. 

East Street, 71. 

Eburne, 132. 

Economy of City Plan, 257. 

Edinburgh Street, 71, 266. 

Edmonds, 132. 

Educational Institutions, 220, 279, 290. 

Effect of Proposed Railway Changes, 14", 

Eglington Street, 268. 

Eighth Avenue, 290. 

Electric Locomotives, 14!. 

F-leemosynary Institutions, 257, 

Elevated Waterfront Railway, 145, 266, 269, 293, 



EIIesmere-Barnet Road Bus Line, 128. 

Eliott, John, 7, 300. 

Elliott Street, 268. 

Elm Street, 290. 

Empresses of the Pacific, First, 23. 

Encouragement of Industrial Expansion, 153. 

Enforcement of Zoning By-law, 284, 291. 

English Bay, 22, 26, 89, 166, 205, 207, 238, 243, 29c, 296, 297, 
299, 300. 

Estimates, Population, 219. 
Eton Street, 71, 266. 
Execution of the City Plan, 257. 
Expropriation, 261. 
Extension of City Limits, 136. 
Evans, Coleman & Evans Dock, 162. 

Factories, Candy, Jam, etc., 221, 280, 281. 

Improvement in Appearance of, 248. 
Fairview Belt Line Route, 89, 105, 118, 265. 

False Creek, 25, 23^ 5 8 > 99. r 34, Hi, H3, H7» *49> I 5 1 » 2 ° 2 > 
213, 241, 243, 266, 267, 269, 292, 293, 294, 296, 
297, 298. 
False Creek Trail, 22. 

Farming and Truck Gardening, 220, 278, 287. 
Fences, 278, 288. 
Ferry Service, 133, 162, 167. 
Fifth Avenue, 151, 290. 
Fifty-fifth Avenue, 268. 
Fifty-ninth Avenue, 267. 
Fifty-seventh Avenue, 268, 2yo. 
Fifty-third Avenue, 268. 
Filling Material for False Creek, 149. 
Financing, Methods of, 2c8. 
Fire riscapes, 278, 287. 
Fire Stations, 263. 
First Avenue, 151, 267. 
First Beach, 295. 

First Narrows, 163, 165, 295, 296. 
Fish Dock, 165, 265, 294, 295, 
Flankage Lots, Avoidence of, 276. 
Florence Nightingale School, 193, 267. 
Floyd, Henry, 291. 

Fog Formation on Spanish Banks, 297. 
Foreign Markets, Influence of, 143. 
Foreign Trade, 153, 158, 159. 
Foreman, A. E., 7, 9, 23- 
Foreshore — Rights, 299. 

— English Bay, 205, 244, 295. 

— False Creek, 242, 295. 
Forty-fifth Avenue, 267. 
Forty-first Avenue, 128, 265, 267, 269, 290. 
Forty-ninth Avenue, 290. 
Forty-seventh Avenue, 268. 
Forty-third Avenue, 267, 268. 
Fourth Avenue, 1 1 c, 140, 21 4. 
Fort Langley, 19. 
Eraser Avenue, 128, 266, 269. 
Fraser Canyon, 23- 

Fraser River, 25, 167, 294, 296, 297, 298, 300. 
Fraser River, Traffic from Areas on, 61. 
Fraser Valley, B. C. E. Ry. Lines in, 143. 
Fraternities, 220, 279, 288. 

Freight Arrangements, 143. 

Cars, Interchanging, 143, 144, 293. 

Classification, 144. 

Handling, 144. 

Stations, 144. 

Need for Yards, 1 41, 293. 

Fremlin Street, 290. 



INDEX 



305 



Frontages on Major Streets, 219. 

Available, 214. 
Fruit Production, 155. 

Funeral Undertaking Establishments, 221, 280, 288. 
Future Work of Town Planning Commission, 264. 

Game Refuge, 203. 
Gamma Avenue, 268. 
Garages, Private, 220, 255. 

Public and Storage, 221, 277, 278, 279, 286, 287, 288. 
Garbutt, Alderman J. A., 7. 
Garden Park, 178. 
Garden Street, 268. 
Gardening, Truck, 220, 287. 
Gastown, 21, 

General Gordon School, 193, 26". 
General Provision of City Plan, 2C7. 
General Provisions for Zoning By-laws, 217, 220, 286. 
Georgia Street, 67, 127, 206, 207, 223, 243, 253, 266. 
Georgia Viaduct, Traffic on, 3s, 37, 6i ( 126, 127, 153, 243. 
Gibbens, Alderman P. C, 7. 
Gilford Street, 298. 
Glen Drive, 22, 143, 14-. 

Yard, 293. 
Glen Street, 268. 
Goats 223, 277, 283. 
Golf Courses, 213, 220, 268, 278, 28-. 
Gore Avenue, 145, 165, 167. 
Grade Crossing, Elimination of, 144, 145, 293. 
Grades, General Street and Road, 2^1, 273. 
Grain, Shipping of, 24. 
Storage of, 163. 
Elevators, 228, 283, 294. 
Grandview Bus Line, 91, 133. 

Highway, 129, 214, 258, 265, 266, 267. 

Park, 169, 177. 

Playground, 185. 
Granville, Original Town of, 29. 

Reserve, 19. 
Granville Street, 23, 103, 105, 107, 109, in, 117, 118, 123, 14; 
207, 214, 223, 229, 243, 2^3, 269, 290, 293 
Granville Street Bridge, 35, 61, 101, 109, 121, 242, 292. 
Granville Townsite, 21. 
Graveley Street, 267. 
Graving Dock, 166. 
Gray's Park, 179. 

Greater Vancouver, District of, 202, 223, 264, 277, 297. 
Great Northern Railway, 134, 143, 146, 147, 162, 248, 293. 
Green, H. C, 7, 300. 
Greenhouses, 220, 278, 287. 
Group Houses, 220, 234, 277, 279, 283. 
Grouse Mountain Drive, 201. 
Growth ot Population, 31. 
Problems of, 263. 
Gymnasiums, 173. 
Gyro Club Playfield, 179. 



H.uldon, Harvey, 244, 298. 

Hamilton Street, 127. 

Hansuld, B. G., 9, 295. 

Harbour Commission, 14?, 161, 166 265, 293, 294. 

Harbour Commission Terminal Railway, 141, I43, 161, 163, 16S, 

293, 294. 
Harbour and Transportation Committee, Personnel, 9, 295. 
Harbour, Vancouver (See also Port ot), 145, I47, 161, 166, 1 68, 

293, 294. 
Haro Playground, 185. 
Harris Square Recreation Ground, 178. 
Hastings Mill, 20, I47. 
Hastings Park, 1-7, 207, 210. 

Hastings Street, 23,35,65, 103, 107, 109, 111^117, 118, 123, 127, 
229, 238, 242, 243, 265, 266, 267. 



Hastings Townsite, 19, 21, 26, 29, 213, 266, 267. 
Hastings Townsite, Replotting of, 19, 41, 43, 69, 233. 
Heather Playground, 18;. 

Street, 290. 
Heatley Avenue, 145, 293. 
Heavy Industrial District, 221, 278, 283. 
Hedges, 255, 281, 287. 

Height and Area, Regulations for, 212, 213, 228, 277, 278, 279. 
Henry Hudson School, 195, 267. 
High Schools, Junior and Senior, 19c, 266. 
Highbury Street, 290. 
Highland Park, 132. 

Highway Allowances, Basis of Consideration of, 272. 
Highways, Arterial (See also Major Streets), 43, 45, 272, 274, 297. 
History of Vancouver, 19. 
Hollyburn Ridge, 210. 
Home Grounds, 171, 254, 256. 
Hornby Street, 117, 118, 126, 265, 292. 
Hospitals, 212, 220, 260, 283, 285, 288, 290. 
Hospitals, Veterinary, 281, 288. 
Hotels, 210, 212, 277, 279, :86. 
Housing, 233, 277. 
Houseboats, 166, 223, 288. 
Howe, S. L., First Reeve of Point Grey, 300. 
Howe Sound, 167. 
Hubbard, Elbert, 199. 
Hudson, Wm. D., 7, 293, 297. 
Hudson Street, 268, 290. 



Immediate Plan of Town Planning Commission, 264. 
Imperial Street, 290. 
Improvements, Public — 

Financing of, 258. 

Freight Situation and, 143. 

Passenger Terminals, 146. 

Programme in General, 257. 

Waterfront, 146, 265. 

Incorporation of Vancouver, Account ot, 12. 
Act for, 273. 

Increase in Property Values, 245. 

Index to Appendices, 271. 

Index to Major Streets, 47. 

Indian Reserves, 26, 201, 202, 203, 206, 213, 225, 244, 2f>". 

(See also Kitsilano and Musqueam). 
Industrial Areas, 144, 223, 226, 241, 278. 

And Trade Schools, 153. 

Districts, 25, 173, 218, 221, 227, 228, 278. 

Expansion, 25, 278, 294. 

Lands, 153, 294. 

Map, 212. 

Sites, 205, 241, 278. 

Use of Harbour, 163, 293. 
Industries and Natural Resources, 162, 163, 169, 278. 
Industry, Wealth Created by, 247. 

Institute, Town Planning, of Canada, Vancouver Branch, 24. 
Institutions, 220, 280, 285. 
Interim Zoning By-law, 211, 220. 
International Boundary, Effect of, 153. 
Interior Block Playgrounds, 175. 

Interurban Bus Routes, T29. 
Depot, 131, 132. 
Lines, History, 132. 
Routes, 134, 265, 269. 

Jericho Country Club, 166. 

Jogs and Deadends, 23, 43, 65, 249, 2~2. 

John Oliver High School, 267. 

Joint Terminal Switching Arrangements, 265, 

Joint Use of Railway Trackage, 146, 147, 2K. 



306 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



Keefer Street, 134, 178. 

Kensington Avenue, 268. 

Ker, Newton J., 7, 300. 

Kerrisdale, 301. 

Kerrisdale Park, 267. 

Kindergartens, 171. 

King Edward Avenue, 43, 290. 

Boulevard, 128. 
Kingsway, 22, 65, 67, 97, 117, 121, 122, 128, 207, 219, 241, 

243, 269. 
Kingsway, Major Highway Extension and Viaduct, 61,126,153, 

241,266, 269. 
Kitchener Street, 268. 
Kitsilano, 135, 178, 214. 

Beach Park, 178, 203, 206, 244, 295. 

Playgrounds, 185, 

Reserve, 26, 202, 206, 225, 244, 267, 29c, 298, 299. 

Trestle Bridge, 117, 151, 202. 
Klondyke Rush, Influence of, 23. 
Knight Road, 97, 117, 119, 265, 269. 
Kootenay Street, 71, 72, 267. 

land, Acquisition of Park, 298. 

Land Registry Act, 45, 272. 

Land Subdivision, Principles of, 21. 

Poles and Wires in, 250, 266. 
Legislation Relating to, 272. 
Land Values, 260, 272. 
Lands, Crown Grants of, 20. 

Municipal, 225. 

Prevention of Overcrowding of, 220, 286. 

Private Acquisition of, 20. 

Registry of, 272. 

Sale of Excess, 259. 

Waterfront, 294. 
Landscape Architects, 198. 
Landscape Art, Value of, 246. 
Landscape Treatment, 166, 236. 
Lanes, 217, 266, 272, 275, 276, 277, 281, 289. 
Larch Street, 97, 290. 
Laundries, 221, 280, 288. 
Laura Secord School, 193, 267. 
Lembke, W. H., 7, 300. 

Libraries, 13$, 173, 220, 244, 246, 278, 279, 287, 288. 
License Inspector, 284. 
Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council, 272, 284. 
Light Industrial District, 173, 221, 227, 278, 282. 
Lights Street, 250. 
Lines ol Buildings, 229, 255, 261. 
Little Mountain Park, 176, 179, 207, 210, 2^9. 
Liverpool ot Canada, Vancouver, the, 300. 
Livery Stables, 223, 277, 288. 
Loat, Warner, 300. 

Local Commercial Districts, 25, 227, 278, 280. 
Locarno Park, 267. 
Lodges, 22o, 279, 288. 
Lodging House, 220, 277, 286. 
Log Booms, 166. 
Log Rafts, 167. 
Lonsdale Avenue, 133, 166. 
Lord Byng High School, 267. 
Lord Nelson School, 193, 267. 
Lord Tennyson School, 193, 267. 
Lome Avenue, 268. 
Lost Lagoon, 210. 
Lot Area Requirements, 276. 
Lot Width Map, 213. 
Lots, Size of, 276. 

Low Level Waterfront Roadway, 145, 293. 
Lulu Island, 25, 99, 125, 128, 129, 132, 134, 292, 296. 
Lumber, 163. 

Lumber Mills on Burrard Inlet, 167, 294. 
Lynn Valley, 133, 210. 



MacKenzie, A. R., 7. 

Main Street, 61, 101, 103, 105, 107, 109, III, 143, 151, 24I, 

266, 293. 
Major Street Plan, 47 to 58, 261, 262, 274. 
Programme, 262. 
Index to, 47. 
Major Streets, Characteristics of, 45. 
Classification of, 58, 63. 
Corrections of, 63. 
Development of, 219. 
Legislation on, 262. 

Various Details on, 237, 257, 258, 265, 266, 269. 
Width of, 275. 
Major Streets, Point Grey, 77, 296. 
Mahon Avenue, 268. 
Maple Grove Park, 198. 
Maple Street, 267. 

Maps (See Dot, Height, Major Streets, etc.). 
Marine Drive, 71, 128, 129, 206, 207, 209, 239, 267, 290, 297. 
Marpole, 132, 269, 296. 
Mayor, Powers of the, 285. 
McBride Park, 177. 
McCIeery, F. J., 300. 
McDonald, A. J., Chairman Parks Committe, South Vancouver, 

179. 
McGill Street, 72. 
McGovern, Mrs. A. M., 7, 9. 
Mclnnis, Alderman Angus, 7. 
McLean Drive, 178. 
Park, 178. 
Playground, 185. 
McNicoll Avenue, 267. 
McQueen, William, City Clerk, 7, 285. 
Memorial Park, 179. 
Meteorological Records, 215. 
Michigan Boulevard, Chicago, 260. 
Mills, Earl O., 7, 301. 

Mills on False Creek, I47, 162, 163, 294. 
Mineral Wealth of British Columbia, 155. 
Minor Streets, 43, 2--;. 
Mission, 133. 
Mission Avenue, 268. 
Milton Street, 268. 
Monuments, 247, 272, 274, 283, 289. 
Moody Colonel, 19. 
Moody, Sewell Prescott, 20. 
Moodyville, 20, 164. 
Mountains, the Effect of, 153. 
Mount Garibaldi, 210. 

Multiple Dwelling Districts, 212, 220, 221, 278, 286. 
Municipal Act, 273. 

Lands, 225. 
Stadium, 203. 
Municipalities, Land Subdivision in, 272. 
Munro, J., 209. 

Museums, Public, 1 ;;, 220, 244, 278, 279. 
Musqueam Indian Reserve, 201, 203, 213. 

Nanus of Streets, 250, 263, 276. 

Nanaimo Street, 67, 125, 134, 178. 

Natural Resources and Industries, 153. 

Neighborhood Parks, Existing and proposed, i"s", [97, 267, 2-6. 

Nelson Avenue, 2'>S. 

\ « Westminster, Chosen as Capital, 19. 

Other References, 21, 29, ^^ t 61, 89, 99, 132, 
133, 207, 269, 296, 2 97 ; 
New Westminster Bus Line, 91. 
"News-Advertiser" The, 300. 
Nicola Street, 208. 
Nineteenth Avenue, 290. 
Ninth Avenue, 290. 
Non conforming uses, 277, 284, 286. 
North Arm of Burrard Inlet, 210. 



INDEX 



3°7 



North Arm of Fraser River, 201, 213, 294, 295. 

North Arm Road, 22. 

North Road, 20. 

North Shore Development, 2s. 

Railway Freight Yards on, 141, 164, 293. 
Other References, 161, 166, 293. 
North Vancouver, City ot, 219, 265. 

Ferries to, 132, 162. 

Car Lines of, 133. 
Notices of Appeal, 285. 

Oak Street, 65, 267, 268, 290. 

Bridge, 122, 126. 
Obstructions on Sidewalks, 251. 

of Officials, 284. 
Obnoxious Industries — 

Special Consent of City Council needed for Establishment 

of, in Vancouver, 282. 

In Point Grey, 289. 

Ocean View Cemetery, 128. 

One-Family Districts, 211, 216, 218, 220, 278, 279. 
One-Man Cars, 115. 

Ontario, Regulations tor New Subdivisions in, 4;. 
Oppenheimer Park, 178. 
Overhead Signs, 251, 266. 
Outdoor Theatres, 176. 
Outgoing Commodities, Classification of, 153. 

Packing and Storage Plants, 165, 281, 288. 
Pacific Street, 107, 241, 243, 244, 261, 266. 
Panama Canal, Influence of, 23, 294. 
Pandora Park and Playground, 178, 183. 

Street, 268. 
Park Areas — Small, 175, 247. 

Acquisition of, 258, 276, 278. 

Designing ot, 249, 260. 

Development of, 299, 300. 

Investment in, 198. 
Park Drive, Point Grey, 290. 
Parks, General References 10,169, 170, 175, 177, 178, 210, 220, 

226, 239, 269, 274, 276, 278. 
Parks Board, 177, 185, 187, 237, 252, 266. 
Parks and Driveways, Future, 26, 274. 

System of, 225, 299. 
Parks and Playgrounds, 173, 198, 220, 226, 274, 287. 
Parks, Index of, 180. 
Parking Regulations, 61. 
Paton, J. A., Reeve, 291, 300. 
Paul, Alderman R. J., 7. 
Paving Costs, 262. 
Peace River, 153. 

Pender Street, 107 117, 118, 126, 141, 206, 242, 243. 
Pedestrians, Consideration for, 237, 253, 275, 276. 
Percival Avenue, 268. 
Periods of Vancouver's Growth, First Period, 265. 

Second Period, 269. 
Personnel of Town Planning Commission — Vancouver, 7. 

Point Grey, 7, 300. 
Philanthropic Institutions, 220, 280, 289. 
Pier Construction, 164, 293, 295. 

Piers "B", "C", "D", Canadian Pacific Railway, 14$, 167. 
Pilkington, A. J., City Comptroller, 7, 262. 
Piper Avenue, 268. 
Place, A Self-contained, 27c, 277. 
Plan ot Civic Centre, 244. 
Plan of Streets, 273. 
Plan of Greater Vancouver, 2 - ''. 
Plans for Land Subdivision, 2-2, 2-4. 
Planting and Improving Yards, 255. 



Playgrounds and Playfields, Administration of, 185. 
Development of, 173. 
Enlargement of, 267. 
Requisite, 1 95. 
Space for, 176. 
Supervision of, 185. 
Types of, 171. 

Plazas, in Front of Schools, 247. 

Pleasure Drives, Chain of, 207. 

in Heart of City, 199. 

in Stanley Park, 208. 

Types of, 176, 209. 

Value of, 183. 
Point Atkinson, 295. 

Point Grey, History of, 300. 

Major Streets of, 77. 
Park Lands in, 179, 267, 296. 
Replotting of, 41, 233. 
Reeve of, 291. 

Schedule of Schools in, 191, 267. 
Schedule of Parks in, 181. 
Traffic from, 61. 
Use of Buildings in, 213. 
Zoning in, 235, 286. 

General References to, 126, 169, 176, 207, 244, 251, 
262, 296, 297. 

Point Grey Parks, Index to, 181. 
Point Grey Road, 67, 206. 

Point Grey Town Planning Commission Personnel 7, 300. 

Programme, 300. 
Poles and Wires, 250, 266, 275. 
Police Magistrates, 285. 
Pollution of Bathing Beaches, 297. 

Population Growth of, 29. 

Distribution of, 215. 

Effect on School Playgrounds, 187. 

in Relation to Business Frontages, 217, 219. 

Analysis of Density of, 263. 
Popular Support, need of in City Planning, 264. 
Port Moody, 20, 128, 144, 294. 

Port of Vancouver Authorities, 292. 

Cargo Diversity, 153, 1 ?9- 

Channel Improvement, 166. 

Coal Harbour, 162, 178, 206, 295. 

Commodities Shipped Overseas, 154, 159. 

Deadman's Island, 167, 206. 

Development of, 153, 168, 294. 

Description of, 294. 

Ferries, 132, 162. 

First Narrows, 166, 295, 296. 

Passenger Traffic Through, 159. 

Shipyards and Drydocks, 269. 

YVaterborne Imports and Exports, 153, 158. 

Other References, 147, 158, 161, 163, 247,294. 
Powell Street and Recreation Ground, 127, 146, 178, 294. 
Prairie Provinces, Influence of, 23. 
Prince Edward Park, 169. 
Prince Edward Street, 266, 268. 
Princess Street, 14;. 
Printing Shops, 221, 280, 289. 
Programme for Execution of Vancouver Plan, 265. 
Projects Involving Little or no Expenditure, 265, 269. 
Projects Involving Larger Expenditure of Public Funds, 266,269. 
Property Owners, powers of, 262. 

Values, Conservation ot, 262. 
Increases in, 245, 260. 
Uses of, 22%. 
Prospect Point, 29;. 
Province of Alberta, Influence of, 1 5 3. 



3°8 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVER 



Province of British Columbia, 153, 258. 
Provision for Commercial Development, 219. 
Public Buildings, 237, 244, 246, 258, 268. 
Public Control of English Bav, 239, 297. 

Funds, Expenditure of, 258, 26c, 269. 

Garages, 221, 278, 287. 

Health, 220, 286, 299. 

Improvements, 143, 146, 257, 258, 265. 

Policy re Monuments, 247. 
Public Organizations, Value of Zoning By-law to, 219. 
Public Recreation and Civic Art Committee, Plans of, 169, 182, 

266, 269. 
Report of, 298. 
Public Schools, Play Areas of, etc., 183, 211, 220, 246, 278. 
Public Works Engineer, 272. 

Quay Type of Construction, 164. 
Quilchena Golf Club, 268. 

Railways — 

Better Methods of Interchanging Freight Cars, 143, 26?, 293. 

Connections to Waterfront, 146, 293. 

Excessive Switching Charges, 145, 265, 293. 

Facilities and Operating Methods, 141, 143, 293. 

First into Vancouver, 177. 

Grade Crossings Eliminated, 144, 257, 291. 

Grade Separation, 259, 266. 

Industrial Development, 294. 

Investment, 161. 

Lands, 212. 

Operation, 141, 297. 

Passenger Stations, 248, 293. 

Union Passenger Terminal, I44, 293. 

t'nsystematic Switching Arrangements, 143. 

Yards, Improvement of, 143, 293. 

(See also C.N.R., C.P.R., G.N.R. and B.C.E.R.) 
Rawlings, W.S., Superintendent Parks Board, 252. 

Recreation — Adult, 171. 

Centres Proposed, 175. 

Facilities for, 26, 163, 167, 176, 257, 263. 

Report on, 298. 

School Age Children, 171. 

Small Children, 171. 

Youth, 171. 

Recreation Park on Headman's Island, 167, 206. 
Regulation of Private Property by Zoning, 220. 
Rentrew Grounds and Park, 267. 
Replotting Capitol Hill, 41. 

Hastings Townsite, 41. 
Point Grey, 41. 
Legislation, 73. 
Re-routing of Street Cars, 1 14, 265. 
Reserves, Naval and Military, 19. 
Residential Areas, 175, 211, 247. 
Lots, 213. 
Districts, 26, 220. 
Retail Business Districts, 218. 
Richards Street, 107, 109, ill, 1 i - , 1 13, 1 27. 
Rights of Way, 266, 268, 272, 275. 
Roads, See Early. 

North Road. 
Douglas Road. 
North Arm Road. 
Kingsway, 
Roadway Centre, 209. 

Elevated Waterfront, 146, 266, 269, 293. 
Widths, 39, 249. 
Roberts Street, 209, 268. 
Robson Park and Playground, 178, 18s', 267. 
Robson Street, 61, 103, 107, 109, 111, ra6, 22;, 241. 
Ross, S., 7, 300. 



Royal Alexandra Apartment, 216. 
Royal Vancouver Yacht Club, 166. 
Rules, for Development of Industrial Districts, 278. 

for Subdivision of Land (suggested), 274. 
Ruskin, Trains at, 132. 
Russell, F. R. McD, 7. 

Sackville Street, 268. 
Safety Islands, 41. 
Public, 257. 
Traffic, 249. 

Pedestrian, 275, 2-6, 288. 
Saint Louis, Missouri, 262. 
Sanitation, Fundamental Needs of, 2;-. 
Sanitariums, 220, 279, 283, 288, 289. 
Sanitary Condition of False Creek, 149, 293. 
Sasamat Street, 118, 119, 267. 
Saw Mills, 147, 162, 163, 294. 
School Board, Committee, i8<, 187, 266. 
Schools — Buildings for, 171. 

Playgrounds at, 173, 19;, 267, 

Sites of, 193, 226, 276, 283, 289. 

Expenses of, 257. 

L'gliness of, 246. 

Schedule of, 189, 190, 191. 
Scow Anchorage, 166. 
Seaport Growth, 23, 166, 293. 
Sea Wall, 237. 
Second Avenue, 151, 268. 
Second Beach, 206, 295. 
Second Narrows, 71, 162, 299. 
Bridge, 163. 
Secondary Roads, 43, 272. 

Semi-public Organizations, Value of Zoning By-law to, 219. 
Service Stations, 221, 277, 287. 
Set-back Lines, 261. 

Set-back Regulations for high Buildings, 229. 
Seventeenth Avenue, 290. 
Sewer and Water Development, 31, 275, 294. 
Seymour, Horace L., Resident Engineer, 7, 24. 
Seymour School, 193, 267. 
Sharp, G. L. Thornton, 7, 9, 244, 300. 
Shipbuilding Centre, 166. 
Shipping Interests, 102, 29-. 
Shipyards, 163, 166, 269, 294. 
Sidewalks, 251, 276. 
Signs on Streets, 251, 266, 279, 287. 
Simon Eraser School, 193, 267. 

Six-storey Commercial District, 221, 223, 227, 278, 281, 282, 298. 
Six-storey Multiple Dwelling, 221, 22-, 2-8, 280, 298. 
Sixteenth Avenue, 41, 43, 223, 290. 
Sixty-fourth Avenue, 268. 
Sixty-ninth Avenue, 268. 
Sixty-third Avenue, 290. 
Skip Stops, 1 1 c. 
Smith, Arthur G., 7, 26. 
Smithc Street, 121, 127, 149, 269. 
Smoke Nuisance, 221, 223, 2^7, 282. 
South Cambie Street, 126. 
South Shore, See Burrard Inlet. 
South Vancouver, 26,61, 126, 169, 176, 179. 

Schedule of Schools, 190, 267, 
Index to Parks, 182, 251, 262, 268, 300. 
Spanish Banks, 295, 296. 
Spi 1 1. it Assessments, 260. 

Special Conditions Respecting Industrial L T ndertakings, 283. 
Spi 1 ling Road, 1 29. 
Spruce Street, 268. 
Stables, 221, 277, 279, 281, 286. 
Stanley, Lord, 177. 

Stan] J Park, 19, 26, 29, 89, i6(>, 169, I", 183, 199, 203, 207, 
210, 22 3, 237, 2 44 , 247, 267, 268, 295, 298. 
Vpproai h to, 253, 



IN DFX 



309 



Stave Falls, 132. 

Stceves, Mrs. R. P., -, 300. 

Stephens Street, 97, 115, no, 129, [35. 

Steveston, 132. 

Still Creek, 207. 

Stores, 212, 214, 216, 24-. 

Strathcona School, 267. 

Park, 178, 183. 
Street Car Mileage, 91. 
Streets and Transit Committee, Personnel, 9. 

Work of, ;;, 87. 
Streets, Alteration in, 258. 

Control of, 251. 

Conformity of, 273. 

Defects in Laying Out, 43, 

Designing of, 249. 

Extension of, 257, 269. 

Gradients at Curves ot, 19, 249. 

Index to Major, 47. 

Intersections of, 249. 

Jogs and Dead Ends in, 43, 249. 

Naming and Numbering, 250, 263. 

Paving of, 41. 

Planting on, 252. 

Signs on, 250. 

Standards for, 39. 

Types ot, 41. 

Undeveloped, 214. 
Storey, Definition ot, 228. 
Subdivision of City Lots, 273. 
Surburban and Interurban Service, 14s. 
"Sudden Jerk," The, 23. 
Sugar Refinery, 145, 162, 228, 283, 293. 
Suitability of Districts for Certain Uses, 220. 
Sunnyside Park, 178. 
Sunshine, Hours ot, 229. 
Survey of Apartment Houses, 216. 

of Lands, 272. 
Swan, W. G., 7, 9, 295. 
Swimming Pools, 171, 176, 209. 
Switching Arrangements and Charges, 143, 161, 

in False Creek Districts, 141. 
System, Lack of, in Streets, 43. 

Tanqueray, J. F. D., 7. 
Tatlow Park, 20, 178, 198. 
Taxation, Methods of, 258. 
Taylor, Louis D., Mayor, 7, 28 C- 
Templeton Junior High School, 19-7, 267. 

Tennis Courts, 171, 203. 

Tenth Avenue, 290. 

Terminal Switching Rates, 1 53, 293, 29''. 
'Terraces, .34, 277, 279, 283. 
'Theatres, 176, 283, 289. 

Thirty-fourth Avenue, 269. 

Thirty-ninth Avenue, 290. 

'Three-storey Commercial Districts, 221, 227, 278, 281, 

'Three-storey Multiple Dwellings, 221, 2:7, 278, 279, 280. 

Thurlow Street, 298. 

I ilton, I-. Deming, 7. 

Timber Development, 1 55. " 

Timber Zones, 98, 99, 134. 

Toronto, 233. 

Towers, ( lordon K., 300. 

Town Planning Act, British Columbia, 24, 73, 220, 233, 235, 263. 

Town Planning Commission, Personnel Vancouver, 7. 

Point Grey, 7, 300. 

List ot Committees, 9. 

Consultants ot, Personnel, 7. 

Constitution ot, 263. 

I luties and Functions of, 263. 

Foundation of, 24. 

Future Work of, 10. 



Town Planning Commission, Report* of, 292, 293. 

Suggested Rules of, for Land 

subdivision, 274. 
Other References to, 7, 45, 203, 
21 1, 220, 245, 

246. 

'Town Planning Institute ot Canada, Vancouver Branch, 24, 
'Town Planning, Possibilities of, 2. 
Trade and Industrial Schools, 1 53. 
'Trafalgar Street, 41, 67, 68, 97, 213, 290. 
Traffic, Bridge Problems, 35. 
Circles, 247. 
Count, 35, 37, 243, 263. 
Flow, at Congested Intersections, 103, 109, 
Future, 23^ 4 1 * 26 °- 
Lines, growth of, 91. 

Vehicular, 164, 223, 249, 260, 275, 276, 284, 297, 301. 
Transit and City Growth, 86, 292. 
Changes, 86, 125. 

Data, 105, 109, 117, 118, 2 S '7, 265, 269, 292. 
Extensions, 86, 89, 125, 263, 266. 
Lines, Rapid, 90, 99, 101, 266. 
Recommendations, 87. 
Routes, 121;. 
Transportation Problems, 87, I4I, 2<~, 265, 269, 301. 
Trans-Provincial Highway, 33. 
Tree Planting, 2<;2, 266, 301. 
Trend ot Building Development, 21 5, 2i~. 
Trinity Street, 72, 145. 
Trout Lake, 20, 207. 
Tug Boats, 165, 265, 295. 
Tullidge, W. B., 300. 

Turn-around, at end ot "Court" or "Place", 275. 
'Twelfth Avenue, 267, 290. 
Twentieth Avenue, 268, 290. 
Two-family Districts, 211, 216, 218, 220, 278, 279, 285. 

Undeveloped Areas, 204, 205. 

Unification of Passenger Terminals, 147, 248, 293. 
Union Steamship Co., 162. 
University of British Columbia, 133, 297. 
University Bus Lines, 91. 
Drive, 207. 

Endowment Lands, 19, 61, 298, 299. 
Unrestricted Districts, 211, 218. 
Use Districts, 220, 276. 

Map, 212. 

Non-conforming, 212, 22;, 226, 277, 2-9, 284. 

Vacant Lots, 256. 

Value of Pleasing Industrial Structures, 248. 
Value of Zoning By-law to Organizations, 219. 
Vancouver, Act of Incorporation, 273. 

Branch of Town Planning Institute of" Canada, 24. 

City Council, 1928, Personnel, 7. 

Consent ot, tor Establishment ot 
Obnoxious Industries, 282. 

City of, 153. 

Advantages, 153. 

Area of, 29. 

Building Development of, 21c;, 217. 

City Charter of, 228. 

Cit) Incorporation <>t", 273. 

City Council of, 7, 282, 289. 

City Limits of, 1 |6. 

Commercial Growth of, 2s, 219, 24-. 

Commercial Harbour of, 147. 166. 

Estimates of Future Population of, 219. 

First Railway into, 177. 

Future ot, 25, 266. 

Improvements in, 249. 

Parks and Recreation Grounds in, 1 80, 205, :'>'■. 

Property Control in, 24s. 

Plan for, 257. 



3io 



A PLAN FOR VANCOUVKR 



Vancouver, Regulation of^arks and Playgrounds in, 252, 267, 

276. 
Schedule of Schools of, 189, 246. 
Sale of Excess Lands, 260. 
Town Plan of, 24. 
Use o( Buildings and Land in, 213. 
Waterfront of, I45, 277. 
Zoning of Districts in, 21 1, 235. 
Vancouver Harbour, See Harbour and Port of Vancouver. 

Commissioners, See Harbour Commissioners 
Vehicular Traffic, 164, 223, 243, 297. 
Vernon Drive, 65, 266. 
Viaducts, Well Designed, 245. 

See Also — Georgia Viaduct. 

kingsway Extension Viaduct. 
Vibration, 221. 
Victoria, B. C, Graving Dock, 166. 

Swimming Tanks, 209. 
Boulevards, 253. 
Victoria Drive, 164, 207, 269. 
Park, 178. 
Road, 128. 
Victory Square, 177, 247. 

Violations of Provisions of Zoning By-law, 285. 
Vivian Street, 263. 

Wales Street, 128, 269. 

Walker, J. Alexander, Secretary, 7, 292. 

Wall Street, 125. 

Water, Expense of, 257. 

Services, 210, 215, 260, 27$. 
Waterfront Areas, 183. 

Construction of, 14?. 

Control of, 164. 

Improvement 01, 161. 

Options on, 164. 

Reservation of, 244, 267. 

Roadways of, 146, 266. 

Undeveloped, 162, 163, 266. 
Waterfrontage, 1 70, 205, 294, 297. 
Waterloo Street, 207. 



West End, 122, 126, 216, 223, 235, 267. 
West Vancouver, District of, 133, 219. 
Wharfage, 163, 165, 265, 294. 
Wharf Construction, 165, 265. 
Width of Streets, 232, 261, 266, 273, 275, 301. 
Wind Roses Diagram, 21;. 
Windermere Street, 71. 
Winds, Prevailing, 223, 282. 
Winnipeg, Boulevards ot, 253. 
Woodland Drive, 267. 
Park, 178. 
Wyes and Cross-overs, 115, 26;. 

Yachts, in6. 

Yacht Clubs, in Stanley Park, 201. 

on English Bay, 166, 206. 
Vale Street, 72. 
Yards, Cartage ami Storage, for Various Industries, 281, 288. 

Regulated area of, 226, 278, 279. 

Improvement or, 255. 
Yew Street, 206, 207. 

Zoning, Advantages of, 144, 21 1, 257. 

By-law, Provision for Growth of, 219. 
Appeals From, 232. 
Amendments to, 233. 
Effects of, 247. 
Expenses of, 2^7. 
for New Areas, 276. 

Other References to, 1 44, 211, 219, 235, 255, 
262, 276, 28*;, 301. 
Committee, Personnel, 9. 
Data in General, 217, 219, 259, 263. 
Districts, 21 1, 220, 276. 
Principles, 26. 

Restrictions on False Creek, 148. 
Zones, Business, 218. 

Time, 98, 99, 134. 
Zoos in Stanley Park, 201. 
Zoological Park, Suggested, 203. 



WRIGLEY PRINTING ( 



COMPANY,